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JANUARY 

1949 













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A MUST' 

For Every Motion 
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Here is the only handbook that provides in 
convenient form the basic facts concerning 
cinematographic methods, materials and 
equipment. Its 310 pages, beautifully 
leatherette bound, contain 219 charts, plus 
numerous illustrations and graphic descrip¬ 
tions. 

In no other book can the cameraman find 
charted in concise form such data as: 

• LENS STOP CALCULATOR—shows V 4 , 
V2. and 1 st°P opening or closing 
from any given f/ value. 

• CAMERA SETUPS—gives distance from 
lens to subject for normal size figures 
for lenses of various focal length. 

• LENS ANCLES—Horizontal and vertical 
angles by degrees as obtained by lenses 
of various sizes. 

• CLOSEUP DIAPHRACM CALCULATOR— 
Shows changes in effective aperture for 
the measured light value when shooting 
small subjects at close range. 

9 LIGHTING EQUIPMENT —all kinds ana¬ 
lyzed and described. 

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e EXPOSURE METER COMPENSATOR— 

shows how to get correct meter reading 
of key light to obtain equal negative den¬ 
sity values for all lens stops. 

THESE ARE ONLY A FEW of the 219 charts 
contained in this valuable book. 


ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY! 
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Book Department, 

American Cinematographer, 

1782 No. Orange Dr., 

Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find $5.00 
for which please send me a copy of 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
HANDBOOK AND REFERENCE GUIDE. 

Name.. 

Address.. ..... 


City. Zone State H 

(If you live in California, please in- g 
elude 15c sales tax — total $5.15.) 

.. J 


Hollywood 

Bulletin Board 


ACADEMY AWARDS —Preliminary nom¬ 
inating ballots have been mailed to all 
members of the A.S.C. by the Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 
marking the initial step in the annual pro¬ 
cedure of selecting the motion pictures, 
and the artists and technicians involved 
in their making, to be awarded "Oscars” 
by the Academy next March. 

Hollywood's cinematographers are 
again placing emphasis on the importance 
of impartial and careful consideration of 
every picture nominated for the annual 
Photographic Awards. They are deter¬ 
mined that only the best job of photog¬ 
raphy, regardless of personalities, politics 
or propaganda, shall decide the winners 
of the coveted "Oscars.” This determina¬ 
tion is commendable and certain to have a 
salutary influence of benefit to those di¬ 
rectors of photography, without whose 
camera artistry the year’s best pictures 
might have fallen far short of success. 

Leading cinematographers have empha¬ 
sized that it is incumbent upon every 
cinematographer privileged to aid in the 
selection of Academy Award nominees, 
to see every nominee-production, to re¬ 
review it if necessary, so that he shall 
not be in doubt when the time comes 
to mark his nominating and subsequent 
voting ballots. 

• 

AT THE TOP of Film Daily's Ten Best 
Pictures For 1948,” based on results of a 
poll conducted among 508 representative 
motion picture critics, reviewers, etc., is 
Gentlemen’s Agreement,” with Johnny 
Belinda,” and I Remember Mama,” fol¬ 
lowing in that order. By comparison, the 
New York Film Critics voted Treasure 
Of The Sierra Madre” tops for 1948, 
naming "Hamlet” second and "Snake 
Pit” third. 

• 

METRO-COLDWYN-MAYER will put 14 
new pictures before cameras between 
January 1st and March 30th, making that 
studio one of the busiest in Hollywood 
(or Culver City, if you will). New pro¬ 
gram of accelerated production follows 
a series of conferences between L. B. 
Mayer and Dore Schary, studio’s new pro¬ 
duction head. Plans call for seven or eight 
pictures to be in production simultan¬ 
eously on the lot throughout 1949. 

• 

CLYDE DE VINNA, A.S.C., is in India in¬ 
vestigating studio facilities, making tests 
of natives, and selecting locations for 
Oriental-International Company’s forth¬ 


coming production of Rumer Godden’s 
novel, " The River.” Picture will be filmed 
on Eastman monopack and processed by 
Technicolor. 

o 

CHARLES CLARK, A.S.C., commenced his 
assignment of filming 20th Century-Fox’s 
Slattery’s Hurricane” in the Florida hur¬ 
ricane country, where he photographed 
important sequences the early part of De¬ 
cember. Finishing the location shots 
ahead of schedule, Clark arrived back in 
Hollywood in time to spend Christmas 
with his wife and family. 

• 

LLOYD KNECHTEL, A.S.C., absent a year 
from Hollywood, reported back the early 
part of December after completing the 
photography for "Alice In Wonderland,” 
combination live action and animation 
feature produced in France. Entire pro¬ 
duction was filmed in Ansco Color, and 
in order that he might complete all the 
trick work, Knechtel had an optical 
printer shipped to Paris from the United 
States. The picture is slated for early re¬ 
lease through the Rank organization. 

• 

ELMER DYER, A.S.C., is in the Veterans 
Hospital at Sawtelle, California, for treat¬ 
ment of a minor ailment aggravated by 
the rigors of his recent photographic 
assignment, which called for night flying 
in blinding fog to photograph effects of 
a FIDO (fog dispersal) system installed 
on a government airfield. 

• 

LEE CARMES, A.S.C., succeeded the late 
Gregg Toland as director of photography 
on "Roseanna McCoy” at the Samuel 
Goldwyn Studios, and carried out To- 
land’s original ideas for shooting the 
entire picture with "pin point” lens aper¬ 
tures to obtain extreme depth of focus. 

o 

JOHN ALTON’S life is just one picture 
after another. This hard working A.S.C. 
member now shooting "The Crooked 
Way,” has completed the photography on 
ten feature pictures within 14 months. A 
record. 

o 

THE FUNCTIONS OF the A.S.C. and par- 
ticuluarly the importance of cinematog¬ 
raphy by its members has been revealed 
to the public on a number of radio pro¬ 
grams originating in Hollywood during 
recent months. Both James Wong Howe, 
A.S.C., and John W. Boyle, A.S.C., have 
appeared as guest stars on Maury Web- 
(Continued on Page 34) 




4 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 






















... the cycle, and 

a panacea 


"MUCH has been said the past several weeks 
about cutting the cost of motion picture pro¬ 
duction. Prominent film officials have been 
quoted as saying that salaries must come down, 
from star to the property boy. 

"It has been intimated that if it is not grace¬ 
ful to cut existing salaries there will be made 
substitutions, wherever possible, of workers 
who are content with smaller salaries. 

"The effect of rigid execution of such a theory 
if it is ever followed, remains to be seen. Per¬ 
haps the exercise of parts of the theories might 
bring wanted results. But there is one element 
in the cost of production that is seldom reck¬ 
oned with, and that is the waste and loss of 
time. Few of the executive statements, which 
were published in the spirit of alarm by most 
of the press, took this important factor into 
consideration. 

"Has the average executive ever stopped to 
compute how many dollars are lost to his or¬ 
ganization because salaries and rentals were 
running on and mounting up because some 
company or companies working under his ban¬ 
ner were marking time when they should be 
shooting? The loss thus occasioned includes 
within its scope the salary of not only one 
high-priced celebrity, but that of all the work¬ 
ers in the company.” 

Sound familiar? Well it just goes to show 
that conditions repeat themselves, in cycles. 
The foregoing was written in January, 1924, 
as the opening paragraphs of an editorial in 
the American Cinematographer for that 
month, and reflects the troubled times besetting 
cameramen and studio workers 25 years ago. 

Today, as then, the remedy for the pro¬ 
ducer’s troubles lies not in cutting salaries nor 
in shuttering the studios, but in more economi¬ 
cal production methods. That this has already 
been discovered is evidenced by a stirring of 
new production activity in many of the major 
studios. 


★ 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 
Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
Alfred L. GlLKS, Second Vice-President 
WILLIAM V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray Rennahan, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
John Arnold 
Sol Polito 
George Folsey 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 

ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

Milton Krasner 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 

<^jgg|&D 52 


AMERICAN 



THE MAGAZINE OF MOTION 



PICTURE 



PHOTOCRAPHY 


Arthur E. Gavin. Editor 

Esther Tow, Assistant Editor Technical Editor, Emery Huse 

GLENN R. Kershner. Art Editor Circulation, MARGUERITE DUERR 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C., Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C.. Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A.S.C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanife 2135 


VOL. 30 jANUARY ® 1949 NO. 1 


CONTENTS 

Articles 

Photographing Films For Television— By Walter Strenge, A.S.C. 
Changing Trends In Cinematography— By Herb A. Lightman 
From Music To Movies— By Arthur Rowan .... 
MODERN Title Making— -By Norman Keane 
Color And Color Reproduction— By Dr. Herbert Meyer 
A Synchronous Magnetic Recorder— By Ralph Lawton 

Features 

Hollywood Bulletin Board. 

Current Assignments Of A.S.C Members .... 

One Kinks . 

25 Years Ago With A.S.C. And Members 


9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 


4 

6 

22 

26 


16mm. & 8mm. Section 

Puppets Star In Budget Tele Films —By Charles Loring . . . .17 
Filming The Harvester Ant — By Warwick Tompkins . . . .18 
South Seas Saga — By Charles Allmon . 20 


ON THE COVER 

WILLIAM SNYDER, A.S.C., (in checkered shirt) looks on while director 
Henry Levin (back to camera) rehearses Larry Parks and Barbara Hale in 
a scene for Columbia Pictures’ current production, "Jolson Sings Again,” 
sequel to "The Jolson Story.” Filmed in Technicolor, the picture is enhanced 
by the same outstanding photography which William Snyder contributed to 
"Loves Of Carmen,” and "The Return Of October.” 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 












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Columbia 

0 William E. Snyder, "Jolson Sings Again,” 
(Technicolor) with Larry Parks, Barbara Hale 
and William Demerest. Henry Levin, director. 

• Archie Stout, "Greed,” with Glenn Ford, 
Ida Lupino and Gig Young. S. Sylvan Simon, 
director. 

• Vincent Farrar, "Night In Havana,” with 
Desi Arnaz and Mary Hatcher. Jean Yarbrough, 
director. 

0 Burnett GUFFY, "All The King’s Men,” 
(Robt. Rosson Prodn.) with Broderick Craw¬ 
ford and Joan Dru. Robert Rosson, director. 

• Henry Freulich, "Secret of St. Ives,” with 
Richard Ney; and Vanessa Brown. Phil Rosen, 
director. 

• Charles Lawton, "Hounded,” with George 
Raft, Nina Foch and George Macready. Ted 
Tetzlaff, director. 

Independent 

® Stanley Cortez, "The Man on the Eiffel 
Tower,” (Allen & Tone) (Shooting in Paris 
on Ansco Color) with Charles Laughton, Fran- 
chot Tone, Burgess Meredith, et al. Irving 
Allen, director. 

• Lee Garmes, "Roseanna McCoy,” (Gold- 
wyn-RKO) with Farley Granger and Joan 
Evans. Irving Reis, director. 

• Phillip Tannura, "Shamrock Hill,” (Vin- 
son-Equity) with Peggy Ryan and Ray Mc¬ 
Donald. Arthur Dreifuss, director. 

• Guy Roe, "Amazon Quest,” (Agay Prodns.) 
with Tom Neal and Carole Mathews. S. K. 
Seely, director. 

M-C-M 

• George Folsey, "The Great Sinner,” with 
Gregory Peck and Ava Gardner. Robert Siod- 
mak, director. 

• Hal ROSSON, "The Stratton Story,” with 
with James Stewart and June Allyson. Sam 
Wood, director. 

9 Charles Rosher, "Neptune’s Daughter,” 
(Technicolor) with Red Skelton and Esther 
Williams. Edward Buzzell, director, 
e Harry STRADLING, "In The Good Old Sum¬ 
mer Time,” (Technicolor) with Judy Garland 
and Van Johnson. Robert Z. Leonard, director. 

• Charles Schoenbaum, "Highland Lassie,” 
with Lassie and Edmund Gwenn. Richard 
Thorpe, director. 

• Robert Planck, "Madame Bovary,” with 
Jennifer Jones, Louis Jourdan and James Ma¬ 
son. Vincente Minnelli, director. 

•Joe Ruttenberg, "Forsyte Saga,’’ with 
Greer Garson, Errol Flynn, Walter Pidgeon, 
Robert Young and Janet Leigh. Compton Ben¬ 
nett, director. 

Monogram 

•William Sickner, "Riverboat Rhythm,’’ 
with Jimmie Davis and Veda Ann Borg. Der- 
win Abrahams, director. 

• William Sickner, "Murder In The Air,” 
with Roland Winters, Keye Luke and Elena 
Verdugo. Lesley Selander, director. 

• Harry Neumann, "Outlaw Marshal,” with 
Johnny Mack Brown and Gerry Pattison. Ray 
Taylor, director. 

Paramount 

• George Barnes, "Samson & Delilah,” 


(Technicolor) with Hedy Lamarr and Victor 
Mature. Cecil B. DeMille, director. 

• Charles B. Lang, Jr., "Easy Does It,” with 
Bob Hope and Rhonda Fleming. Alexander 
Hall, director. 

9 Lionel Lindon, "Top O’ The Morning,” 
with Bing Crosby, Ann Blyth and Barry Fitz¬ 
gerald. David Miller, director. 

• ERNEST Laszlo, "Manhandled,’’ (Pine- 
Thomas) with Dorothy Lamour and Sterling 
Hayden. Lewis R. Foster, director. 

R-K-0 

® HARRY Wild, "Sam Wynne,” with Martha 
Scott and Jeffrey Lynn. Will Price, director, 
o Robert de Grasse, "It’s Only Money,” with 
Frank Sinatra, Jane Russell and Groucho Marx. 
Irving Cummings, Sr., director. 

20th Century-Fox 

• Leon Shamroy, "Prince Of Foxes,” (Shoot¬ 
ing in Italy) with Tyrone Power, Orson Welles 
and Wanda Hendrix. 

• Russell Harlan, "I Was A Male War 
Bride,” (Shooting In Germany) with Cary 
Grant and Ann Sheridan. Howard Hawks, di¬ 
rector. 

• Norbert Brodine, "Hard Bargain,” with 
Richard Conte and Valentina Cortese. Jules 
Dassin, director. 

• Lloyd Ahern. "Mr. Belvedere Goes To Col¬ 
lege,” with Clifton Webb and Shirley Temple. 
Elliott Nugent, director. 

® Arthur Arling, "You’re My Everything,” 
(Technicolor) with Anne Baxter, Dan Dailey 
and Anne Revere. Walter Lang, director. 

• Charles Clarke, "Slattery’s Hurricane,” 
with Linda Darnell, Veronica Lake and Rich¬ 
ard Widmark. Andre DeToth, director. 

• Joseph LaShelle, "Come To The Stable,” 
with Loretta Young, Celeste Holm and Elsa 
Lanchester. Henry Koster, director. 

• Joseph MacDonald, "It Happens Every 
Spring,” with Ray Milland and Jean Peters. 
Lloyd Bacon, director. 

• MILTON Krasner, "East Side Story,” with 
Richard Conte, Susan Hayward and Edward G. 
Robinson. Joseph Mankiewicz, director. 

United Artists 

• Ernest Laszlo, "Impact,” (Popkin-U-A) 
with Brian Donlevy and Ella Raines. Arthur 
Lubin, director. 

• Gilbert Warrenton, "Dan Patch,” 
(Frank-U.A.) with Dennis O’Keefe and Gail 
Russell. Joe Newman, director. 

• Frank Planer, "Champion,” with Kirk 
Doulgas and Marilyn Maxwell. Mark Robson, 
director. 

• JOHN Alton, "The Crooked Way,” (Bo- 
geaus-UA) with John Payne, Ellen Drew and 
Sonny Tufts. Robert Florey, director. 

• Lester White, "The Daring Caballero,” 
(Inter-Amer. Prodns.) with Duncan Renaldo, 
Leo Carrillo and Kippee Valez. Charles Barton, 
director. 

Universal-International 

• Maury Gertsman, "Ma And Pa Kettle,” 
with Marjorie Main and Percy Kilbride. Charles 
Lamont, director. 

(Continued on Page 34) 






Major film productions on which members of the American 
Society of Cinematographers were engaged as directors of pho¬ 
tography during the past month. 


6 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 

































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AMERICAN 

Cinematographer 


T HERE ARE NO secret formulas for the photography of 
films for television. Actually, what constitutes clear, straight¬ 
forward photography for theatrical motion pictures is the type 
best suited for television. This is aptly demonstrated, I believe, 
in the series of filmed commercial announcements for Westing- 
house Electric Company which I recently photographed for 
Roland Reed Productions. We used basic lighting and camera 
techniques and the results on video screens have been declared 
far superior to live commercials produced in the television 
studios. 

A great deal has been said—and written—about the role 
motion pictures will play in advancing television to the stage 
where it will pay its way. Already, however, motion pictures 
have demonstrated their importance as the logical medium for 
the spot commercial announcement, combining actual demon¬ 
stration of a product or article with the sponsor’s narrated 
message. 

Were it not for human fallibility to "fluff’’ a line or routine 
occasionally, and invariably at a most critical moment, perhaps 
this new enterprise of producing filmed commercials for tele¬ 
vision might never have begun. Whereas ’fluffs’’ on radio are 
less objectionable and quite often go undetected by the lis¬ 
tener, they are dynamite to television where the audience sees 
all as well as hears it. 



WALTER STRENCE, A.S.C., used the same camera and lighting equip¬ 
ment tor photographing the series of one minute spot commercials, 
plugging Westinghouse’s new Laundromat, as used in standard studio 
film production. Shot with a Mitchell 35mm. camera, the films were 
reduced to 16mm. for pickup by the television camera. 


Photographing Films For Television 


To appreciate the value of the filmed television commer¬ 
cial, one need only to imagine how ridiculous an advertiser 
would be made to appear if a video demonstration of, say, 
chip-proof glassware accidentally produced a chip or broke in 
actual demonstration before the live television camera. So, to 
insure against such accidents, more and more product demon¬ 
strations are being carefully rehearsed and recorded in motion 
pictures, then televised from film. 

(Continued on Page 26) 


Filmed spot announcements for TV 
sponsors set pattern for wider use of 
films in television. Here are some 
facts about their production revealed 
by a man who has photographed them. 

By WALTER STRENCE, A. S. C. 



THREE frame enlargements from series of spot announcement films pro¬ 
duced by Roland Reed for Westinghouse Electric Co. The first shows typical 
lighting demanded for television films while center frame illustrates the 
tight closeups of products or demonstrations necessary for maximum results 


on video screens. Third frame illustrates a major advantage of filmed com¬ 
mercials—the sponsor’s message superimposed over live action which adds 
further visual impact to the presentation. 

—Photos courtesy Roland Reed Productions 




January, 1949 


o 


American Cinematographer 


9 






















SHOOTINC a Mack Sennett comedy, circa 1918, 
using hand cranked Bell & Howell camera and 
Cooper-Hewitt mercury lights. Fred W. lackman, 
A.S.C., is directing the scene. 


ADVENT of sound saw first general use of mobile 
camera. Shown here is one of the first camera 
dollies. Note inky floodlights and the improvised 
blimp for camera. 


SCOPE of cinematography was greatly broad¬ 
ened with development of the camera crane, 
which gave impetus to the moving camera 
technique. (V. Farrar, A.S.C., behind camera.) 


Changing Trends in Cinematography 


Ever since the days of Mack Sennett comedies, 
directors of photography have successfully 
adapted camera techniques to meet demands of 
changing trends in movie entertainment. 


By HERB A. LICHTMAN 


I N THE NICKLEODEON days of the 
motion picture industry, when cam¬ 
eras were cranked by hand, cinematogra¬ 
phy was not thought of as an art. Even 


the cameraman who cranked the camera 
considered it a purely mechanical process 
for getting an animated image onto film. 
Such words as "style’’ and "technique" 



BEFORE days of camera blimps, cinematographers 
operated cameras from within soundproofed booths 
when shooting scenes for “talkies." Called “sweat- 
boxes” by the cameramen, booths were unventi¬ 
lated, unwieldy and destined for early discard. 
Note “human mike boom” atop one booth. 



COMPARE this scene with one at left. Here three 
Mitchell cameras, soundproofed with blimps, are 
shooting a scene for “The Paradine Case,” photo¬ 
graphed by Lee Carmes, A.S.C. Mike placement has 
been greatly simplified by use of latest type multi¬ 
directional boom equipment. 


had not yet become studio parlance, and 
the cameramen were much too con¬ 
cerned with sunlight and exposure to 
worry about any possible esoteric under¬ 
tones that showed up in their camera¬ 
work. 

When the motion picture began to 
evolve from the sideshow stage and ac¬ 
quired a certain dignity as an accepted 
form of entertainment, the cameramen 
had time to take a deep breath and ex¬ 
amine the methods they were using. 
There had been a great deal of trial and 
error on the sets, and now most camera¬ 
men were able to establish a technique 
by standardizing the methods that 
worked and discarding those that didn't. 
They developed working formulas on the 
assumption that if you did thus and so, 
the result would be thus and so. 

But this new-found technique still re¬ 
mained an almost purely mechanical 
thing. While it was granted that acting 
and direction might be characterized by 
a certain style, camerawork was not 
thought of as having any aesthetic poten¬ 
tialities of its own. The camera was 
merely there to record the action, and the 
cameraman to run the camera. 

It was about this time that the late 
D. W. Griffith decided to produce his 
immortal "Birth of a Nation." His crea¬ 
tive imagination soared beyond the lim¬ 
its of the established camera technique 
of that day. He wanted to produce a him 
of epic proportions, and he knew that in 
order to capture the scope of his screen 
story on him he would have to create a 
new scope for the hitherto limited cam¬ 
era. He developed the close-up, an un¬ 
heard of angle, to bring his audience 


10 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 













From Musk To Movies 



MORE recently, the helicopter has been used to aug¬ 
ment the camera crane in obtaining smooth trucking 
shots from higher elevations. Paul Ivano, A.S.C., used 
one for “Johnny Belinda.” 


close to the players and their emotions; 
he put the camera on a wagon and used 
moving-camera shots to follow the fluid 
action which he staged; he used angle 
shots to give his scenes perspective and 
point-of-view. The sum total of his cam¬ 
era approach to this film amounted to a 
veritable artistic revolution within the 
motion picture industry. No longer was 
motion picture photography a robot 
process; it now became an art. 

Since that time, the art of cinema¬ 
tography has developed to the point 
where it ranks with the most important 
crafts of motion picture production. The 
Director of Photography holds the unique 
dual position of artist-technician (with 
emphasis on the artist). The industry, 
becoming conscious that art in the mo¬ 
tion picture was inseparably bound up 
with mechanical processes, established 
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences to promote technical research 
and establish mechanical standards for 
the industry. 

Meanwhile, the cameramen, resolving 
to develop the art of the camera to its 
fullest, founded the American Society of 
Cinematographers, one of the prime func¬ 
tions of which was to promote individual 
and group research amongst the camera¬ 
men themselves. Moreover, the results of 
this experimentation were to be used for 
the betterment of the profession and the 
motion picture industry as a whole. Down 
through the years the men of A.S.C. have 
upheld this resolve and have worked tire¬ 
lessly to develop motion picture pho¬ 
tography to the precise art that it is 
today. 

It is interesting to note the changing 
trends in cinematography which have 
taken place since photographs first began 
to move. Many of these have been purely 
mechanical, spurred on by technical prog- 
(Continued on Page 32) 


William Snyder, A.S.C., abandoned a promising 
musical career to become a cinematographer. 
Meet the cameraman on the cover, currently 
photographing “Jolson Sings Again.” 

By ARTHUR ROWAN 

N O ONE who has witnessed the superb photography of "Loves Of Car¬ 
men,” will deny its potentials as an Oscar winner in the color pho¬ 
tography division, when Academy Awards are announced next March. 
And the man who very likely may be called to the rostrum to receive that 
Oscar is William Snyder, A.S.C., who currently is lending his Technicolor 
artistry to the Columbia Pictures’ production, "Jolson Sings Again.” 

An Oscar winner or not—and there’s some pretty stiff competition 
this year—there can be no denying that Snyder’s name belongs among 
those at the top of the list of ace Technicolor cinematographers. And for 
good reason. Snyder was for ten years one of Technicolor Corporation s 
top cameramen. 

Bill Snyder got into the profession of cinematography quite by acci¬ 
dent. Years ago he came out to Hollywood from New York to spend a six 
weeks vacation and stayed six years. Friends had urged him to give up his 
musical career and get into the picture business. One introduced him to 
John Arnold, at M.G.M., and within a short time Snyder was employed 
loading cameras there. It must have been his natural artistic instincts that 
led to his taking an interest in photography, for it wasn’t long before 
Snyder had worked his way up to second cameraman, assisting on such 
productions as " The Floradora Girl,” and " The Thirteenth Chair.” 

(Continued on Page 22) 



WILLIAM SNYDER’S impressive camera work marks many of Columbia Picture’s 
recent outstanding Technicolor productions. Here, standing at right of camera, 
Snyder watches Larry Parks and George Macready enact a stirring sword battle for 
“The Swordsman.” Parks also stars in Snyder’s current picture assignment, “Jolson 
Sings Again.” 


January, 1949 


o 


American Cinematographer 


o 


11 










. . . type is placed in press, . . . the impression made, . . . then printed title photographed. 


ABOVE photos show steps in printing and photographing titles in ment of its kind. The layout features unique type pre-heater, ver- 

Telefilm’s new film caption plant, which boasts most modern equip- tical pneumatic press and centralized camera controls. 


Modern Title Making 

How one company is meeting the demand for low 
cost titles for television films with modern equip¬ 
ment that insures top quality photography. 

By NORMAN KEANE 


T HE PHOTOGRAPHY of titles, while 
somewhat of a routine procedure as 
compared to cinematography on studio 
sets, is nevertheless an exacting science. 
There’s plenty the cameraman must know 
about lights and shadows, about focus 
and lenses and color contrasts and har¬ 
mony in order to produce the crisp, sharp 
titles demanded by the motion picture 
industry today. And if well-lighted, sharp 
titles are a must for feature motion pic¬ 
tures, they are doubly so for television 
films, where some slight loss of defini¬ 
tion necessarily take place in transmis¬ 
sion. 

There’s more to making titles than the 
photography, of course; but unless the 
original copy has definition and contrast 
and is well balanced for color, where the 
title is to be photographed in color, there 

• 


isn’t much the cameraman can do about 
it. In order to bring all phases of title 
making under one roof, where both the 
composition and photography may be 
closely supervised with the end result in 
mind, Telefilm, Inc., Hollywood, who spe¬ 
cializes in titles for 16mm. film produc¬ 
ers, has installed a complete title mak¬ 
ing department in its recently constructed 
annex on Hollywood Boulevard. Probably 
the most modern and efficient department 
of its kind, it includes a pneumatically 
operated, vertical hot press capable of 
handling main, sub and credit titles, 
text for commercials, newsreel type cap¬ 
tions and superimpositions, producing 
sharp images on either celluloid or card¬ 
board. 

The press was designed and constructed 
by Telefilm’s engineers for precision pro¬ 


duction of title cards that photograph 
with maximum sharpness and definition. 
The whole department, of course, is laid 
out with an eye for speedy production of 
titles at low cost, which the makers of 
television films demand. The title depart¬ 
ment is laid out so efficiently that one 
man can operate it with a minimum of 
lost motion. In the department are cases 
of modern type faces, heater and press— 
all within a step of each other, yet there’s 
ample room for several employees to 
work there, if necessary. 

The selection of type faces is such that 
it is possible to provide a wide variety 
of title styles, including shadow effects 
for mains, far cheaper than where title 
cards are lettered by hand. Once the title 
text is composed, it is locked in the con¬ 
ventional chase (Fig. 2), such as used in 
print shops, then placed in a thermo¬ 
statically controlled, specially designed 
heater (Fig. 3). Unlike with ordinary 
printing, best title card impressions re¬ 
sult where the type is first heated and 
special pigments provided—a practice in 
general use throughout the industry. But 
Telefilm has modernized the procedure, 
as may be seen by studying the series of 
photos above. 

The impression method is similar to 
that used in applying gold lettering to 
leather goods. The heated type and chase 

(Continued on Page 27) 


12 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 















I T APPEARS that to reproduce color 
one would have first of all to know all 
about color. However, just as in black- 
and-white photography, the applied art 
seems to have flourished remarkably and 
developed its practical methods toward 
more perfect results without too much 
worry about the many question marks, 
which still make those concerned with 
photo-reproductive theory wonder about 
the true nature of its fundamentals. 

The fact that we resort to at least 
three different theories explaining the 
phenomena of light, the electro-magnetic, 
the corpuscular and the quantum theories, 
instead of a single one, is sufficient proof 
that we are still groping for basic truths. 
The science of color presents not only 
an alarming number of difficult questions 
relating to pure physics. A large part of 
what we know of color reactions defies 
explanation through an approach by 
physics. It can only be properly under¬ 
stood, described and classified as psycho¬ 
physical and as psychological phenomena 
or as color sensations. 

The recognition of the fact that by 
mixing three primary colors, red, green 
and blue-violet, in different proportions 
any other color can be obtained or 



TECHNICOLOR cameras, such as one shown here photographing a scene for “Mother Was A 
Freshman" (under guidance of Art Arling, A.S.C.), today render the most faithful reproduction 
of color in motion pictures. The technical development of color processes has been mainly along 
the line of slow and steady progress in perfecting rather early conceived principal methods, 
as may be seen when studying the history of fhe Technicolor process. 


Color And 


Color Reproduction 


Color as a science has a rather complex structure. 
The study of its psychophysical and psychological 
ph ases offers a new and very large field to the 
progressive cameraman. 

By DR. HERBERT MEYER 

Motion Picture Research Council 


matched, had slowly grown out of the 
practical experience and observations of 
early painters. It became the lasting con¬ 
tribution of Thomas Young to furnish 
accurate experimental proof and formu¬ 
late it into a basic law, which in conse¬ 
quence seemed to require the assumption 
that the human eye must be equipped 
with three receptors, each sensitive to 
only one of the primary colors. This 
theory although physiologically not at all 
proven, has furnished the foundation 
upon which color photography has been 
begun and developed. 

The additive primaries, of which little 
can be said as to their physical properties 
since color itself is not a substance but a 
sensation, have certain characteristics 
which distinguish them from other colors. 
One is that none of them can be matched 
by any two other colors. A further ob¬ 
servation is that all three primaries, when 
mixed additively, result in the sensation 
of white. From this follows that the addi¬ 
tive mixture of two of the primaries is, 
in each instance, complementary to the 
third primary, since we also know that 
complementary colors are colors which 
when additively mixed will result in 
white. 

The colors of the three complementary 
or secondary primaries which we use in 


synthesizing the color print when prac¬ 
ticing the subtractive process are: Cyan, 
complementary to primary red; Magenta, 
complementary to primary green; and 
Yellow, complementary to primary blue- 
violet. It, therefore, follows that cyan 
must be the same as the additive mixture 
of primary green and blue violet, which 
as was stated, is also complementary to 
red. This explains the often used other 
name for cyan, which is minus red. Simi¬ 
larly, it follows that magenta must be the 
same as the additive mixture of primary 
blue-violet and red and is, therefore, 
called minus green. Last, yellow must be 
equal to the additive mixture of red 
and green and is accordingly named 
minus blue (blue-violet). 

The two fundamental processes used for 
photographic color reproduction are 


known as additive and subtractive meth¬ 
ods. In making the negative exposure, in 
order to obtain color separation negatives, 
identical primary color Alters can be used 
for either method. These Alters are prac¬ 
tically standardized as red Alter A (dom¬ 
inant wavelength 610 millimicrons), 
green filter B (dominant wavelength 546 
millimicrons), and blue Alter C-5 (dom¬ 
inant wavelength 649 millimicrons). The 
eye can not distinguish the individual 
components in a color mixture, which is 
rather advantageous in color reproduc¬ 
tion since it makes it permissible to use 
filters or dyes which transmit relatively 
wide or widely separated bands, instead 
of one narrow-banded, monochromatic 
hue. The dominant wavelength of a Alter, 
therefore, represents the mean hue trans- 

(Continued on Page 31) 




January, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


13 









BOASTINC a recording range from 40 to 10,500 cycles, plus or minus 
2 db., this precision-made recorder has built-in monitoring facilities, 
uses slit 35mm. oxide coated film perforated for the recorder’s 
sprocket drive. 


PORTABILITY and light weight are salient features. Recorder 
and amplifier are housed in two handsome leather-covered carry¬ 
ing cases. Net weight of both is ninety pounds. 



Magnetic Recorder 


A Synchronous 

The new Hallen recorder may be synchronized with any 
35mm. or 16mm. synchro-motor driven camera; records 
sound on perforated, oxide coated 17V2mm. film. 

By RALPH LAWTON 


T HE SWIFT development of magnetic 
recording during the past few years 
has opened up vast new possibilities in 
the field of sound recording for motion 
pictures. Today it is possible for the ex¬ 
plorer, the lecture film producer and mak¬ 
e's of industrial, newsreel and television 
films—even Hollywood studios—to re¬ 
cord sound for films never before feas¬ 
ible with cumbersome optical sound 
equipment. Magnetic recorders, being 
compact and in most cases portable, can 
be easily transported along with camera 
equipment to the most remote and here¬ 
tofore virtually inaccessible spots. For 
western location filming they are ideal. 

The Hallen Corporation, of Burbank, 
California, headed by Len Roos, A.S.C., 
has pioneered in the development of 
magnetic sound recorders for use in the 
production of motion pictures, and now 
has a portable magnetic recorder in pro¬ 
duction which records sound on oxide 
coated film 1714mm. wide with standard 

14 ® American Cinematographer 


perforations. One of the first recorders 
to use perforated film, it affords fully 
synchronized sound, may be operated in 
synchronization with any 35mm. or 
16mm. synchro-motor driven cameras. 

Roos, in addition to being an ace cine¬ 
matographer of many years’ experience, 
is also a pioneer in the field of sound 
recording. In 1929 he designed and be¬ 
gan manufacturing and distribution of 
the Tanar single system optical film re¬ 
corders which were sold the world over. 
Having travelled far and wide during his 
career as a photographer, during which 
time he produced motion pictures with 
all kinds and types of sound equipment, 
Roos knows from actual experience the 
location photographer’s problems and 
how well portable magnetic recording fits 
his needs. 

In addition to many years of research 
on magnetic recording. Roos spent more 
than a year in engineering the Hal¬ 
len recorder to its present state of per- 

• January, 1949 


fection. The recorder is now in produc¬ 
tion and despite the meager rumors of its 
existence emanating out of Hollywood 
—Roos preferred not to announce it un¬ 
til all was in readiness for uninterrupted 
production—the Hallen Corporation al¬ 
ready has orders on hand from cinema¬ 
tographers and film producers in South 
America, Philippines, Alaska, Israel, Italy 
and China. James Wong Howe, A.S.C., 
will use one when he resumes produc¬ 
tion of Rickshaw Boy" in China next 
year. 

The complete recording unit, which is 
pictured on this page, comprises the re¬ 
corder and amplifier, each in its own 
durable, leather-covered carrying case. 
Total weight of the two pieces is ninety 
pounds. The recorder is ruggedly con¬ 
structed and designed to operate with 
high precision in any clime and under 
any conditions. Roos has concentrated on 
the perforated oxide coated film as the 
medium for recording because it affords 
the only means of assuring absolute syn¬ 
chronism. Unperforated tape recorders 
present problems of slippage in the film 
transporting mechanism, which cannot oc¬ 
cur where perforated film and sprockets 
are used. The precision machining of parts 
is also an important factor contributing 
to the quality of magnetic recording, and 
(Continued on Page 32) 





















Better Pictures 

In 1949 

Will Be 

Photographed 

In Black and White 

And In Color 

With a Wide Range Of 

EASTMAN 

NEGATIVES 


Always 

EASTMAN 

Always The Best 


And— Of Course— 

BRULATOUR 

SERVICE 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 


FORT LEE 


CHICAGO 


HOLLYWOOD 




Top Quality Sound For 

35mm. and 16mm. Film Production 


HALLEINI 


SYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC RECORDER 



The finest portable magnetic recorder for production of sound films. 


• Gear-driven MVivnm. sprocket. 

• Interlocks with any 35mm. or 16mm. syn¬ 
chronous-motor driven camera. 

• 40 to 10,500 cycles, + or — 2 db. 

• Film speed of recorder 90 feet per minute. 

• Net weight 90 pounds. 


• Records on slit 35mm. oxide coated film. 

• Built-in 2-stage pre-amplifier, handles any 
standard microphone. 

• Fast forward and reverse control for editing. 

• Built-in monitoring facilities. 

• Electric brakes. 


Price s 1500. 00 

FOB Burbank, Calif. 

J r CORPORATION 

3503 WEST OLIVE ST. • BURBANK, CALIF. • PHONE: Charleston 8-6976 







16mm. and 8mm. Cdinematoaraphy- 

SECTION 


Puppets Star In 
Budget Tele Films 


Use of marionettes points way to eco¬ 
nomical production of program and spot 
commercial films for television. 

By CHARLES LOR I NC 

T HE TELEVISION race is on! In the canyon-like streets just 
off New York’s Times Square and along the palm-shaded 
avenues of Hollywood, more and more production units are set¬ 
ting up shop to meet the demands of the nation’s newest and 
most exciting entertainment medium: television. 

It is a medium that has enormous potentialities, but which 
also represents a definite challenge to technicians switching 
from stage, screen or radio. Until television receiving sets are 
as numerous as present-day radios, the main problem for the 
producer will be to provide top-grade entertainment at a cost 
that is not prohibitive to the sponsor. This axiom applies also 
to the playlets or other visual presentations that will replace 



EVEN the camera dolly had to be a miniature. No standard camera 
truck would do for the dolly effects, so a toy wagon with a 16mm. 
Filmo mounted upon it was employed for making highly effective 
mobile camera shots. 



LICHTINC of puppets and the miniature sets required extreme care to 
achieve proper contrast without “burning out’’ the features and cos¬ 
tumes. Multiple shadows had to be avoided and the strings manipu¬ 
lating puppets obscured by corrective lighting. 


the "spot commercials” of radio. These commercials must be 
original, lively enough to catch and hold audience attention, 
technically smooth, and inexpensive enough to be commer¬ 
cially feasible. 

A type of commercial that meets all these requirements and 
a few more was previewed in Hollywood recently when Sen¬ 
tinel Productions sponsored a presentation showing of a short 
film with a cast made up entirely of puppet "actors.” This 
highly original and thoroughly entertaining commercial short 
subject features the Music Box Puppets, created and manipu¬ 
lated by Don and Ivy Wilson of Laguna Beach, California. 

In order to film this sample television commercial, a crew of 
seasoned Hollywood technicians motored down to Laguna 
Beach and took over the auditorium of the local high school, 
converting it into a sound stage for the puppet thespians. The 
motif of the film was adapted from the miniature circus, which 
for several years has been the Wilsons' most popular routine. 
It features clowns, tight-rope walkers, elephants, a tap-dancing 
character named Ring-Tail Pete, and a violin virtuoso who 
plays "Intermezzo.” 

The picture was filmed on Commercial Kodachrome with 
an unblimped Bell & Howell 70DA camera. The sound was 
recorded directly during filming by means of a tape recorder 
and was later re-recorded onto film for printing with the 
picture. The recording microphone was placed high in the 
proscenium of the miniature stage where it picked up the voices 
of the puppet characters as produced by Don and Ivy Wilson. 
Special shields were used to keep the microphone from picking 
up any noise from the camera. 

(Continued on Page 24) 


January, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


17 











16mm. and 8mm. Cinematography 

SECTION 




TO INSURE successful fakes, author Tompkins attached a check list 
to back of camera which he followed religiously before starting 
the camera each time. Thus he insured that every shot, many which 
were impossible to duplicate, was properly focused, correctly exposed, 
and the motor spring wound for a capacity run if necessary. 


4611 0 ONE has ever made a color film about ants. Why don’t 
l\ you?” 

That remark by a natural scientist was tossed into the ocean 
of my ignorance of micro-photography six months ago. It 
resulted in the single-reel 16mm. Kodachrome picture Life of 
the Harvester Ant (Part one). 

Why no one else had ever made such a film before became 
clear as soon as I tackled the problem. Even if a cameraman 
had all the backing and equipment of a major studio, he might 
have been balked by some of the difficulties I encountered. 

For equipment I had a Paillard-Bolex 16mm. camera, a 
not-too-steady tripod designed for a still camera, one 500-watt 
spotlight and enough photofloods to blow every fuse in the 
house, whenever I was thoughtless enough to switch them all 
on at once. 


Filming The 
Harvester Ant 

Rare educational film on ant life pho¬ 
tographed with 16mm. camera fitted with 
extension tubes and homemade gadget 
for determining focus at close range. 

By WARWICK TOMPKINS 

The chief actors in my picture were red ants commonly 
found throughout the Southwest. Scientists know them as 
Pogonomyrmex, a term they have sensibly reduced to Pogy. 
As ants go, Pogy is large (1/5th of an inch in length), and 
"relatively sluggish,” to quote the text books. These virtues, 
as well as their color, recommended them as did the helpful 
fact that Pogy cannot climb glass or other smooth surfaces. 

Several weeks of experimentation made a number of facts 
exceedingly clear. The relatively sluggish’’ Pogy moved so 
fast that an ant would enter a scene and be out of it in the 
space of single frame of film. Ergo—to get anything on the 
film, slow-motion speeds would have to be used. Nor was 
Pogy amenable to direction, coaxing, bullying or threats. It 
was going to take a heap of shooting to secure scenes that 
could eventually be whipped together to form a meaningful 
film subject. 

Shortcomings in an otherwise excellent camera had also been 
discovered. Seen from a distance of 18 inches—the closest 
close-up possible with a one-inch lens and a Bolex finder 
—Pogy was merely an animated dot in a huge field. How 
could she be photographed closer? 

(Continued on Page 22) 



TOMPKINS rigged up an adjustable stage for 
his ant actors, using part of a war surplus bomb 
sight to effect minute vertical and horizontal 
adjustments of stage. Ants were confined in 
glass cubicle before lens. 



TO INSURE accurate focus in photographing ants 
an inch or two from the lens, Tompkins made a 
series of pointers which he attached to camera 
lens. Pointer indicates center of field, is moved 
out of range when making shot. 



HERE Tompkins shows how he used mirrors to 
reflect sunlight on his tiny subjects. All shooting 
was done in daylight because the use of photo¬ 
floods created too much heat, aggravated the 
ants to a frenzy. 




18 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 













"The only 16mm. 
projector with 
'fidelity Control'. 


"Right...and that 
means top tonal 
j reproduction 
with any type of 
16mm. sound film'. 



KODAK” IS A TRADE-MARK 


tary . . . the tonal output is always crisp, always distinct. 
Superb optical system — A precision-made f/l .6 Lumenized 
lens teams with a powerful 750-watt lamp to provide sharp 
and brilliant images under average projection conditions. 
And a choice of several fast accessory lenses, ranging from 
1 inch to 4 inches, makes possible a wide variety of screen 
sizes and projection “throws.” 

Easy showings—Everything but film and the screen is 
“suitcase-handy.” Controls are centrally located . . . easy 
to operate. Wide-opening film gate and positive latches 
simplify threading. 2000-foot reel capacity makes possible 
sound showings almost an hour long without a reel change 
. . . silent showings even longer. 

See them demonstrated — at your Kodak dealer’s. Prices: 
FS-10-N Projector, with single speaker, $500; with twin 
speakers, $565- FB-40 Projector, with twin speakers, $855 
. . . Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 


Prices subject to change without notice. 


Kodascope Projectors 


FS-10-N 

FB-40 


SOUND KODASCOPE FB-40 PROJECTOR The amplifier delivers 40 
watts of undistorted output... twin 12-inch speakers are pro¬ 
vided to handle this tremendous power adequately. 

Because, as with all sound protection, reproduction is best when 
amplifier and speakers are driven at less than full capacity, FB-40's 
vast potential power — invaluable when the projector is oper¬ 
ated before large audiences at high-volume levels — is y 

highly important, too, when the FB-40 is used in 
smaller auditoriums for smaller groups. 




Sound Kodascope Projector is supplied in two models- 
FS-10-N (pictured above) and FB-40 (below). The FS-10-N, 
with an amplifier output of 10 watts, is for use in homes, 
clubrooms, small-sized auditoriums. The 40-watt output 
of the FB-40, readily reined in for these uses, is especiallv 
suitable for showings before audiences of thousands. 

The features detailed below—integral with both models- 
are those that help to make the Sound Kodascope Projector 
top choice of those who demand the finest in sound pro¬ 
jection for showings before small groups or large. 

Fidelity Control—A flick of your finger focuses the scan¬ 
ning beam, “picks out” the sound track with hairbreadth 
accuracy, whatever its position or whatever the type of 
16mm. sound film used—original, “dupe,” or reduction 
from 35mm. Operated at high- or low-volume levels . . . 
straight sound projection, or mixed with music or commen¬ 


4 


a 




Sound 







NATIVE fishing activities furnished Charles Allmon the most spectacular 
picture material of his entire filming adventure in the South Seas. 
Native Tahitians are adept spear fishermen and carry on fishing activities 
in some of the most rugged and picturesque ocean areas in the South 


Seas—places where few cameramen have dared venture with their 
cameras. Picture at right shows Allmon ready with camera as boat maneu¬ 
vers close to shore for a shot of the fishermen. Fishing sequence is a 
highlight of Allmon’s lecture film currently being shown throughout U. S. 


South Seas Saga 

Into the ancient center of Polynesian culture 
and religion went this youthful photographer 
to record in 16mm. color a remarkable lecture 
film on life in the South Seas. 

By CHARLES ALLMON 


I T’S A LONG voyage from the USA to 
the South Seas and islands of Poly¬ 
nesia, yet the sight which greets the eye 
as one approaches the circling reefs of 
Tahiti is much the same as that which 
sailors out of Liverpool, New Bedford 
and Marseilles saw one hundred and fifty 
years ago. 

As our island freighter nosed its way 
up to the landing at Papeete, it marked 
the end of three months of research and 
preparation. Now I was ready to go to 
work—and have some fun. My journey 
to the South Seas had been made to shoot 
a 16mm. documentary film of the various 
islands of the Society and Marquesas 
groups. I was here with camera and a 
good supply of Kodachrome film to pho¬ 
tograph spear fishing, hula dancing, the 
story of copra, the inter-island trading 
schooners and other facets of life in this 
colorful part of the world. 

Tahiti, a mere pebble of an island in 
the southeast Pacific, is but forty miles 

20 • American Cinematographer 


long and twenty-five miles wide, and 
shaped somewhat like a Mexican som¬ 
brero; mountains strain skyward for 
nearly eight thousand feet. Seventeen de¬ 
grees south of the equator, and wholly 
within the tropics, one would expect to 
encounter weather conditions prevailing 
in other tropical regions; but such is not 
the case in Tahiti. Humidity is seldom 
above 85 per cent, and temperatures are 
consistently moderate. 

Getting my cameras and film through 
the red tape of French customs was more 
of a problem than I anticipated. I learned, 
among other things, that one-third duty 
is levied on all film brought to the islands; 
that cameras may be brought in and re¬ 
tained for a period of six months before 
duty must be paid, which amounts to one- 
third of the original cost. 

My equipment included a Cine Special 
camera with a complete set of coated 
lenses, a Bell & Howell 70DA camera, 
and several hundred feet of Kodachrome 

• January, 1949 


film. The film was all of the same emul¬ 
sion number—a precaution taken to in¬ 
sure against roll to roll color variation. 
Additional equipment included various 
filters, a Professional Junior tripod with 
gear-head drive, water-tight cases for 
cameras and films, and a supply of silica 
gel for desicating film in storage. 

Anyone journeying to Tahiti these days 
is due for a great surprise—possibly dis¬ 
appointment. At the present time it is 
not the idyllic and fabled paradise where 
one may loaf on the beach and live for 
a few francs per month. The people and 
the scenery are little changed, but the 
economy has received a shot in the arm 
as an aftermath of the war. Prices have 
skyrocketed beyond all reason. Bungalows, 
which ten years ago could be rented for 
ten dollars a month, now bring sixty to 
one hundred dollars. I was indeed fortu¬ 
nate to find a modest, thatch-roofed bun¬ 
galow conveniently located. 

I had been filming around Tahiti not 
more than ten days when local experts 
began to caution me about Tahiti’s pe¬ 
culiar light conditions: ' Better watch that 
light, young man; those shadows record 
black, especially on color film.’’ True 
words these were, indeed, as I found out 
later, as did also the Hollywood camera 
crews who years ago spent many months 
here filming "Mutiny On The Bounty.” 

Smog and fog are non-existant. The 
nearest great land mass is more than 
3000 miles away, precluding the possi¬ 
bility of any great amount of dust par¬ 
ticles in the air. As a result there is little 
natural diffusion of light. The first Koda- 
(Continued on Page 28) 











Count on the film instead of the light! 


Winter days are pretty moody. One 
minute they’re sunny, the next the 
clouds have climbed all over the sky and 
blotted out the sun. 

You just can’t count on having ideal 
lighting all day long. That’s why we say, 
“don’t count on the light.” 

Instead, count on the film. Count on 
super-fast Ansco Triple S Pan Rever¬ 
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Then your worries will be a thing of 
the past. For Triple S Pan has such 
extreme speed that you get clear, well- 
exposed images even when the lighting 
is poor. You’re always ready to take 
movies when you have Ansco Triple S 


Pan in your camera—regardless of the 
weather. 

And Triple S Pan’s speed also means 
that you can stop down for extra depth 
of field and thus get sharp focus over a 
much wider range. 

Indoors, this extra speed means you 
can shoot with a minimum of artificial 
light. There’s no need for the powerful 
lights that keep subjects squinting and 
squirming. Ask about Ansco Triple S 
Pan Film next time you’re at your 
dealer’s. In both 8 and 16mm rolls. 
Ansco, Binghamton, N. Y. A Division 
of General Aniline & Film Corporation. 
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TIPS ON TITLES 


In snow sequences, 
you can make interesting title runs by 
spelling out your title with small lumps 
of coal. Smooth out a place in the snow, 
and then place the coal in it. 


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TO PREVENT TRIPOD FROM slipping on 
slick floors, provide three blocks of wood 
about 3 ,r X 3" XI" and drill a recess in 
each to take tip of tripod leg. Set up tri¬ 
pod and place blocks under the legs. Then 
stretch a length of clothesline or sash- 
weight cord from block to block and se¬ 
cure in place with staples. The cord will 
hold the blocks equidistant and provide a 
solid, non-slip support for tripod. When 
not in use, gadget may be quickly folded 
and stored in a minimum of space. 

• 

EDITINC YOUR FILMS will be easier if 
you screen them in motion as you edit. 
Use your projector for this, setting it up 
on your worktable and focusing it on a 
small screen made from white desk blotter 
cemented to inside bottom of a cardboard 
carton. Place carton on one side and about 
three feet in front of projector. Sides of 
carton will shield room lights from minia¬ 
ture screen enabling you to project pic¬ 
tures with room or work lights on. 

• 

BARNDOORS for your clamp-on reflectors 
can be made from two pieces of card¬ 
board. Tack cardboard to spring clothes¬ 
pins which will serve as clamps to hold 
barndoors in position at any angle. 

• 

A PLAIN WHITE window blind makes an 
excellent projection screen for either 
home movies or colored slides. 

• 

FOR A NOVEL main title with an action 
or live scenic background, use block title 
letters and affix them to slats of a Vene¬ 
tian blind, utilizing not more than three 
slats for the composition. Start camera 
with slats open, then gradually close slats 
to reveal title text. Action may be staged 
outside window or garden scene used for 
background. Focus on title at close range 
and use smallest stop possible to gain 
maximum depth of focus. 

• 

A VIEWFINDER FROM a discarded box 
camera can be utilized as an auxiliary 
viewfinder for cine cameras equipped 
with wide angle lens attachments. Most 
box camera viewfinders afford a wide 
angle view comparable to the field of 
wide angle lens attachments. Compare 
fields of both, using strip of sanded film 
in camera gate, and mask off auxiliary 
viewfinder eyepiece where necessary. At¬ 
tach finder to side of camera, using 
scotch tape or a clamp made from light 
metal. 


MUSIC TO MOVIES 

(Continued from Page 11) 


Tracing the history of almost any top 
cinematographer today, we would in¬ 
variably find that he began with some 
knowledge or experience in photography. 
Snyder is the exception. He started from 
scratch, with little or no knowledge of 
how even the simplest snapshot was made. 
There was a smoldering urge within him, 
however, which soon developed an avid 
student of things cinematographic. The 
keen interest and unusual natural talent 
he displayed in his work soon won for 
him the admiration and friendship of 
many Hollywood’s foremost cinematog¬ 
raphers with whom he worked. 

It is these very men whom Snyder 
credits for much of his success today— 
such experts as the late Oliver Marsh, 
who taught him the fine science of pho¬ 
tographing women stars with accent on 
glamour; Merritt Gerstad, who first 
coached him in the technique of effect 
lighting; Clyde DeVinna, A.S.C., whom 
Snyder claims is the best photographer in 
the business, an expert on interiors who 
revealed to him many important lighting 
secrets; and Victor Milner, A.S.C., with 
whom he worked frequently and to whom 
he credits much of his knowledge of 
"style’’ in cinematography. 

Thus taken in hand and coached by 
some of the best men in the business, 
Snyder has emerged as a leader in his own 
right. When asked how he acquired his 
special technique for color photography, 
Snyder said, "I simply combined the best 
ideas of these men with some of my own 
that I’ve developed over the years. I feel 
that the education I received working in 
the various studios and with most of the 
leaders in the profession, is something I 
could not have acquired in any school or 
from reading books.” 

Snyder often reminisces on the ten 
years he spent with Technicolor as the 
most enjoyable of his career. Whether it 
was foresight or simply luck, going with 
Technicolor was the luckiest step he ever 
made, he avers, for it enabled him to pre¬ 
pare early for the inevitable industry-wide 
trend toward Technicolor films. That it 
has paid off is evidenced by the commit¬ 
ments for Technicolor productions he has 
completed in recent years. 

His list of credits are impressive, for 
they include some of the best boxoffice 
hits turned out in Hollywood. He was 
associated with Karl Stress, A.S.C., and 
Wilfrid Cline, A.S.C., on "Aloma Of The 
South Seas;” with Lester White, A.S.C., 
on Universal’s "White Savage;” with Vic¬ 
tor Milner, A.S.C., on "The Princess And 
The Pirate,” and with Charles Lang, 
A.S.C., on "Blue Skies.” On his own, as 


director of photography, Snyder's more 
recent credits include "The Bandit of 
Sherwood Forest,” "Renegades,” "The 
Swordsman,” "The Loves of Carmen,” 
"The Return Of October,” and, currently, 
"Jolson Sings Again”—all Columbia Pic¬ 
tures productions. 

Of these, "The Loves of Carmen,” "The 
Return of October,” and "Jolson Sings 
Again,” reveal the broad scope of Sny¬ 
der’s camera artistry more fluently than 
could any mere wordy description. "Car¬ 
men” was strictly an effects picture in 
which Snyder’s skillful lighting and subtle 
camera effects are dominant notes. "Re¬ 
turn of October,” by contrast, is a light, 
gay comedy which required an altogether 
different camera and lighting treatment. 
And now Jolson Sings Again” is yet an¬ 
other type of picture, which combines the 
gaiety and scope of musical sequences 
with highly dramatic episodes in a gentle 
love story involving one of the entertain¬ 
ment world’s most colorful personalities. 
As in his photography of "Loves Of Car¬ 
men,” Snyder’s handling of color lighting 
in this picture is not the slide rule ap¬ 
proach of the technician, but the emo¬ 
tional approach of the born artist. The 
emotional values of each scene or se¬ 
quence invariably become the basic guides 
to his lighting and camera treatment. 

Quiet and unassuming, William Snyder 
is highly respected by every member of 
cast and crew working with him on the 
Columbia lot. Indeed, his friendships 
among technicians, cameramen and play¬ 
ers on every Hollywood lot are legion. 
And toward those who so generously 
helped him along in his formative years— 
from that fateful day when first he began 
loading cameras at M.G.M.—Bill Snyder 
feels a sincere debt of gratitude. "They 
made it all possible,” he says, simply. 


FILMING ANTS 

(Continued from Page 18) 


In order get desirable closeups I ac¬ 
quired a set of extension tubes ( Vi", 1" 
and 2") which supplied high magnifica¬ 
tion, and I began to see wonderful pic¬ 
tures — on the ground-glass focusing 
screen. I discovered the ants are hairy 
beasts, that they have teeth inside their 
mandibles, etc. But the extended lens that 
projected these tantalizing images onto 
the focusing screen had to be racked 
over to an altogether different shooting 
position before I could get anything on 
film. And once the lens was racked over, 
I had the problem of getting my ant 
centered again in front of it at precisely 
the right distance and within a frame of 
pleasing composition. 

That problem was finally licked by the 
construction of a shiftable stage or table 




22 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 













which duplicated the rack-over motion 
of the lens. Tripod vibration had been 
evident in my first tests, so a solid steel 
base was made to hold the camera instead. 
The rack-over table was made to slide 
back and forth along this base. When 
focusing, my extended lens was at the 
upper right corner of the camera face. 
The table was then raised on its four short 
legs and brought hard up against a stop 
at the right side of the camera base. Then, 
when the focus and composition was 
properly set, the lens was swung to the 
shooting position and the stage also 
shifted over to the left. When it was 
firmly settled into its final position, the 
relation between lens and subject was 
the same as it had been at the focusing 
point. 

Before I had filmed very much with 
this equipment, I discovered the need for 
a fourth extension tube—one Va" in 
length—which I had made. This was for 
use in making long shots’’—a long shot 
in this case being 4 inches and affording 
a width of about 1% inches. A three- 
inch tube affords a field size approxi¬ 
mately 6/100th x 4/100th of an inch, 
with the subject a scant half-inch from 
the lens. 

One of the hardest problems involved 
in framing was getting the foreground at 
the right height or following action from 
right to left. Raising or lowering my sub¬ 
ject, by adding or subtracting cardboard 
or paper shims beneath the stage, was a 
maddening time waster. Since depth of 
focus was never more than a quarter of 
an inch and, with extreme magnification, 
fell at times to possibly 1/100th of an 
inch, there could be no thought of pan¬ 
ning the camera. 

A drift indicator from a war-surplus 
bomb sight resolved that problem. The 
drift indicator possessed a beautifully cali¬ 
brated, ball-bearing gear system which 
produced both horizontal and vertical 
adjustments when its knurled knobs were 
turned. With this device mounted on the 
rack-over table and a firm little platform 
mounted to it to hold my "stage,” I 
gained great flexibility and certainty in 
properly placing my subject before the 
camera lens. 

A fixed camera, however, is a great 
handicap. By shifting my tripod’s tilting 
head to the steel camera base I obtained 
mobility for the camera, but lost the use 
of my rack-over table. I was faced with 
the problem of knowing when I had an 
ant in my field of view, as in the scene 
where I am shooting down into a film can 
in which a colony of Pogies are based. 

This hazard was overcome by a pointer 
device seen in the accompanying pictures. 
I very accurately determined the focal 
distance for each of my extension tubes 
or for any combination of the tubes. 
A collar was made which clamped snugly 
around my lens and butted up solidly 





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January, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


23 



























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against the extension tube. A screw 
socket in this collar took a nicely-ma¬ 
chined rod, at the far end of which was 
a sharp pin which could be adjusted so 
that its point fell in the center of the 
lens field. Then, knowing the size of the 
field of view obtaining for each extension 
tube, I could mark the center of the field 
with the pin point (noting it by the 
location of a pebble or blade of grass) 
and then start my camera when the 
Pogies moved into this sharp focus area. 
These pin-point devices were invaluable 
when it came to taking pictures with 
very high magnification. 

My natural desire to take pictures with 
artificial light was thwarted by the ex¬ 
cessive heat of photoflood lights. It drove 
the ants frantic, accentuating their already 
swift movements to a point where even 
68 frames-per-second gave nothing but 
a brownish blur on the screen. Ultimately 
I made the film in daylight, stepping up 
sunlight by the use of two, three or even 
four mirror reflectors. Even with such 
concentrated light and heat, scenes had to 
be made quickly or the ants would be 
seriously disturbed. 

Part One of Life of the Harvester Ant 
concerns the fascinating facts of ant life 
anyone can readily observe in an artificial 
colony in his own home. It shows how 
to capture ants, hpw to build an artificial 
colony and it points up the tireless energy 
and engineering skill of these minute 
workers. It’s record of a 73-hour duel-to- 
the-death between two red ants is an 
exciting sequence, as is the film record of 
an ant (weight, 1/8600th of an ounce) 
lifting a boulder 18 times it own weight 
from a blocked tunnel. 

Part Two of this film—much of which 
is already photographed—will show the 
complete life cycle of the harvester ant, 
with the exception only of the nuptial 
flight of the princess ant who, becoming 
the queen, then becomes the mother of 
a new colony. This love episode of _ ant 
life, alas, takes place in flight, precluding 
any photographic record. 


PUPPET TELE FILMS 


(Continued from Page 17) 


Lighting equipment included conven¬ 
tional floodlights for general illumination, 
Baby Junior spotlights for key-lighting 
and top-lighting and Dinky-Inkies for 
highlighting and kicker-lights. The pup¬ 
pet stage had to be enlarged somewhat 
to permit the arrangement of lights over¬ 
head and in the wings. While the general 
mood of the photography is high-key, 
great care had to be taken not to "burn 
up" the delicate coloring of the puppets 
faces and costumes through the use of 
too much light. On the other hand, 
sufficient light had to be used to enable 


the cameraman to stop down his lens for 
added detail and depth of field—two very 
important considerations when one is 
shooting a picture in huge close-ups. 

First cameraman Charlie Straumer and 
his assistants, Dick Davol and Emmet 
Burkholz, encountered several problems 
which never develop during the filming 
of live players. The foremost obstacle 
that had to be overcome involved getting 
a variety of angles on the tiny sets and 
players. Filming the action from a straight 
front angle was relatively simple, but this 
technique had to be varied with side 
angles which were difficult to light. Then, 
too, a great deal of care had to be taken 
so that multiple shadows would not clut¬ 
ter the background and distract the audi¬ 
ence’s attention. 

Since the television medium requires 
films shot with good contrast, it was 
necessary to build up the general level 
of the set lighting. However, it was also 
important to avoid both excessive shad¬ 
ows and exessive flatness. This "happy 
medium" in lighting is rapidly becoming 
standard technique in films made ex¬ 
pressly for telecasting. 

The strings by which the puppets are 
manipulated presented their own particu¬ 
lar problem. The camera crew was more 
concerned with the shadows of the strings 
than with the strings themselves. In order 
to minimize these shadows, the back¬ 
grounds had to be lighted rather brightly 
and evenly. On a full-sized screen the 
strings in the finished film are just barely 
discernible, and on the television tube 
they are invisible—even in the extreme 
close-ups. 

In staging the Intermezzo" sequence, 
the music is first heard over a long shot 
of the puppet stage. The curtains slowly 
open to reveal a glamorous lady playing 
the violin. She is accompanied by a pro¬ 
fessorial-looking character who plays a 
white grand piano. The camera then 
slowly dollies in to a close-up of the lady 
violinist. The camera movement is very 
smooth and quite in the M-G-M tradition, 
but the technicians shed much blood, 
sweat and tears to achieve the effect. 

A tiny red wagon was used for a dolly. 
It first had to be taken apart, thoroughly 
greased and specially adapted to run 
smoothly. Dolly tracks consisting of 
wooden strips were tacked onto a wooden 
table, and the camera was securely fas¬ 
tened to a board covering the top of 
the wagon. As the tiny puppet doll moved 
in on the scene, an assistant moved along 
side the camera to follow focus. 

On the screen the tiny actors sing and 
dance and talk—now and again tossing 
in a sly plug for the sponsor. The pace 
is lively and the wholesome comedy is 
universal in appeal. One soon forgets that 
he is watching inanimate wooden dolls, 
which are scarcely 18 inches high. Shown 


24 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 














in extreme closeup, the puppets seem 
life-size, almost human actors, but with 
a whimsical charm that is peculiarly their 
own. Their antics and merry patter com¬ 
mand attention in a positive way, and 
they put across a commercial message in 
the guise of smooth entertainment. 

Earle Harper, who heads Sentinel Pro¬ 
ductions, also directed the sample puppet 
film. A veteran of 25 years in the motion 
picture industry, he was one of the first 
to go all out in producing films expressly 
for television. 

Television is chiefly a visual art, "Har¬ 
per explains, "even though it stems from 
radio. When a television program appears 
on the receiver tube it is mainly a picture, 
and this means that all television shows 
—both live and film—must be directed 
for the camera. Stage technique is not 
enough, nor straight screen or radio tech¬ 
nique either; television demands a blend¬ 
ing of all three.” 

Most television producers agree that a 
unique style of motion picture production 
has rapidly developed to serve the techni¬ 
cal requirements of video. It is a new and 
as yet unperfected technique. There is a 
great deal of research and experimenta¬ 
tion to be done. But out of all this trial 
and error will come new and original 
ideas for commercials and entertainment 
—like the puppets of Don and Ivy Wil¬ 
son brought right into your living room. 



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January, 1949 • American Cinematographer 


25 


















• Charles Rosher was lamenting the 
loss of his new Packard automobile which 
had been stolen where he parked it on 
Hollywood Boulevard while attending an 
A. S. C. meeting. 

• Robert Doran was shooting another 
Will Rogers’ comedy at the Hal Roach 
studios. 

• Victor Milner was photographing 
Fred Niblo’s production of "Thy Name 
Is Woman.” 

• George Schneiderman was touring 
the west, scouting locations for a forth¬ 
coming Fox production. 

® Sol Polito was elected to handle the 
camera on First National’s production of 
"Lilies Of The Field,” featuring Corinne 
Griffith, Conway T e a r 1 e and Charlie 
Murray. 

• Jackson Rose wound up photogra¬ 
phy on "Innocent,” produced by King 
Baggott for Universal. 

• Norbert Brodin was making prep¬ 
arations for filming First National’s big 
sea epic, "The Sea Hawk,” for which 
studio was constructing five ships repre¬ 
senting an outlay of $250,000. 

• Dan Clark was shooting "Ladies To 
Board” at Fox studios. Picture starred 
Tom Mix and was directed by Jack Bly- 
stone. 

® James Van Trees was president of 
the A.S.C., with John Seitz, Charles Van 
Enger and Victor Milner as vice-presi¬ 
dents, Frank Good was treasurer and Phil 
Whitman, secretary. 

® Fred Jackman and Homer Scott 
were stalled in axle-deep mud with their 
car while on a trip to Mexico. 

® John Arnold was photographing 
Revelations,” starring Viola Dana and 
directed by George D. Baker on the old 
Metro lot. 

® Arthur Edeson, Phil Whitman and 
Kenneth MacLean were working their 
cameras overtime in an effort to wind 
up Doug Fairbanks' Thief of Bagdad.” 

• Andre Barlatier and Georges 
Benoit were besieged by their associates 
to interpret captions on the illustrated 
French postcards which Bob Kurrle had 
mailed them from Paris. 

• David Abel started shooting Warner 
Brothers’ production of Sinclair Lewis’ 
"Babbitt,” directed by Harry Beaumont. 

• Gilbert Warrenton’s Bell & How¬ 
ell was grinding footage on the First 
National lot for Joseph DeGrasse’s pro¬ 
duction of Flowing Gold.” 

26 • American Cinematographer 


FILMS FOR TELEVISION 


(Continued from Page 9) 


There are other reasons for producing 
television spot announcements on film, 
too. Cuts, fades, dissolves and superim¬ 
posing text over the picture—all of 
which have proved so effective in mo¬ 
tion picture presentation—are equally ef¬ 
fective on the television screen. But more 
important, these devices actually enhance 
the commercial visually while at the same 
time afford fuller use of the commercial 
time interval, resulting in more mes¬ 
sage per minute than would otherwise 
be possible with a studio-enacted com¬ 
mercial picked up by the television 
camera. 

Most important of all, however, is the 
economy that results from producing 
television commercials on film. By shoot¬ 
ing them on a mass production basis, 
several at a time, it is possible to pro¬ 
duce perhaps as many as six or a dozen 
for little more than the cost of one pro¬ 
duced singly. 

The Westinghouse series just com¬ 
pleted is an example. It consists of eight 
"one minute commercials” exploiting 
the Laundromat, company’s newest home 
laundry equipment. We photographed 
all eight in the space of an eight hour 
day, using six sets and eight actors. Each 
commercial opens with the main title 
superimposed over a picture background, 
then proceeds to show a housewife dem¬ 
onstrating the simplicity and economy of 
using the sponsor’s product. In no case 
are there more than three or four cuts 
to a commercial, and all normal action is 
played close to the camera. Most of the 
shots are tight closeups of the Laundro¬ 
mat or of some feature which is de¬ 
scribed in the narration. The key message, 
"You can be sure if it’s Westinghouse,” 
is double exposed over the closing scene 
of each. 

In the lighting, I avoided the extremes 
which are often used in standard motion 
pictures for dramatic effect. Simple, basic 
lighting was employed to gain clear, pic¬ 
torial definition for every scene or close- 
up. Lighting for the average scene 
ranged around 100 foot candles. A 
standard Mitchell 35mm. camera mounted 
on a crane was used in filming the se¬ 
ries. After the films were edited and 
titled, they were reduced to 16mm. for 
pickup by the television camera. 

Incidentally, the lighting problem is 
another reason why the filmed spot com¬ 
mercial announcement is invariably su¬ 
perior to the live action commercial pro¬ 
duced in the television studio. Television 
studio lights are often too powerful or 
improperly placed to produce the right 
illumination for showing a product to 
advantage. In a recent instance, an ad¬ 
vertising routine was picked up by the 


• January, 1949 


television camera which demonstrates 
this point. The product was a bright gold 
compact in the hand of a beautiful model; 
but when the brilliant studio lights struck 
the surface, the light that was reflected 
into the camera lens was so blinding that 
the compact appeared as a white blur on 
the television screen instead of the beau¬ 
tiful product that it was. 

Incidentally one of the chief reasons 
there are so many opinions regarding 
what is proper lighting for television 
films is the inconsistency of television 
receivers in reproducing video programs 
at the same light level and contrast. At 
the time we were making preliminary 
experiments, we had occasion to check 
the result of our television films on sev¬ 
eral receivers and found that no two re¬ 
ceivers reproduced exactly alike. So, tele¬ 
vision films as well as live programs will 
continue to be criticized for their qual¬ 
ity in some instances, until such time as 
broadcasting and receiver equipment are 
improved to provide more uniform re¬ 
ception. 

Composition is a very important ele¬ 
ment in the photography of films for 
television—not so much from an arty 
standpoint as the practical side. What 
many cinematographers fail to take into 
consideration is that too often the full 
frame of the film is not the area that 
ultimately reaches the screen of the home 
television set. If the set is off a bit, or if 
it was so designed that the frame around 
the screen takes up some of the margin 
of the televised picture, certain parts of 
the picture composition are bound to be 
lost unless a generous safety margin is 
allowed all around. This is most likely 
to happen when filming a closeup of a 
person demonstrating millinery or men’s 
hats, or of some small object filling the 
movie frame from edge to edge. 

Because it takes g.s much camera and 
lighting preparation to photograph one 
"minute commercial” as ten, the big les¬ 
son producers have learned is that the 
only profitable way to produce television 
spot announcements on film is to photo¬ 
graph them in numbers as though they 
were a single production. This is feasible, 
of course, only where the commercials 
are produced as an integrated series on 
the same sets, as in the case of those of 
the Laundromat, which enabled us to 
shoot all the scenes of a given camera 
set up at one time. 

For example, after scripts for the eight 
films were completed, we found that the 
entire series called for 20 scenes to be 
made of the Laundromat in closeup, al¬ 
though with different action. Therefore, 
we moved the camera to closeup posi¬ 
tion only once, instead of making fre¬ 
quent and repetitious camera changes at 
intervals as production progressed. Using 
this same production formula, it would 



























be possible for us to shoot many more 
spot commercials” than the eight we 
finished that day. 

As one prominent telecasting head has 
so aptly stated: "Simple economics re¬ 
quire an entirely new film production 
viewpoint, because video is still not pay¬ 
ing its own way.” The answer lies in 
mass production of television films care¬ 
fully planned to take advantage of all 
possible production economies. The small 
sets and the need for most action to be 
filmed close up, makes for simplicity in 
the lighting and therefore reduces the 
cameraman’s problems to the minimum. 


MODERN TITLE MAKING 


(Continued from Page 12) 


are placed in a pneumatic press (Fig 4), 
in tracks provided in top plate of the 
press. The title card or panel of celluloid 
is laid on the platen below with a sheet 
of ink pigment, which may be black, 
white or any one of a variety of colors, 
and the pneumatic press operated to make 
the impression (Fig. 5). Special dual 
controls are a safety feature of the press. 
The operator must use both hands to 



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American Cinematographer 


27 



































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work the levers that control it, thus in¬ 
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The printed title card then goes to 
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Photoflood lamps, mounted in reflec¬ 
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A standard Maurer camera is used. 
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The title board is electrically controlled, 
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SOUTH SEAS SAGA 

(Continued from Page 20) 

chrome film I shot indicated the necessity 
of setting a definite time for shooting 
pictures in the future, and I wisely de¬ 
cided to halt all filming each day after 
ten in the morning. 

Shooting a carefully planned native 




28 


American Cinematographer 


o 


January, 1949 











































fishing sequence on one of the coral reefs 
presented many obstacles. First it meant 
catching the low tide, with the reefs more 
or less high and dry. This condition 
occurred about every three weeks at which 
time the most ideal filming conditions 
lasted but three days at most. More often 
than not, when ideal weather and sea 
conditions did prevail, there was no fish¬ 
ing going on—the natives being else¬ 
where or engaged in other pursuits. 

On another occasion, after driving half 
the night in a jeep over rough roads not 
much more than cow paths, I reached a 
remote beach. Here I was to pack my 
gear into four dugout outrigger canoes 
for a trip to a small "motu,” or island, to 
shoot pictures of native divers. We were 
doomed to disappointment, however, for 
when we reached the island, the weather 
was bad and photography had to be aban¬ 
doned. Eventually, after making five 
attempts, the desired sequence was filmed 
—all 250 feet of it. 

Some of my most startling experiences 
took place on the coral atoll of Tubai, 
twenty miles northwest of Bora Bora. 
Here our boat, an inter-island vessel 
dropped anchor about daybreak—just one 
hundred yards from the edge of the shore 
reef. Over the side went double-ender 
whale boats carrying my cameras and gear 
and myself, each boat skippered by a 
skilled native oarsman. Carefully maneu¬ 
vering the boats in relation to tide, we 
shot with incredible speed through a 
narrow, treacherous pass in the reef. The 
comer behind picked up our craft as 
though it were a chip on a wave, and 
sent it sailing swiftly shoreward. A slight 
miscalculation here by the skipper prob¬ 
ably would have spelled finis for this 
South Seas filming adventure. 

Subsequently I set up my camera on the 
edge of the reef—about seventy-five feet 
from the open sea—and filmed the whale 
boats as they negotiated the pass from 
ship to shore, and back again. Even with 
my tripod extended its maximum of five 
feet in height, it was not unusual for the 
foaming comers to reach nearly to the top 
of the tripod head, threatening to engulf 
my camera. For safety, I had three natives 
stand by while I made the shots, to brace 
both me and my camera as the comers 
rolled in. It would have been easier to 
setup farther back and use a telephoto 
lens, but then I would have sacrificed the 
thrilling results of undistorted closeup 
action shots of the boats battling the sea. 

On shore, another problem presented 
itself: the beach consisted of fine white 
coral sand which gave an excessive meter 
reading, no matter in which direction I 
pointed it. Even a reading taken of the 
back of my hand indicated a stop of f/16 
at 24 f.p.s. I had to be absolutely sure, of 
exposure for here was interesting shoot¬ 
ing and I could not return for retakes. 



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American Cinematographer 


29 















Finally, I compromised on a reading taken 
of the darkest blue sky area with the sun 
at my back. The meter indicated a stop 
of f/11. To allow for any possible error, 
I opened up just a hair’’ from this point 
and shot. After the film was processed in 
Honolulu and returned to me, I breathed 
easier for the exposures turned out per¬ 
fect. 

A trading schooner voyage to the 
famed Marquesas islands presented an¬ 


other rare opportunity for picture mate¬ 
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phase of island life common in the South 
Seas for centuries. The boats plying be¬ 
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indeed. Passengers and cargo mingled to¬ 
gether and much of this cargo invariably 
was livestock—sheep, goats, hogs, chick¬ 
ens, and not infrequently horses. Such 
items are exchanged in the Marquesas 
islands for copra which in turn is brought 


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to Papeete and thence transported to the 
mainlands by steamer. 

Harbors are practically nonexistant in 
the islands, and transfer of cargo and 
the loading of new is done by small boats. 
Here again we encountered the thrilling 
sight of native boys skillfully maneuver¬ 
ing boats through narrow channels in the 
reefs. I had to be alert with my camera 
every minute. On one occasion I watched 
heavy surf swamp a whaleboat. There 
wasn’t time to rewind my camera; the 
lens had been pre-set for just such inci¬ 
dents. Presently the boat was completely 
lost from view, only to bob up again. A 
wall of water broke over the boat once 
more and men, oars and copera bags 
were tossed into the sea as the boat cap¬ 
sized—just as my camera motor spring 
expended itself. 

When going ashore in such treacherous 
waters, I make it a point never to place 
"all my eggs in one basket.’’ I allowed 
only one camera to a boat. The cameras 
were first placed in watertight containers 
and sealed, allowing only sufficient air 
within to insure boyancy should they fall 
into the sea. Such precautions saved my 
photographic equipment from disaster on 
several occasions. One morning my Cine 
Special had gone on ahead in the first 
boat. I followed in the second, with other 
cameras and equipment. The first boat 
capsized as it approached shore and 
within seconds my Cine Special in its 
sealed container was bobbing safely in the 
surf. In a short time it drifted to shore 
and was retrieved. 

Special precautions were taken at all 
times for the preservation of my Koda- 
chrome film supply. The silica gel was 
used to desicate or remove any tropic 
moisture from both exposed and unex¬ 
posed films. It is interesting to mention 
that ninety per cent of my Kodachrome 
footage had been exposed for at least four 
months before being processed in Hono¬ 
lulu, without adverse effect from tropic 
heat or moisture. 

Like many another traveler who has 
visited the South Seas, I’m getting itchy 
feet again. Time has little meaning in 
the islands. Palm trees outside one’s 
cabin door rustle gently in the breeze, 
and the lagoon just off the doorstep in¬ 
vites a delightful swim at any hour. At 
the slightest provocation, a native dance 
will begin and continue for hours. But 
most of all the inexhaustible photographic 
possibilities are a constant urge to return 
again to get on film all those thrilling 
sights and experiences that limited film 
precluded on my initial visit to Tahiti. 




30 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 
























COLOR 

(Continued from Page 13) 
mitted by the filter. 

The length of a single wave of visible 
radiation is exceedingly small, so that, 
to avoid the difficulty or awkwardness of 
thinking and speaking in such small 
figures, wavelength is customarily ex¬ 
pressed in millimicrons or in Angstroem 
units. 

1 millimicron " .000001 mm 
1 Angstroem unit—.0000001 mm 

The visible range of the spectrum 
reaches accordingly from: 

400 to 700 millimicrons 
4,000 to 7,000 Angstroem units 

In the additive process of color repro¬ 
duction the individual print from each 
of the color separation negatives is illu¬ 
minated in projection by light identical 
in color composition to that transmitted 
by the corresponding primary exposing 
filter. The print itself is black-and-white 
and the different densities merely modu¬ 
late the amount of colored light passing 
through the silver image. This modulated 
light from each print is superimposed and 
additively mixed on the screen. Black is, 
therefore, obtained where all three colored 
light sources are presented from reaching 
the screen by heavy, opaque silver de¬ 
posits. White is obtained when all three 
colored light bundles reach the screen in 
equal intensities. 

In the subtractive process of color re¬ 
production the individual prints (or print 
layers) of each of the color separation 
negatives are dyed in their respective 
complementary colors and superimposed 
upon each other prior_to projection. This 
combined, multiple-dyed print is then 
projected on the screen with white light. 
Since, in this instance, each dyed com¬ 
ponent absorbs its complementary part 
of the all-color mixture of the white light, 
it follows that this type of projection is 
subtractive, which means that, where no 
dye interferes with the projected white 
light, the screen reflects white; where all 
three dyes interfere in equivalent densities 
the screen will be black, since all com¬ 
ponents of the white light are absorbed 
and prevented from being transmitted 
through the film on to the screen. 

The field of measuring colors is called 
colorimetery. One of its more recent en¬ 
deavors concerns the systematic determi¬ 
nation and classification of colors on the 
basis of measurable and reproducible 
units or factors. It establishes for this 
purpose numerical values for three speci¬ 
fic attributes of colors which determine 
qualitatively and quantitatively their re¬ 
lations and differences. These attributes 
are, in the order of their importance, hue, 
sensation and brightness. 

Color in Hue: The hue of a color is 
identified by its wavelength or its position 


relative to the spectral band of visible 
radiation, which reaches approximately 
from 400 to 700 millimicrons and, when 
thought of as a continuous band, must 
consist of an infinite number of different 
hues. The human eye can, at best distin¬ 
guish about 200 hues, so that we may say 
that our eye can see a difference in two 
colors as long as the difference in their 
hue it not less than 1.5 millimicrons. 

Color Saturation : This attribute of 
color is an indicator of its purity. A dye 
of spectral purity would have 100% sat¬ 
uration. White has zero saturation. The 
amount of dilution with white determines, 
therefore, the degree of saturation of any 
color of a given hue. 

Color Brightness: Colors possessing 
identical hue and saturation may still dif¬ 
fer in brightness. While hue and satura¬ 
tion are attributes which permit the quali¬ 
tative determination and comparison of 
colors, brightness is a comparative quan¬ 
titative characteristic of color, giving ex¬ 
pression to how a color affects our sensa¬ 
tion as being more or less bright. 

All three attributes, hue, saturation and 
brightness, are to be thought of as purely 
mental phenomena and not as physical 
characteristics. They are mental variables 
related to the variations in the physical 
stimulus caused by light of changing spec¬ 
tral composition entering the eye. 

General Comparison of Photographic 
Color Processes : Numerous methods have 
been devised and suggested, using either 
the additive or subtractive principle to 
photographically obtain color reproduc¬ 
tions. Of those actually in use at present 
for motion picture production, the sub¬ 
tractive method is practically favored to 
exclusion. The additive process, while 
much simpler in processing and less 
complex in the synthesis phase, presents 
two obstacles which have, unfortunately, 
prevented its wider adoption for practical 
use. These are the necessity of having to 
use auxiliary optical elements in projec¬ 
tion and the low light efficiency in pro¬ 
jecting the prints through filters and 
superimposing devices. 

The comparative shortcomings of the 
subtractive processes are to be seen in 
the complexity of making superimposed 
color prints and in the fact that the com¬ 
plementary dyes required, particularly 
cyan and magenta, have so far not been 
produced with satisfactory selective trans¬ 
mission characteristics. 

The technical development of color 
processes has been in the past, and may 
continue to be, mainly along the line of 
slow and steady progress in perfecting 
rather early conceived principal methods, 
as may be plainly seen when studying the 
history of the Technicolor process. 

The relentless efforts made in improv¬ 
ing and simplifying the technique of 
photographic color processes for motion 

January, 1949 • 



U. S. Pat. No. 2260368 


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American Cinematographer • 31 











picture production, will, no doubt, bring 
about a time when color photography is 
standardized to a degree comparable with 
present black-and-white photography. It 
offers, however, a relatively new and very 
large field to any progressive cameraman 
in the study of its psychophysical and psy¬ 
chological phases. Those who are respon¬ 
sibly concerned with the photographic 
reproduction of motion pictures in color 
should find a wealth of interesting knowl¬ 
edge and yet unsolved problems in the 
recently published book of Ralph M. 
Evans, "An Introduction to Color’’ (John 
Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, New 
York). It is well conceivable that lack of 
understanding or of knowledge of psy¬ 
chophysical and psychological color phe¬ 
nomena may soon be recognized as a 
greater source of reproductive failures 
than the shortcomings traceable to purely 
physical phases of the specific color pro¬ 
cess used. 

We see that color as a science has a 
rather complex structure. In being con¬ 
fronted with a complex problem, we may 
either react to it by throwing up our 
hands and turning our backs, or we may 
become fascinated. Either attitude is un¬ 
derstandable and justified as long as one 
has his choice. The professional cinema¬ 
tographer today is faced with a public 
demand and commercial orders asking 
that he provide pictorial records in actual 
colors and it seems, therefore, that he had 
better attempt to feel highly fascinated 
by the problem of color. 


MAGNETIC RECORDER 

(Continued from Page 14) 

therefore Roos insists that all mechanical 
parts of the Hallen recorder be precision 
made—all shafts and gears hardened, 
ground and lapped. All parts which come 
in contact with the coated film are made 
of non-magnetic stainless steel. 

Roos states that economy in produc¬ 
tion of the recorder results from adopting 
war time measures of the aircraft in¬ 
dustry, which let out its precision ma¬ 
chine parts manufacturing to small, de¬ 
pendable machine shops with skilled 
staffs expertly supervised. Most of the 
parts for the Hallen recorder are being 
manufactured by these' same machine 
shops, which are located in the Burbank 
area as a result of the heavy concentra¬ 
tion of motion picture and aircraft in¬ 
dustries there. The parts are then assem¬ 
bled in the Hallen factory on West Olive 
street in Burbank. 

The recorder’s amplifiers are also built 
and tested outside the Hallen assembly 
plant in a well known laboratory headed 
by three of the West’s outstanding elec¬ 
tronics engineers. This laboratory has 

32 • American Cinematographer 


every known type of electronics testing 
equipment and is responsible for the high 
degree of recording perfection attained 
by the Hallen recorder. For instance, the 
quality of the sound is such that there 
is virtually no loss in re-recording to film. 
Range of the amplifier is 40 to 10,500 
cycles, plus or minus 2db. Sound experts 
have stated that the recorder has the high¬ 
est degree of "presence’’ of any mag¬ 
netic recorder tested thus far. 

Roos built and discarded at least fif¬ 
teen differet kinds of electric motors be¬ 
fore he found one suitable for driving 
the recorder. Many of the motors tested 
heated up excessively under prolonged 
use, ran at inconsistent speeds, showed 
marked pulsation, or lacked sufficient 
power. The motors now in use, accord¬ 
ing to Roos, are specially designed and 
built for the recorder, and are the coolest 
and smoothest running motors available. 

Inasmuch as the mechanism of a re¬ 
corder of this type must be "free run¬ 
ning’’ to produce the maximum quality 
sound, the matter of lubrication came in 
for particular attention. Roos tested more 
than 20 different lubricants for the motor 
gear box before one was found that would 
perform perfectly under all weather con¬ 
ditions. The gears now run in a sealed 
bath of oil which is unaffected by ex¬ 
tremes in temperature. 

On the electronics side, the shielding 
of the recording and pickup heads at first 
posed quite a problem. This was finally 
licked, however, by using the new Mu 
metal annealed in hydrogen. Dubbing 
heads are now being prepared and soon 
will be available, making it possible to 
mix voice, music and sound effects on 
the one sound track. 

The recorder is made for use with 
standard 110-115 volt A.C. current. How¬ 
ever, to facilitate use of the recorder in 
any location and in any place in the 
world, the Hallen Corporation makes 
available on special order a portable, bat¬ 
tery-driven power supply capable of 
driving a Mitchell camera and the re¬ 
corder simultaneously in sync. So that the 
recorder may be used in countries where 
220 volt circuits are standard, a step- 
down transformer is available reducing 
the 220 volt source to 110. 

Len Roos, who has been a member of 
the American Society of Cinematogra¬ 
phers for 25 years, and one of the few 
cinematographers who is also a Fellow 
in the Royal Photographic Society, has 
probably devoted more study and experi¬ 
mentation to sound, as applied to motion 
pictures, than any other cinematographic 
specialist. As a motion picture photogra¬ 
pher, he is in an ideal position to know 
the specific sound recording needs of the 
movie maker; as a sound specialist, he 
has the benefit of the cinematographer’s 

• January, 1949 


viewpoint. Thus he was able to develop 
to perfection a magnetic recorder pecul¬ 
iarly adapted to the needs of the film 
maker at a time when the advantages of 
magnetic recording is just beginning to 
be appreciated by producers of films for 
television, as well as those who make 
films for theatrical distribution. The Hal¬ 
len recorder, however, is not limited to 
the motion picture field, although it was 
engineered especially for it. Its absolute 
synchronous mechanism also makes it 
ideal for radio and delayed broadcasts, 
and its generous film width makes it es¬ 
pecially favorable for radio program pro¬ 
duction because of the ease in editing 
that the wider tape affords. 

Also in production by Hallen Cor¬ 
poration is a recorder using quarter-inch 
oxide coated tape. This machine, as well 
as the 17!/2mm. film recorder, is available 
for demonstration at the Hallen show¬ 
rooms in Burbank. 


CHANGING TRENDS 

(Continued from Page 11) 

ress—but many others have been purely 
artistic, and have resulted from the ever¬ 
present desire of cameramen to find more 
dramatic and more interesting ways to 
tell the screen story. 

One of the most basic steps forward 
was the introduction of camera move¬ 
ment as basic technique. Hitherto, the 
camera had been a static spectator and 
the action had to be staged in a stilted 
manner in order to stay within the rigid 
limits of the camera angle. It was when 
the camera itself began to move that mo¬ 
tion pictures really became moving pic¬ 
tures. 

Many of the new techniques, when 
first discovered, were overdone. Diffusion, 
for example, was carried to fantastic 
lengths in the enthusiasm that followed 
the discovery that a bit of gauze over the 
lens could make a grandma look like an 
ingenue. For a while everything and 
everybody was diffused, and heroines be¬ 
came so ethereal that they appeared to 
have been spun out of ectoplasm. But 
the cameramen had their fling and then 
learned how to really use diffusion. To¬ 
day, diffusion is still very much a part of 
cinematography, but it is so subtly and 
so perfectly applied that it adds a great 
deal to a photoplay without being thea¬ 
trical. 

A constant challenge to the camera¬ 
men has been the various cycles of 
motion picture subject matter which the 
studios have had to concentrate upon 
from time to time in order to satisfy the 
mercurial preferences of the movie-going 
public. There was the slapstick or Mack 
Sennett cycle, the Western cycle, the 




gangster cycle, and many others. The 
phenomenal success of "Gone With the 
Wind started a cycle of historical epic 
dramas in photography form which in¬ 
cluded "Forever Amber,’’ "The Foxes of 
Harrow," "Captain From Castile," and 
Prince of Foxes (which is currently 
being photographed in Italy by Leon 
Shamroy, A.S.C.). 

We are just now emerging from a 
whole series of psychological films, many 
of which featured really inspired pho¬ 
tography. Notable among these are 
"Spellbound,” "The Lost Weekend," 
"Nightmare Alley,” and "The Snake 
Pit. Duel in the Sun” signaled the 
start of a new cycle, the epic Western— 
and as a result we will see in the coming 
year such outdoor sagas as "Red River,” 
Blood on the Moon,” "Yellow Sky,” 
and "Whispering Smith.” All of these 
films, plus several others now in produc¬ 
tion, are Westerns only in the sense that 
the action takes place in Western locales 
and feature characters in boots and Stet¬ 
sons. They are, in terms of production 
value, a far cry from the "shoot ’em up” 
that is greeted with whistles and the 
crunch of popcorn by Saturday afternoon 
juvenile audiences. The photography in 
these erstwhile cow-operas is unusually 
artistic. 

Through all of these various cycles of 
entertainment preference, the Director of 
Photography has had to adapt and re¬ 
adapt his basic photographic techniques 
to complement as closely as possible the 
mood and story requirements of each 
type of film. He has no one set style, for 
the style must change with the artistic 
requirements of each individual script. 
In the historical film the cameraman 
must suggest the glamour of a bygone 
age, while still retaining an atmosphere 
of reality. In the psychological film he is 
called upon to make his camera subjec¬ 


tive—virtually to crawl inside a charac¬ 
ter’s mind and provide a window for the 
whirling emotions imprisoned there. In 
the super-western it is his job to make 
the scenery look pictorial and the char¬ 
acters virile. He must bring all outdoors 
into the theatre, without letting the scen¬ 
ery overwhelm the action. 

The present trend in cinematography 
is toward greater realism. The docu¬ 
mentary technique has been used with 
poignant effect in films like "13 Rue 
Madeleine,” "Call Northside 777,” and 
"Naked City.” All of these possess a 
documentary quality, but they also have 
a technical smoothness that is the result 
of many years of studio experience on 
the part of the cameraman. Several pic¬ 
tures, notably "Street With No Name” 
and "Johnny Belinda,” were shot partially 
in actual locations and partially in the 
studio. It is a tribute to the Director of 
Photography on such films that it is im¬ 
possible to tell where the location foot¬ 
age leaves off and the studio footage 
begins. 

The demand for more realistic back¬ 
grounds has taken Hollywood camera 
crews to some far-flung locations. "A 
Foreign Affair” and "Berlin Express” 
were shot mainly in Germany. "The 
Search” was filmed in Czechoslovakia. At 
the moment, Stanley Cortez, A.S.C., is 
shooting "Man on the Eiffel Tower” in 
Paris; Russell Harlan, A.S.C., is filming 
"I Was a Male War Bride” in Germany; 
and Jack Cardiff, A.S.C., is shooting Al¬ 
fred Hitchcock’s "Under Capricorn" in 
England. 

This sort of location filming is a good 
thing for the industry because it adds an 
authenticity that only realistic back¬ 
grounds can provide. Another healthy 
trend in cinematography is the gradual 
adoption by a majority of cameramen of 
[Continued on Next Page) 


THE CARE AND PRESERVATION OF LENSES 


(Reprinted from the American Cinematographers’ Handbook and Reference Guide, 
written and compiled by Jackson J. Rose, A.S.C.) 


A PHOTOGRAPHIC lens is a precise 
optical instrument, and will provide a 
life-time of useful service, but one must 
observe commonsense precaution in its 
handling. 

Do not wipe lenses carelessly with any 
available rag, handkerchief or tissue paper. 
For the removing of dust, grit, sand, etc., 
brush lenses with a fine camel’s hair 
brush. Never touch the glass if you can 
possibly avoid doing so, but handle by the 
mount. Should fingerprints or grease spots, 
nevertheless, show on the lens surface, 
remove them in the following manner:— 
Dip a swab of well-washed linen lightly 


in pure grain alcohol or ether, and clean 
the lens gently with it. Avoid touching the 
lacquered metal rims or mounts in this 
operation, as the action of the chemicals 
may affect the lacquer. To polish the lens 
use a soft, clean, lintless cloth or specially 
prepared lens tissue. 

Do not keep your lenses uncovered. 
Protect them from excessive heat, humid¬ 
ity and dampness. Use metal lens caps 
which protect them from dust as well as 
other dangers. 

Should it be necessary to unscrew lens 
elements from the mount, be certain to 
replace them correctly. 


AKELEY CAMERA, Inc. 

175 Varick Street 
New York 14, New York 

—Established 1914— 

Designers and manufacturers of silent 
and sound motion picture cameras 
with 225° shutter opening, (288° 
shutter opening for television use) , 
gyro tripods and precision instruments. 

Complete engineering and machine 
shop facilities for experimental work, 
model and production runs. 

Inquiries Invited 


RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE 

Rents . . Sells . . Exchanges 

Everything You Need for the 

PRODUCTION & PROJECTION 

of Motion Pictures Provided 
by a Veteran Organization 
of Specialists 

35 mm.16 mm. 

Television 


IN BUSINESS SINCE 1910 


729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Cable Address: RUBYCAM 



it takes only 

pennies 


to protect your 
prints — dollars to re¬ 
place them. Insist on the 
one and only, the reliable 
and proven 



PEERLESS FILM TREATMENT 


/ i-rnt CCC FllM PRO CM SING 
CCKLljj corporation 

165 WEST 46th STREET, NEW YORK 19, N. Y. 



GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 


164 N. Wacker Dr., Dept. A , Chicago 6, III. 






January, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


33 

























Classified Advertising 

Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per 
D ATCQ* agate line (12 agate lines per inch). No discounts on classified advertising. 

* Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE 


FOR SALE 


BASS OFFERS BARCAINS 

SPECIAL—Brand new Professional Jr. friction head 
pan and tilt tripod, complete with case. Save 
$40.00. Regular $190.00 price including all 


taxes. Our price .$150.00 

35mm. Eyemo, 3-speed, Cooke F:2.5 

lens, case .$235.00 


B. & H. Eyemo, Air Corps A-4-A Model, 3- 
speed, 1" wide angle F:4.5 fixed focus, 2" Ey- 
max F:2.8 focusing, 6" Eymax F:4.5 focusing, 
10" F:4.5 Eymax focusing, filters, variable opti¬ 
cal view finder, carrying case .$595.00 

New 16mm. Auricon Single System Sound, com¬ 
plete outfit including power pack, battery, 

amplifier, tripod, etc.$1725.00 

400-ft. inside magazine DeBrie with 2" Tessar 
F:3.5 lens, case and four magazines ....$165.00 
WRITE YOUR WANTS . . . BASS MAY HAVE 
IT FOR LESS. CINE HEADQUARTERS FOR 38 
YEARS. BUY, SELL AND TRADE. 

BASS CAMERA CO. 179 W. MADISON ST.. 

CHICAGO, 2, ILL. 


FACTORY INSPECTED REBUILT SPECIAL EYEMO 
CAMERAS. Wide selection. Many with magazine 
and motor adaptation. Also Eyemo accessories. 
Write today for complete information.— 


SPECIAL CINE LENS BARGAINS FOR EYEMO: 

1" F4.5 B&H Wide Angle coated 

focusing mount ..$ 74.50 

2" F3.5 Ektar coated focusing mount.. 64.50 
BARGAINS IN CINE LENS FOR MITCHELL 16: 
16mm. FI.9 Schneider Wide Angle 

coated .... 139.50 

1" FI.4 Carl Zeiss Biotar coated. 169.50 

1" FI .4 Carl Zeiss Sonnar coated. 179.50 


World’s largest lens stock. We can supply it. 
Catalog free for the asking. Send this ad to 

BURKE AND JAMES. INC. 

321 South Wabash Ave. 

Chicago, III., U.S.A. 

ATTN.: B. Smith 


NOW—HALF PRICE 

35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
'910 


(AE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment. 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera & Film Exchange, 68 West 48th Street. 
New York 19 N Y 


CINEPHON WITH RACK-OVER focusing, auto¬ 
matic dissolve, 5 coated Tachar lenses, 7 maga¬ 
zines. Ideal for Travel and Documentary Films. 
$2,800.00. Arriflex, late number, coated Zeiss 
lenses, special tripod. $1,600.00. Trades con¬ 
sidered. Carl Nelson, 164-12 110th Road, Ja¬ 
maica, N. Y. 


GIGANTIC PACKET ILLUSTRATED LISTS INCLUD¬ 
ING SPORTS, ADVENTURE. TRAVEL ALL SUB- 
IECTS 10c B & C FILM SERVICE DEPT J 561 
MICHIGAN DETROIT 26 MICHIGAN 


HOUSTON 16mm. continuous printer sound & si¬ 
lent 500' capacity as new, prints 30' a minute, 
cost $650. Sell for $350. Harry Wedgewood, Old 
Lake Shore Rd., Lakeview, N. Y. 

COMPLETE LINE of amateur and professional cine 
eau ; pment and lenses. Write for free bulletin. 
CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 N. Cahunega, 
Hollywood 28. HEmpstead 7373. 


NEWMAN-SINCLAIR, runs 200 ft. one winding; 
3 Ross lenses; focus through gate; 3 maga¬ 
zines, $900.00. 

ARRIFLEX, 3 Zeiss coated lenses, 3 magazines, 
case Arriflex tripod, $1,200.00. 

AKELEY NEWSREEL, 4 magazines, 3 matched 
lenses, tripod, $550.00. 

EYEMO—Model Q -—24 volt motor; 25, 50, 100, 
150mm. lenses; positive finder, magazine adap¬ 
tation, case, like new, $950.00. 

PAN ASTRO lenses, 40, 50. 75mm., in Mitchell 
mounts, $80.00 each. 40mm. Cooke Speed 
Pancro, $125.00. 

Will accept in trade Bell & Howell Head Unit I 

shuttle or other equipment. 

F.M.P., 106 Washington Place, New York 14, N. Y. 

35MM. EYEMO, Model M, Compact Turret, wide 
angle 2-inch and 3-inch lens. $500.00. Oscar 
Goodman, 950 Ponce de Leon Ave. NE, Apt. 6, 
Atlanta, Ga. 


CAMERA & SOUND MEN 

SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Camera and sound men. artistically and scien¬ 
tifically skilled, well-equipped MODERN 
1200 Square Feet SOUND STUDIO, 
ideally suited for Television work. High-fidelity 
play-back. Stage set construction. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook Connecticut 
90 minutes from New York City 
Teleohone: Newtown 581 
Ask for rates. 


WANTED 


WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B&H, EYEMO. DEBRIE. AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 

STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


STUDIO Lot to Final Shot—SOS has it—Blimped 
35mm. Askania Studio Camera, 3 lenses, 4 mag¬ 
azines, synchonous motor, rebuilt, $995.00; 
Neumade combination 16/35mm. Automatic 
Film Cleaner, $350.00 value, $194.50; Giant 
Spotlite Tripods 8' high, $9.95; Belhowell 
16mm. Filmscoring Viewers, Gov’t, cost $300.00, 
$59.50; Unit Eye Shuttle for Belhowell, $650.00; 
Bardwell McAlister 5000W floodlites, $111.75; 
Dinkie Inkies, $11.95; Baby Keglites, $54.75; 
Baby Boomlites, $114.50; 2000W Junior Spots, 
$129.50; Double Broads, $114.65; 1/1 2HP 1 1 0V 
Synchronous Motors, new, $57.50; B. Maurer 
Variable Density Recording Outfit, $2275.00; 
35mm. threeway Sound Moviola, rebuilt, 
$895.00. Send for Sturelab Catalog Supplement. 
DEPT, f—S. O. S. CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORA¬ 
TION, 602 W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


LABORATORY SERVICES 


TWO ENLARGEMENTS and neeative from your 
movie film. Send frames and $1.00. Curio-photo, 
1187 Jerome Ave., New York 52. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


the more direct and dynamic lighting ap¬ 
proach. Such directors of photography of 
the A.S.C. as Woody Bredell, James 
Wong Howe, and Russell Metty, have 
for years advocated simpler lighting set¬ 
ups, fewer lighting units, and lighting 
that has greater depth and dimension. 
Now, thanks to these men, the industry 
is following these techniques and permit¬ 
ting dramatic lighting to come into its 
own. In these days of industry-wide econ¬ 
omy, the cameramen are contributing 
their full share toward cutting production 
costs by using simpler but more imag- 
inactive lighting setups. This in turn has 
reduced the number of large and costly 
sets required. 


BULLETIN BOARD 


IContinued from Page 4) 


ster’s Behind the Lens’’ radio program 
dealing with photography as a hobby and 
originating on KNX, Hollywood. Du¬ 
Pont’s "Cavalcade of America” program 
for September 20th paid tribute to the 
cinematographic artistry of Joseph Biroc, 
A.S.C., Similar accolade for Nick Mu- 
suraca. A.S.C. was tired by DuPont on 
an earlier program. 

• 

CLEN MacWILLIAMS, A.S.C. is preparing 
his second 16mm. film production which 
will depict the remarkable work being 
done bv the Morning Glory Kindergarten, 
a unique school which teaches sightless 
kiddies Braille and otherwise starts them 
on the road to learning at kindergarten 
age. While on a northern trip, MacWil- 
liams happened to read a casual newspaper 
item about the school, visited it, and saw 
possibilities for furthering its good work 
via a fund-raising film. Script has been 
approved and shooting scheduled to start 
in January. 


CURRENT 

ASSIGNMENTS 


(Continued from Page 6) 


• Irving Glassberg, "Arctic Manhunt,” with 
Mikel Conrad and Carol Thurston. Ewing Scott, 
director. 

• Russell Metty, "The Lady Gambles,” with 
Barbara Stanwyck and Robert Preston. Michael 
Gordon, director. 

• William Daniels, "Illegal Entry,” with 
Howard Duff, Marta Toren and George Brent. 
Frederick deCordova, director. 

• Irving Glassberg, "Yes Sir, That’s My 
Baby!” with Donald O’Connor and Gloria De- 
Haven. George Sherman, director. 

Warner Brothers 

• ELWOOD Bredelu, "Happy Times,” (Tech¬ 
nicolor) with Danny Kaye and Barbara Bates. 
Henry Koster, director. 

• Wilfrid Cline and Bob Burks, "Task 
Force,” with Gary Cooper, Wayne Morris and 
Julie Brennan. Delmar Daves, director. 






34 


American Cinematographer 


January, 1949 









































He interprets with light*.. 


• This scene, from the moment of its con¬ 
ception, had dramatic possibilities. But it 
was the director of photography who made 
them more than possibilities. 

His was the creative skill, the spectacu¬ 
lar, interpretive use of light that produced 
actual drama, vivid, gripping . . . his the 
perceptive use of photography that made 
the scene an intense moment of visual 
reality. 


To get the utmost from his special skill, 
his creative ability, the director of photog¬ 
raphy naturally wants a superior film, one 
on which he can depend, one perfectly 
suited to the conditions and circumstances 
under which he’s working. That’s why he 
so often prefers Eastman Plus-X for gen¬ 
eral studio and outdoor use . . . and why 
he turns to Eastman Super-XX for use 
under adverse lighting conditions. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 


J. E. BRULATOUR, 
FORT LEE • 


INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
• HOLLYWOOD 


CHICAGO 







Two New Sound Film Projectors 


New One-Case Filmosound 

The last word in compactness and easy 
portability. The 6-inch speaker may be 
placed near the screen—or operated right 
in the projector unit as shown above. 

New Academy Filmosound 

With its larger speaker (your choice of 
8-inch or 12-inch) built into a second case, 
this model provides additional audience¬ 
handling capacity. Like the One-Case 
model, it has the highly perfected B&H 
optical system using a 1000-watt lamp, 
as well as the ease of operation and the 
lasting dependability for which Filmo- 
sounds are so famed. 

Every Filmosound is guaranteed for life! 
During life of product, any defects in 
workmanship or material will be reme¬ 
died free (except transportation). 


... each a true 

Bell & Howell 
BLUE BLOOD! 

Yes, the maker of the widely preferred 
Filmo motion picture equipment has done 
it again! Bell & Howell has introduced 
two lighter, more compact, lower priced 
16mm sound film projectors . . . without 
sacrifice of traditional B&H quality. Like 
the familiar, higher-powered Filmosounds, 
each of the two new models is the blue 
blood of its class. Each offers double the 
sound output of other small sound film 
projectors. 


Write for Full Details on anything in motion picture 
equipment. Bell & Howell Company, 7148 
McCormick Road, Chicago 45. Branches in New 
York, Hollywood, and Washington, D. C. 





















LEONARD CLAIRMOKT 


$3.00 YEARLY JH U. S 


FEBRUARY 











L _ 

r a i 

1 

i i i 

f. 1 

l • 1 


la] 

f 

a U 


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CINEMATOGRAPHERS in many leading studios highly endorse 
Du Pont "Superior" 2 Motion Picture Film. It is an all-purpose 
negative stock renowned for its speed and extreme wide latitude. 
Meets practically every lighting requirement. . . high- or low-key . . . 
e\en when conditions are adverse. E. I. du Pont de Nemours N Co. 
(Inc.), Photo Products Department. Wilmington 98, Delaware. 
New York—Chicago—Los Angeles. 

c* C> 


DU PONT MOTION PICTURE FILM 


#PH) 


U. 5. PaT. Or» 


BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING . . . THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



Tune in Du Pont “CAVALCADE OF AMERICA” 
Monday nights—NBC Coast to Coast 





















16mm and 8mm SPLICER 


For amateur or professional, here’s a new-type splicer . . . 
for 16mm or 8 mm . . . sound or silent . . . color or black- 
and-white film. Gives you a film-saving straight cut at the 
frame line. And lowest visibility. Splice is only .070" wide! 

Beautifully compact, the new FILMO-PRO is a versa¬ 
tile, one-operation, semi-automatic machine occupying 
only ly x iy 2 " x 4%" of bench space, and weighing but 
five pounds. Will take B&H Heavy-duty 16mm Rewinds, 
as shown above. 

Innovations on the FILMO-PRO include a Carboloy- 
tipped scraper . . . good indefinitely, without resharpening. 
Blade-holder and support arm are integral parts of the 
machine. No need to pick up scraper block manually. After 
cement is applied, FILMO-PRO shears both ends of the 
film and applies mechanical pressure automatically. Heater 
in the base shortens setting time. After scraping, simply 
release scraper support. Both hands remain free for wind¬ 
ing film and clamping scraper blades. 

New FILMO-PRO Splicers are available for shipment 
now. Write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick 
Road, Chicago 45. Branches in New York, Hollywood, 
and Washington, D. C. 


Precision-Made by 

Bell & Howell 

Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 


B&H PROFESSIONAL PORTABLE . . . 35mm-16mm 

Straight-across frame line cut, 
base heater, Carboloy-tipped 
scraper blades... all the outstand¬ 
ing features of the FILMO- 
PRO Splicer (above) have been 
adapted to 35mm-16mm editing 
in this new . . . and portable pro¬ 
fessional model. Occupies 10L£" 
x 8 L 2 " x 4%" of bench space. 
Weighs only 12 pounds. Write 
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CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS 
OF A.S.C. MEMBERS 

Major film productions on which members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers were en¬ 
gaged as directors of photography during the 
past month. 

★ ★★★★★★★ 
Columbia 

•Burnett Guffy. "All the King’s 
Men," (Robt. Rosson Prodn.) with Brod¬ 
erick Crawford and Joanne Dru. Robert 
Rosson, director. 

•Charles Lawton, Jr., "Hounded" 
with George Raft, Nina Foch and George 
MacReady. Ted Tetzlaff, director. 
•Charles Lawton, Jr., "Tokyo Joe,” 
(Santana Prodn.) with Humphrey 
Bogart, Florence Marley, Alexander Knox, 
Sessue Hayakawa. Stuart Heisler, director. 
°IRA Morgan, Blazing Trail," with 
Charles Starrett, Smiley Burnette and 
Marjorie Stapp. Ray Nazarro, director. 

independent 

•Lee Garmes. Roseanna McCoy,” 
(Goldwyn-RKO) with Farley Granger 
and Joan Evans. Irving Reis, director. 
•Paul Ivano. "The Great Speculator," 
(Skyline-Film Classics) with Charles 
Ruggles, Peggy Ann Garner, Richard 
Ney, Alan Mowbray, Buster Keaton, et 
al. Richard Oswald, director. 

M-C-M 

•Charles Rosher. "Neptune’s Daugh¬ 
ter," (Technicolor) with Red Skelton 
and Esther Williams. Edward Buzzell, 
director. 

•Harry Stradling, "In The Good Old 
Summer Time," (Technicolor) with Judy 
Garland and Van Johnson. Robert Z. 
Leonard, director. 

•Charles Schoenbaum. "Highland 
Lassie," with Lassie and Edmund Gwenn. 
Richard Thorpe, director. 

•Robert Planck. Madame Bovary," 
with Jennifer Jones, Louis Jourdan and 
James Mason. Vincente Minnelli, director. 
•Joe Ruttenberg, "Forsyte Saga,” with 
Greer Garson, Errol Flynn, Walter Pidg- 
eon, Robert Young and Janet Leigh. 
Compton Bennett, director. 

•Harold Rosson, Any Number Can 
Play," with Clark Gable, Alexis Smith, 
Wendell Corey, Audrey Totter and Frank 
Morgan. Mervyn LeRoy, director. 
•Robert Surtees. "That Midnight 
Kiss," with Kathryn Grayson, Mario 
Lanza, Jose Iturbi and Keenan Wynn. 

Monogram 

•Harry C. Neumann. Untitled West¬ 
ern, with Johnny Mack Brown, Max 
Terhune and Kay Morley. Lambert Hill- 
yer, director. 

Paramount 

•Stuart Thompson, "Dear Wife.” 

(Continued on Page 69) 




40 


e 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 


































. . . it could start the 
ball rolling again 

The Following is a condensation of a 
timely editorial by W. R. Wilkerson printed in 
the "Hollywood Reporter" for January 6th. 
The suggestion in the closing paragraph should 
prove of interest to every professional cinema¬ 
tographer. 

"Years ago when this industry was fighting 
for a footing, a director and writer would get 
together, and in some instances a good camera¬ 
man would be brought into the planning, and 
they would combine their talents for the ma¬ 
terial of a picture and see it through produc¬ 
tion. Then, for some reason or other, the title 
of associate producer was coined to give a job 
to a fellow—relative, friend or just an acquain¬ 
tance—and this fellow gradually moved into 
production setups, with the result that today 
the writer writes what the producer tells him 
and the director and the cameraman are 
brought in when the script is finished and are 
told to go to work and get the picture out. 

"Writers complain they are hampered by the 
producer; directors, good and bad, blame their 
poor efforts on the actions of their immediate 
supervisors and still there seems to be no ac¬ 
tivity on the part of the front offices to prove 
or disprove these complaints. Of course the six 
or eight good producers who can be pointed to 
in our major plants, seem to have little trouble 
with their writers or their directors, and their 
joint accomplishments are the very things that 
are holding our business together. 

"What's wrong with going back to the old 
idea of production, giving the load to the di¬ 
rector, writer and photographer in the prepa¬ 
ration of a script and its production, with only 
one of the very top studio brass supervising 
their efforts?" 

—A. E. G. 


★ 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOCRAPHERS 

OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 
Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
Alfred L. Gilks, Second Vice-President 
William V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray Rennahan, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
John Arnold 
Sol Polito 
George Folsey 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 

ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

Milton Krasner 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 

j- ft g fgp* t-s , 52 


AMERICAN 



Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

ESTHER TOW, Assistant Editor Technical Editor, EMERY Huse 

Glenn R. KERSHNER, Art Editor Circulation, MARGUERITE DEURR 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 FEBRUARY • 1949 NO. 2 


CONTENTS 

Articles 

The Case For The Cameramen— By Lewis Adler .... 45 

Filming "The Man On The Eiffel Tower”— An Interview 

with Stanley Cortez, A.S.C. . . . . . . . 46 

Mercury Cadmium Lamps For Studio Set Lighting —By Ralph B. Farnham 47 

The Snake Pit —By Herb A. Lightman . 48 

Packaged Illumination —By Frederick Foster . 49 

The Use Of Films In Television— By P. H. Dorte .... 50 


Features 

Current Assignments Of A.S.C. Members .40 

Hollywood Bulletin Board. 42 

Cine Kinks.58 

25 Years Ago With A.S.C. And Members. 62 

What's New In Equipment, Accessories And Service ... 69 


16mm. & 8mm. Section 

Two-Camera Man — By Walter Hazlett .53 

Lens Lore— By Donald B. Calamar ........ 54 

Exposure For Titles And Ultra-Closeups— By Capt. Don Norwood . 56 


ON THE COVER 

STANLEY CORTEZ, A.S.C., took time out while photographing "The Man 
On The Eiffel Tower” at Joinville studios in Paris to have a camera turned 
on himself and his production staff. Gathered about the French Debrie 
"Super Parvo” camera are (left to right) : chief gaffer Lou Lavelli, operative 
cameraman Andre Germain, Stanley Cortez, A.S.C., production manager 
Ruby Rosenberg, an unidentified technician, gaffer M. Freddie, and assistant 
cameraman, Jean Bouvet.—Photo by Sacha Massour. 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 










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Bulletin Board 


FINAL NOMINATING BALLOTS went into 
the mails January 28th, addressed to all 
directors of photography, following the 
screening of the last of the films nomi¬ 
nated for Academy Awards for cine¬ 
matography from the preliminary list 
submitted by the cameramen. A total of 
forty-seven black and white and color 
films were submitted for consideration, 
which were narrowed down to eighteen 
—ten black and white and eight color— 
in the preliminary balloting. The eighteen 
films and the cinematographers who 
filmed them are as follows: 

Black and white: "The Big Clock,” by 
John Seitz, A.S.C.; Fort Apache,” by 
Archie Stout, A.S.C.; A Foreign Affair,” 
by Charles B. Lang, Jr., A.S.C.; "The 
Snake Pit,” by Leo Tover, A.S.C.; Cass 
Timberlane,” by Robert Planck, A.S.C.; 

Johnny Belinda,” by Ted McCord, 
A.S.C.; I Remember Mama,” by Nich¬ 
olas Musuraca, A.S.C.; "The Naked City,” 
by William Daniels, A.S.C.; Hamlet,” 
by Desmond Dickenson; Portrait Of 
Jennie,” by the late Joseph August, A.S.C. 

Color: " Green Grass Of Wyoming,” 
by Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C.; The Red 
Shoes,” by Jack Cardiff, A.S.C.; "An 
Ideal Husband,” by Georges Perinal; 

Joan Of Arc,” by Joseph Valentine, 
A.S.C.; Northwest Stampede,” by John 
W. Boyle, A.S.C.; " The Three Musket¬ 
eers,” by Robert Planck, A.S.C.; "When 
My Baby Smiles At Me,” by Harry Jack- 
son, A.S.C. 

Result of voting on ballots now in the 
mails will narrow the above list down to 
five black and white and four color films, 
from among which members of the Acad¬ 
emy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 
will select the best film in each class. 
Winners will be announced at the an¬ 
nual Academy Awards presentation cere¬ 
monies to be held in Hollywood in March. 
• 

CONSTRUCTION HAS begun on the new 

projection booth for the American Soci¬ 
ety of Cinematographers’ Clubhouse in 
Hollywood, and dedication ceremonies 
are scheduled for mid-February, according 
to Fred Jackman, executive vice-presi¬ 
dent of the Society, who, with Charles 
G. Clarke, president, and John W. Boyle, 
sergeant-at-arms, comprise the committee 
in charge of planning and putting the pro¬ 
ject into execution. Booth is a separate 
modern, fireproof structure located next 
to the clubhouse, on the south side, from 
which pictures will be projected through 
an orifice in the wall and onto a screen 
mounted on wall in the main assembly 


room. Both 35mm. and 16mm. sound 
projection facilities are provided for. 

• 

WHEN DANIEL FAPP, A.S.C., began his 
assignment, January 17th, of photograph¬ 
ing Paramount’s Red, Hot And Blue,” 
starring Betty Hutton and Victor Mature, 
event coincided with start of Fapp’s 
twenty-sixth year of continuous employ¬ 
ment at the Marathon Street studios. Fapp 
started as a film laboratory technician in 
1923 and was elevated to head camera¬ 
man in 1941, with the assignment to film 
World Premiere,” starring John Barry¬ 
more, Francis Farmer and Ricardo Cortez. 

• 

WILLIAM BRADFORD photographed The 
Necklace,” 15-minutes television film pro¬ 
duced by Marshall Grant-Realm Produc¬ 
tions for American Tobacco Company, 
which won the award for best film made 
for television” at the presentation cere¬ 
monies of Academy of Television Arts 
and Sciences held in Hollywood January 
25th. Award, which is to be made an¬ 
nually, comprises of "Emmy” a statuette 
and feminine prototype of the Oscars” 
awarded annually by the Academy of Mo¬ 
tion Picture Arts and Sciences. 

• 

JANUARY TECHNICAL MEETING conduc¬ 
ted by the American Society of Cinema¬ 
tographers featured an open forum on 
subject of the future of films in television. 
Present to answer questions asked by 
A.S.C. members were Edward Sobol, pro¬ 
duction supervisor of N.B.C., Robert 
Brown, television program director for 
same company, Bob Clarke, television 
operations supervisor, and William States, 
video control supervisor, also of N.B.C. 

In response to continued interest in sub¬ 
ject of latensification, Hollis Moyse, 
A.S.C., west coast representative for Du¬ 
Pont’s photo products department, and 
Dr. C. R. Daily, of Paramount Pictures 
engineering department, exhibited films 
which demonstrated "before and after” 
latensification results. 

Other honored guests were Preston 
Sturges, noted film director and producer, 
Edgar Bergen, A.S.C., radio and screen 
star, and Albert Smith, pioneer film man 
who organized the old Vitagraph Co. 

• 

CAPTAIN DON NORWOOD, w ho devel¬ 
oped the well known Norwood incident 
light exposure meters, now widely used 
by both professional and amateur photog¬ 
raphers, will soon announce a new, 
pocket-size color temperature meter of 
(Continued on Page 68) 


42 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 



















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1 949 



AMERICAN 



ALFRED HITCHCOCK (center) is one of few producers who values counsel of his cameraman 
in planning a picture. Hitchcock is shown here planning his famous production “Rope,” while 
cinematographer Joe Valentine, A.S.C., (2nd from right) plots lighting and camera angles on 
blackboard. 

The Case For The Cameramen 

Greater economy in shooting pictures is often 
possible, not through careless, hasty camera¬ 
work, but in wiser production planning in which 
the director of photography is given a voice. 

By LEWIS ADLER 


C INEMATOGRAPHERS of Hollywood 
are agreed that one of the important 
things the producers should consider, in 
aiming for greater economy in motion 
picture production, is closer cooperation 
with the cameramen. The history of mo¬ 
tion picture production shows that when¬ 
ever a recession has struck the industry, 
the directors of photography invariably 
are among the first to be put on the spot 
for high production costs. There’s a ten¬ 
dency to criticise instead of facing up to 
the facts. 

We hear the same criticism again about 
the cameraman whose last picture re¬ 
quired, say, forty days to shoot instead of 
the scheduled thirty. There’s the needling 
of cameramen fortunate to be employed 
to step on it”— speed up!”—and the 
tendency of a producer to do a quick 
switch to some cameraman who has 
bragged of his ability to cut production 
costs by some strange new system. 

Why is it that the cameraman becomes 
the "fall guy” in times like these? Why 
not the producer or the director, or the 
cast? Well, it happens that the camera¬ 
man is always in a tough spot, psycho¬ 
logically. It is he who makes the final 
moves in any production—getting the 
story on film. All the preliminary steps 
leading to this stage of production—the 
planning, set designing, casting, costum¬ 
ing, etc.,—all have been completed. 
There’s an understandable impatience on 
the part of production heads to get their 
brainchild on film and on the screen. Any 
delay by the cameraman is thus magnified 
greatly out of proportion. 

So much of the delay for which the 
cameraman is blamed today often has its 
origin in inept planning and preparation 
in the first place—delays that could have 
been avoided had the cameraman sat in 
with production heads when the picture 
was being planned. 

Our producers’ shortsightedness here 
was quite clearly revealed when a Euro¬ 
pean cameraman, on his recent visit to 
the United States, related how harmoni¬ 
ously British production heads work with 
the cameramen in planning a picture 
before it goes before the camera. The bet¬ 
ter pictures that have come out of Lon¬ 
don studios recently show this, as we have 
seen in such productions as Hamlet,” 
"The Red Shoes,” and the as yet unre¬ 
leased "Under Capricorn.” 

Delays on the set which so often reflect 
unfavorably on the cameraman are quite 
frequently brought about through short¬ 
sightedness in planning and by inexcus¬ 
able ignorance of the cameraman’s prob¬ 


lems. Despite the knowledge of the art 
director and the producer, it is always 
possible for the cameraman sitting in on 
a planning session to suggest many short¬ 
cuts. On the other hand, if those who 
plan and design sets have not a full con¬ 
ception of the cameraman's problems on 
the set, time wasting situations are bound 
to arise when it comes time to shoot the 
picture. 

It happens also that the cameraman is 
frequently hamstrung by the personal 
foibles of many stars and directors. Some 
stars and featured players have provisions 
in their contracts with the studios stip¬ 
ulating they may use the makeup of their 
choice. What this so often involves is a 
dispute over unbecoming makeup, which 
results in a delay in the shooting. Many 


times after a study of the daily rushes 
clearly shows how wrong a player is in 
insisting on certain makeup, it is the 
cameraman’s lighting that is blamed. 
What the player, and his or her sym¬ 
pathizers are unaware of, of course, is that 
often different combinations of lights and 
type of film will alter the photographic 
results of makeup. 

Directors, too, are often responsible 
for costly delays. Some will shoot from 
five to twenty takes of every scene, but if 
the cameraman halts the proceedings for 
just a moment to adjust a light, they are 
quick to complain. Such directors are 
constantly on the spot for 'slowed pro¬ 
duction and often succeed in passing the 
buck to the cameraman. Those in the 
(Continued on Page 65) 




February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


45 









ATOP Paris’ Eiffel Tower, Stanley Cortez (foreground) shoots dramatic scenes 
for the man-hunt sequence in “The Man On The Eiffel Tower.” At left is 
Korganoff, his aide and interpreter, while behind the Debrie camera sits 
operator Ney. 

Filming "The Man On 



PARISIANS were interested onlookers at every location site. Here Cortez 
is setting up his camera in a public square, where reflectors were used 
to implement the sunlight for color photography. Picture was filmed in 
Ansco Color and processed in Hollywood. 

The Eiffel Tower" 


Enthusiastic cooperation of French film technicians offsets 
power and equipment shortages encountered by Stanley 
Cortez, filming first major Ansco Color production in France. 


An Interview With 

STANLEY CORTEZ, A. S. C. 


I T'S COMPARATIVELY simple to pro¬ 
duce a color motion picture in Holly¬ 
wood, where both equipment and tech¬ 
nicians are abundant, but in Europe it’s 
quite a different thing, according to Stan¬ 
ley Cortez, A.S.C., who recently returned 
from France where he photographed 
The Man On The Eiffel Tower in 
Ansco Color. The first regular feature 
film ever produced in France entirely in 
color, coupled with the fact that it em¬ 
ployed Ansco Color extensively for the 
first time both indoors and out, made 
this one of the most challenging photo¬ 
graphic assignments ever given a Holly¬ 
wood director of photography. 

The two studios which we used— 
Billancourt and Joinville,” said Cortez, 
had been occupied by the Germans 
during the war. When they retreated, they 
sacked both studios of every available 
piece of equipment, leaving only the bare 
walls. It has been a heartbreaking job ever 

FRANCHOT TONE, one of the stars and 
co-producer of “The Man On The Eiffel 
Tower,” checks on a camera angle through 
viewfinder of the Debrie camera. 


since for the gallant French technicians 
who are trying to refurnish their studios 
with the modern equipment necessary 
to full scale motion picture production.’’ 

When Cortez first arrived in France, 


he found the equipment situation quite 
disappointing. There were not sufficient 
lights in the two studios to meet the 
requirements of color photography. But 
he promptly remedied this deficiency by 





46 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 














Mercury Cadmium Lamps 
For Studio Set Lighting 



DIRECTOR Burgess Meredith’s keen interest in the 
cameraman’s problems contributed much to success 
ot the production, according to Cortez, shown here 
explaining camera angle to Meredith. 


Ceneral Electric Company is readying a 
new lighting source offering brilliance 
and color temperature ideal for both 
color and monochrome films. 


By RALPH B. FARNHAM 

THE following is a transcript of a talk given before members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers by Ralph B. Farnham. General 
Electric Company lighting engineer, at a recent meeting of the Society 
in Hollywood.—EDITOR 


going to London and acquiring the nec¬ 
essary lamps, which he shipped to Paris 
by air. The French technicians were some¬ 
what unfamiliar with this new lighting 
equipment, but it did not take them long 
to get on to it. 

Cortez, too, was faced with new and 
strange equipment—the Debrie Super 
Parvo camera. But this camera, in spite 
of the fact it takes film with the winding 
reversed from the standard we know in 
America, proved an excellent one. 

It is mechanically superior to many 
35mm. cameras I have seen,” said Cortez, 
and its complement of excellent Cooke 
lenses was an encouraging note that 
augured well for success of the photog¬ 
raphy I was about to undertake.” 

The shortage of coal in France pre¬ 
sented still another problem, for without 
coal there could be no electricity—and 
there were days, Cortez said, when there 
actually wasn’t any. During the time he 
was in France, electric power was being 
rationed among all large commerical con¬ 
sumers by restricting use of electricity 
to only a certain number of days each 
week. In the case of the studios, both 
Billancourt and Joinville were inoperative 
two days each week because of these re¬ 
strictions. 

Happily, the two days that Billan¬ 
court studios were without power, "Cor¬ 
tez said, "Joinville studios, several miles 
distant, had it; so on those days we would 
transport our camera, lighting equipment, 
and any necessary props or sets to Join¬ 
ville and work there—returning to Bil¬ 
lancourt when the rationing edict dark¬ 
ened the stages at Joinville. 

The friendly cooperation afforded the 
(Continued on Page 64) 


44 1 T HAS always been the policy of General Electric Company to work 
| very closely with the men of the A.S.C., with studio electrical chiefs 
and with equipment manufacturers in trying to provide lighting equip¬ 
ment that will meet their needs. 

"Recently we felt that our mercury cadmium lamp had reached the 
point in its development where we should make some tests with it wdth 
color film, and find out whether the lamp itself was now ready where 
we could proceed with the next step. 

"You cinematographers have always shown a great deal of interest 
in lighting, and we felt that it would be quite worthwhile to talk wfith 
you, find out what some of your lighting problems are, and what you 
require today as a light source. We did this when we were planning 
incandescent lamps many years ago and we are doing the same thing 
this time. 

"About a year ago last September my associate, Mr. Carlson, talked 
before the local section of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, at 
which time he mentioned the British developments of the mercury 
cadmium lamp, which was an outgrowth of certain war-time activities. 
He outlined a number of salient features of the mercury lamps and some 
of their advantages and disadvantages. 

"During the past fourteen months, we have not been at all idle. We 
have first been working on a development program on the light itself. 
You realize that we’ve got to have the lamp somewhere near a working 
device before we can proceed with equipment design. We feel that we 
have designed a lamp that is fairly close to what we may eventually pro¬ 
vide to the studios. Of course, there will be a number of refinements. 

"Our next step is going to be in the matter of suitable equipment 
because, as was outlined in the technical paper that Mr. Carlson read 
before the S.M.P.E., there were quite a number of problems to be met 
at that time. I think it is well that I review them briefly and tell you 
what progress we have made. 

"You appreciate that the development of any equipment must follow 
development of the lamp. We cannot develop the equipment first and 
then develop a lamp to fit it. The equipment must evolve from the elec¬ 
trical characteristics of the lamp. 

"As I have already stated, I am here in Hollywood chiefly to make 
the tests with Technicolor. Naturally they wanted to consider the lamp s 
possibilities in making color pictures, knowing that if it satisfies the needs 
of color photography, the chances are that it will work very well with 
black and white. Those tests have been completed and I’m quite happy 
to report that the color of the light from the lamps, as we have 
been making them, is very close to that required by Technicolor. 

(Continued on Page 58) 




February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


4 






A DRAMATIC sequence of photography highlights “The Snake 
Pit” which depicts the heroine imagining herself in a deep 
serpent’s pit. Here Leo Tover, A.S.C., on camera boom, lines up 
his camera for what is to be a vertical crane shot. 


THIS IS what the camera sees as it starts to roll—the heroine 
seated among scores of weirdly gesticulating inmates of the 
asylum. The camera then moves upward . . . 


. . . leaving the mass of pitiful humanity far below. Fred Sarsen, 
of Twentieth Century-Fox's special photographic effects depart¬ 
ment, completed the cinematic illusion of a deep pit which 
climaxes this startling sequence. 


The Snake Pit 

The demand for stark realism chal¬ 
lenged the cinematic resources of Leo 
Tover, A.S.C., whose camera faced 
shocking facts to record a dramatic 
story of mental illness. 

By HERB A. LIGHT MAN 

44T HE SNAKE PIT,’ Twentieth Century-Fox’s filmnization 

| of the Mary Jane Ward novel, is being hailed by critics and 
public alike as the significant motion picture of the year— 
and rightfully so, since it brings out into the open a subject 
that has hitherto been whispered about as if it were a stigma 
instead of a curable ailment: mental illness. 

But aside from the evident social significance of the film’s 
theme, the producers and technicians are to be congratulated 
upon having delivered a finely wrought piece of cinema. ' The 
Snake Pit” is an honest picture and its theme has been honestly 
treated by the director, the writers and the cameraman who 
translated it into film. It serves, also, as an example of the 
high quality that results when technicians work closely to¬ 
gether, subordinating their own personal egos to the main 
purpose of turning out a really good picture. 

Rarely has Hollywood known such close collaboration as 
existed between director Anatole Litvak and director of pho¬ 
tography Leo Tover, A.S.C., during the filming of this off- 
the-beaten track motion picture. They were in continuous 
huddles between takes—and as a result, the film reveals a 
singleness of approach between direction and camera that 
is not only rare, but tremendously effective in presenting a 
theme which is at best difficult to interpret with force and 
good taste. 

Leo Tover, for many years now one of Hollywood’s foremost 
aces of the camera, was borrowed from Paramount by 20th- 
Fox especially to photograph "The Snake Pit.” It was a happy 
choice. His camera is exactly right for the production—dra¬ 
matic without being arty,” polished without being glamorous. 
Most important of all, it is honest in its rendering of the 
values of the script. 

"The Snake Pit” is not, strictly speaking, a cameraman’s 
picture. It is a double-barreled appeal to the emotions and to 
the intellect, that depends for its force primarily upon direction 
and acting. It offers no elaborate sets, no striking costumes, 
no floods, tidal waves or hurricanes for the cameraman to chew 
upon. And yet, Tover’s camerawork, though free of artifice, 
makes it a visually potent film. 

The photography throughout the pitcure has a graphic 
quality that is urgently realistic. Without being harsh or loaded 
down with shadows the lighting suggests that the events 
portrayed upon the screen are really happening. The eye 
of the camera faces shocking facts without blinking. It re¬ 
cords an accurate, unvarnished, dramatic history of one mental 
case out of many—and does so in a way that is visually 
absorbing. 

(Continued on Page 62) 


American Cinematograpuer 


February, 1949 







COLOR-TRAN lighting equipment was recently given exhaustive tests THE SET, fully lighted by Color-Tran units and being photographed, 

by Twentieth Century-Fox studios. Here lights are being arranged on a The result on film was comparable with that achieved when heavier, 

set, preparatory to filming test shots. studio equipment is used. 


Packaged Illumination 

New Color-Tran lighting equipment utilizes 
stepped-up voltage and regular illumination 
lamps in providing color temperature controlled 
lighting for both studio and location filming 

By FREDERICK FOSTER 


A LL THE LIGHTING equipment 
needed to illuminate the average studio 
or location set you can carry in two suit 
cases, thanks to the genius of Tom Hunt, 
of Hollywood, and his Color-Tran light¬ 
ing kits. Even more interesting, the lights 
are operated from regular 110 volt cur¬ 
rent lines—no generators are needed. The 
lights burn low while you line up the 
camera or rehearse, then are switched to 
full peak for the take. The resulting illu¬ 
mination is perfect for color photography 
as well as for black and white. 

The Color-Tran lighting outfits have 
proved ideal not only for the small 16mm. 
film producer and makers of films for 
television, but the major studios are find¬ 
ing them of practical use, too. Charles 
Clarke, A.S.C., and Sol Halperin, A.S.C., 
recently put them through exhaustive 
tests at Twentieth Century-Fox studios. 
Regular users are Columbia Pictures, 
M-G-M, and Universal. Among the 
16mm. film producers using Color-Tran 


lighting equipment are Roland Reed Pro¬ 
ductions, IMPPRO, Bray Studios, and 
Donahue Productions. Apex Corpora¬ 
tion’s cameramen Tom Tutwiler, A.S.C., 
and Bob Pittack, A.S.C., have used Color- 
Tran lighting with Monopak film in 
shooting scenes for the series of training 
films the company is producing for the 


Army. Paul Ivano, A.S.C., flew Color-Tran 
equipment to Honolulu to provide illu¬ 
mination for location shots he made 
within the lobby of the Royal Hawaiian 
Hotel. The units (Ivano used several), 
weighing less than 600 pounds in all, 
fulfilled his needs as completely as would 
(Continued on Page 61) 



INDICATING the compact and easy-to-carry features of Color-Tran 
lighting kits are these photos which show (1) case containing the 
collapsible standards, lamps and two snoots and, (2) case containing 
3 Color-Tran spots, 1 Grover broad, the Color-Tran and necessary 
cables. Next is shown the Grover broad which is equivalent to a 1000 


watt broad used in studios—and, finally, the spot light complete with 
barn doors and diffusion screen. Two snoots of different sizes are 
also supplied for use with the spot lights. The two-case unit is capable 
of lighting most small indoor sets, using ordinary 110 volt current. 
These units are shown in use in photos at top of page. 




February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


• 49 










































THE MODERN method used in most TV stations today for projecting 
films to the pickup tube is shown in this view of station WSPD’s 
(Toledo, Ohio) film department. Latest type RCA 16mm. tele-film 
projectors are shown at 1 and 2. White dotted line shows path of 
beam from projector 1 to mirror 3, and thence to pickup tube (not 
shown). Department also is equipped for intercutting slide projection 
and titles with both live and film program material. 


BECAUSE Great Britain's interest in films for television so 
closely approximates our own and because, in many instances, 
their experience with use of films has been greater than that 
of many TV stations in the United States, the follotving article 
is being reprinted from the December issue of the CINE- 
TECHNICIAN, British trade publication. Author P. H. Dorte 
is head of the outside broadcasts and films department of 
B.B.C.'s video division. His remarks should be of vital interest 
to everyone planning the production of motion pictures for 
television. — EDITOR. 


I T IS IMPOSSIBLE to forecast with anything approaching 
accuracy the part which film will eventually play in broadcast 
television, either in Great Britain or anywhere else. Only one 
thing is certain, and that is that local circumstances will exert 
considerable influence, because television broadcasting systems 
with limited local talent to tap will clearly use more film than 
will those systems which can call on the cultural and other re¬ 
sources of such cities as London. Paris and New York. 

Thus I can write with certainty only on the use of film by 
B.B.C. Television Service of the present and the near future—a 
service which has six principal uses for it, all of almost equal 
importance but not all necessarily employed to the same extent. 

The first is to bring to the home television-screen, typical 
or interesting happenings in the great outside world beyond 
the range of our outside broadcast units—and also to reproduce 
in the evening events which have been made the subject of 
outside broadcasts during a weekday when the majority of 


The Use Of Films 
In Television 

A British view of the present scope of 
television films and what the future may 
hold for them. 

By P. H. DORTE 

British Broadcasting Company 

viewers have been at work and thus unable to see them. The 
B.B.C. Television Newsreel, and B.B.C. and commercial docu¬ 
mentary films, fulfil this function. 

The second—and the one for which the B.B.C. Television 
Film Unit was originally formed—is to provide scenes which, 
for various reasons, it is impracticable or inconvenient to pro¬ 
duce "live’ in the television studios. This means, at the present 
time, establishing exteriors and also complete scenes which, in 
a dramatic production, call for rapid changes in costume or 
make-up. Later it will mean back-projection plates as well. 

The third is to provide illustrations for Talks and/or Docu¬ 
mentary programs. A talk on, say, the Middle East by an 
eminent authority on that part of the world is clearly more 
interesting, even if not more factual, if he illustrates it with 
film actually shot there. If he uses the film unimaginatively 
the whole is, of course, merely a glorified magic lantern show; 
if he uses it intelligently he can bring to the person who has 
never been there an entirely new conception of Middle Eastern 
problems. 

The fourth use of film in B.B.C. Television programs is for 
the producing of an effect which, on account of the present 
technical limitations of television, just could not be produced 
any other way. I refer, of course, to the cartoon, whether for 
diagramatic purposes or as a complete entertainment picture. 

The fifth use is to furnish television screen time when it is 
impracticable to do so by other means; to fill in when rain can¬ 
cels or curtails a scheduled outside broadcast or when, as has 
happened before now, sudden illness or an accident to a leading 
artist billed to play in a studio production makes it impossible 
to stage that production as advertised. 

The sixth and last use of the film in television is for subse¬ 
quent repeat of programs which have been first submitted 
"live’—viz. recorded television. Recorded television has so far 
only been used experimentally by the B.B.C., but it is making 
considerable headway in the United States and, with the in¬ 
stallation of new equipment at Alexandra Palace, will in the 
future doubtless have an important role to play here too. 

You may have noted that in this list I have not referred 
specifically to the feature picture, although I have implied a 
use for it as a substitute for live programs under specified con¬ 
i'' Continued on Page 60) 






50 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 



Better Pictures 

In 1949 

Will Be 

Photographed 

In Black and White 

And In Color 

With a Wide Range Of 

EASTMAN 

NEGATIVES 


EASTMAN 


Always The Best 


And-— Of Course— 

BRULATOUR 

SERVICE 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 


FORT LEE 


HOLLYWOOD 


CHICACO 



In California —To deliver two Kodachrome originals of the 1949 Rose 
Bowl Game, Walter D. Porep uses two Mitchell “l6”s on one tripod. 


In Illinois—\ ogue-Wright Studios, Inc., use Mitchell “16” to film 
full color production for the Firestone Steel Products Company. 

Professionals make News 

Throughout the world 16 mm films are achieving spectacular 
successes in the fields of Religion, Education, Business and 
ndustry, and Entertainment. New and Better production 
techniques, and truly professional camera equipment are 
contributing to the growing reputation of 16 mm films. 
First to bring 35 mm quality to 16 mm film, the MitcheH'T6” 
Professional Camera has won the recognition of producers 
who demand versatile motion picture equipment to meet 
every condition. The Mitchell "16” has the same smooth, 
positive operation, workmanship and time-proven features 
that have made 35 mm Mitchell Cameras world famous 
as standard equipment of the major studios.* 

Mitchell is proud of the important part the "16” Professional 
is playing, and is destined to play in the continuing develop¬ 
ment of new techniques in filming better 16 mm productions. 


Wh 


erever 16 mm Movies are filmed. 


In South Dakota— Reid H. Ray Film Industries uses two Mitchell “16 
to shoot different angles simultaneously in filming the “Passion Pla' 



666 WEST HARVARD STREET • GLENDALE 4, CALIFORNIA • CABLE ADDRESS: "MITCAMCO” 

EASTERN REPRESENTATIVE: THEODORE ALTMAN • 321 FIFTH AVENUE • NEW YORK CITY 17 . MURRAY HILL 2-7038 


8S% oC the motion pictures shown in theatres throughout the world are filmed with l Mitchell 

















Two-Camera Man 

Use of dual 16mm. cameras enabled Walter 
Porep to accomplish an unusual filming 
assignment of the 1949 Rose Bowl game. 

BY WALTER HAZLETT 

W HEN Rose Bowl contenders, University of California and 
Northwestern University, both wanted a complete film 
record of the 1949 Rose Bowl game in original 16mm. Koda- 
chrome, cinematographer Walter D. Porep obliged by mounting 
two Mitchell 16mm. cameras on one tripod, operating both 
cameras simultaneously. Each University could have engaged 
separate cameramen, but Porep s fame as a skillful hlmer of 
football contests had impressed the coaches of both colleges 
and both insisted that Porep was the man to record the very 
important Rose Bowl classic for them. Porep’s resourcefulness 
in providing the dual camera setup made it possible for him 
to please them both. 

In Berkeley, California, Porep specializes in 16mm. cine¬ 
matography. He became a movie photographer after an exten¬ 
sive career as a free lance still photographer. A sports en¬ 
thusiast for more than 20 years, he decided about eight years 
ago he’d like to make pictures of sports events and bought 
a Speed Graphic camera and then a 5 by 7 view camera, which 
enabled him to cover almost any type of sports event. But 
football was his favorite, and as the idea of making l6mm. 
movies of grid games caught on among college coaches, as a 
means of providing analysis and study of the players in action, 
Porep decided there was room for a good football movie pho¬ 
tographer on the Pacific Coast. 

At that time, most of the big colleges throughout the country 
and many of the high schools were making movies—or having 
movies made—of every important game in which their players 
engaged, as well as some practice scrimmages. It had been seen 
from the very beginning that such films, especially when filmed 
in slow motion, could be of immeasurable aid in coaching, by 
providing the means for analyzing players’ action on the field. 

Porep ordered a new Mitchell 16mm. Professional camera, 
which was delivered just in time to enable him to cover 
opening games of the 1947 football season. His still photog¬ 
raphy experience in grid stadiums gave him an advantage, of 
course, but Porep had not relied on this entirely. 

"I was fortunate that living in the San Francisco Bay area 
at the time,” Porep said, "was Fred MacCondray who is re¬ 
garded by many as the outstanding football movie photographer 
in the country. From time to time I had opportunity to view 
MacCondray’s movies and they were very helpful, reflecting his 
outstanding technique.” 

To be a good football movie photographer, one almost has to 



THE TWO Mitchell 16mm. cameras were mounted on a special base 
attached to the tripod and fitted with special 1000 foot magazines. 
From this vantage point cinematographer Porep photographed the 
entire game, supplying both teams with identical original 16mm. 
Kodachrome records of the contest. 


be a quarterback, according to Porep, in order to be able to 
anticipate and follow the plays throughout the game. "Of all 
the games that I have watched through my camera viewfinder, 

I think the team that displayed the greatest deception in their 
attack was University of Michigan in the 1948 Rose Bowl game. 

I was fortunate, however, in being able to follow every play 
perfectly with the camera. The coach at Michigan, for whom 
I filmed the game, later paid me a most encouraging compli¬ 
ment by stating that the movies were the finest that he had 
ever seen of a football game.” 

About 95 per cent of the football teams in the nation today 
use the "T” formation, in which the quarterback does all of 
the ball handling, and most of the faking. The more deceptive 
a quarterback may be, the more difficult it is to anticipate and 
cover his plays with the camera. Porep has filmed some of the 
outstanding quarterbacks of the nation in action during the 
last two years, including All-American Johnny Lujack of Notre 
Dame. However, far and away the most deceptive ball handler, 
according to Porep, is 18 year old Eddie Lebaron of College of 
Pacific. 

Porep photographed the entire College of Pacific 1948 grid 
schedule and as a result of his fine work, has been engaged to 
cover the College’s grid games in 1949. 

Photographing the 1949 Rose Bowl game proved Porep’s 
most challenging assignment, first because simultaneous opera¬ 
tion of two cameras was involved and second, because New 
Years day, 1949, in Pasadena was probably one of the most 
unsatisfactory for color filming in Rose Bowl records. Despite 
all this, however, Porep delivered a complete original Koda¬ 
chrome record of the game, from kickoff to final whistle, to 
each of the teams. 

To accommodate the two Mitchell l6mm. Professional 
(Continued on Page 66) 


February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


53 






FIC. 1—Typical long shot with a one-inch 16mm. camera lens. 
The perspective will change if we (1 ) move in closer with the 
camera or (2) use a lens of different focal length, as shown 
in Fig. 3, below. 



FIC. 2—Medium shot made with camera eighteen feet from 
subject in foreground. By moving in with camera, picture area 
is greatly diminished and attention centered on subject. 



FIC. 3—A telephoto shot made with camera 75 feet from sub¬ 
ject. Man is same size as in Fig. 2, but the perspective is changed 
completely. Note how background is made to appear closer to 
subject. 




Lens Lore 


You need more than one lens if you're 
going in for serious cine photography. 
Here, briefly, are some facts regarding 
wide angle and telephoto lenses. 

By DONALD B. CALAMAR 

N O AMATEUR movie maker can really appreciate the value 
of a telephoto or wide angle lens until he uses one. With 
so many telephoto and wide angle lenses being offered the 
amateur today, and with so many cine cameras being sold with 
multiple lens turrets as standard equipment, it is important 
that the cine amateur know how these additional lenses can 
broaden the pictorial scope of his photography. 

You may have only the regular lens on your camera now, 
but sooner or later you 11 come to appreciate how you could 
have gotten more professional-like shots of that parade or that 
automobile race, had you a telephoto to replace your standard 
lens; or how better indoor shots can be made, say, at Christmas 
time using a wide angle lens. 

With wide angle, normal, and telephoto lenses on your 
camera, you can change the image size on the screen and get 
the basic motion picture shots in all your movies—long shot, 
medium shot, and closeup—without changing camera position. 
Variety of angle as well as change of image size affords a fresh 
view of your subject and lends the variety so necessary to 
pictorial continuity. Where it is not practical to change position 
of the camera, changing from one focal length lens to another 
will alter the image size and thereby lend improvement over 
a continuing shot from the same angle. 

So that the difference in image size between lenses of various 
focal length be more readily understood, the field area of three 
16mm. camera lenses most commonly used is shown in the 
following table. Areas are calculated at distance of fifteen feet. 

16MM. LENSES 

15mm. Wide 25mm. "Standard” 62mm. Telephoto 

Angle Lens Lens 

Width Height Width Height Width Height 

9' 2" 6' 10" 5' 8" 4' 3" 2' 3" 1' 8V 4 " 

(Field areas are slightly smaller for the equivalent in 8mm. lenses.) 

The three lenses indicated in the table are those which most 
readily fit the average 16mm. lens turret without the need of 
removing the telephoto lens whenever the wide angle lens is 
to be used. This is often the case, however, and for this reason 
care must be exercised when purchasing additional lenses to 
make sure that the telephoto lens easily clears the field of view 
of the wide angle lens at all times. Where lenses of longer focal 
length are used, such as a 6-inch telephoto, they must invariably 
be removed when either the regular or wide angle lens is to 
be used. In some instances, the telephoto lens can be made to 
clear by merely focusing it at infinity which reduces its overall 
physical length. 

As indicated in the above chart, the wide angle lens takes 
in more picture, both vertically and horizontally, than does 

(Continued on Page 67) 


54 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 














"The only 16mm, 
projector with 
'Fidelity Control 7 


"Right,.,and that 
means top tonal 
\ reproduction 
with any type of 
16mm. sound film! 



KODAK" IS A TRADE-MARK 


SOUND KODASCOPE FB-40 PROJECTOR The amplifier delivers 40 
watts of undistorted output... twin 12-inch speakers are pro¬ 
vided to handle this tremendous power adequately. 

Because, as with all sound projection, reproduction is best when 
amplifier and speakers are driven at less than full capacity, FB-40’s 
vast potential power — invaluable when the projector is oper¬ 
ated before large audiences at high-volume levels — is 
highly important, too, when the FB-40 is used in 
smaller auditoriums for smaller groups. 


Sound Kodascope Projector is supplied in two models 
FS-10-N (pictured above) and FB-40 (below). The FS-10-N, 
with an amplifier output of 10 watts, is for use in homes, 
clubrooms, small-sized auditoriums. The 40-watt output 
of the FB-40, readily reined in for these uses, is especially 
suitable for showings before audiences of thousands. 

The features detailed below—integral with both models—- 
are those that help to make the Sound Kodascope Projector 
top choice of those who demand the finest in sound pro¬ 
jection for showings before small groups or large. 

Fidelity Control —A flick of your finger focuses the scan¬ 
ning beam, “picks out” the sound track with hairbreadth 
accuracy, whatever its position or whatever the type of 
16mm. sound film used—original, “dupe,” or reduction 
from 35mm. Operated at high- or low-volume levels . . . 
straight sound projection, or mixed with music or commen¬ 


tary . . . the tonal output is always crisp, always distinct. 
Superb optical system — A precision-made f/l .6 Lumenixed 
lens teams with a powerful 750-watt lamp to provide sharp 
and brilliant images under average projection conditions. 
And a choice of several fast accessory lenses, ranging from 
1 inch to 4 inches, makes possible a wide variety of screen 
sizes and projection “throws.’’ 

Easy showings —Everything but film and the screen is 
“suitcase-handy.” Controls are centrally located . . . easy 
to operate. Wide-opening film gate and positive latches 
simplify threading. 2000-foot reel capacity makes possible 
sound showings almost an hour long without a reel change 
. . . silent showings even longer. 

See them demonstrated —at your Kodak dealer’s. Prices: 
FS-10-N Projector, with single speaker, $500; with twin 
speakers, $565- FB-40 Projector, with twin speakers, $855 
. . . Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 


Prices subject to change without notice. 


Kodascope Projectors 


FS-10-N 

FB-40 


Sound 









Exposure For Titles 
And Ultra-closeups 

Norwood meter designer tells how 
incident light measurement insures 
better title and closeup exposure. 

BY CAPTAIN DON NORWOOD 

A TTRACTIVE titles and sub-titles invariably add a great 
deal to home movie films. They are not particularly dif¬ 
ficult to make. However it is well to be aware of a few special 
points that are involved in lighting and exposure control. 

It has been my experience that exposure control for this type 
of work is accomplished very easily with an incident light type 
of exposure meter such as the Norwood Director. 

When this meter is used for exposure control for titles there 
is no need to bother with a white card and a special film rating, 
as has been advocated in some quarters. Instead, the normal 
film speed number is used. The meter is held at the center of 
the title board, and the meter reading noted. From this reading 
the normal exposure is determined. It is a simple and straight¬ 
forward proceeding. 

One point that is important in the making of attractive titles 
is the matter of uniform illumination on the title board. If the 
illumination is not uniform over the entire area of the board, 
the resulting title will appear to have unwanted light and dark 
areas. 

It is advisable to check the illumination throughout the area 
of the board. This may be accomplished by moving the meter 



FIC. 2—Illumination for closeup table-top photography is easily 
controlled with the aid of the incident light meter used as shown. 



FIC. I—The title board area is explored by meter to determine 
uniformity of illumination so essential to good tilting. 


around to different positions across the face of the title board. 
The lights should then be so adjusted that the meter reading 
will remain constant while it is being moved around to the 
different positions. If the reading does not remain at the same 
level, then re-adjustment of the lights and reflectors is indi¬ 
cated until the desired uniformity is achieved. 

In Fig. 1 may be seen an arrangement in which the title 
board is illuminated by two photoflood lamps in standard re¬ 
flectors. The Norwood Director is hand held against the title 
board, with the hemisphere light-collector pointed toward the 
camera lens. Careful adjustment of the lights may be made as 
described earlier in order to secure perfectly uniform illumina¬ 
tion across the title board. The indicated exposure setting is 
then used on the camera lens. 

It is well to adjust the location and angle of the light units 
so that no specular reflections from the lights or reflectors will 
reach the camera lens. This can be checked through the finder, 
and also by putting the head close to one side of the camera 
and then the other side and noting the limits of the specular 
reflections from the lights. 

Table-top photography is another field where close control 
of exposure is desirable. In this field, also, it is well to check 
the uniformity of illumination throughout the area quite care¬ 
fully. This may be accomplished by exploring the area with a 
Norwood Director meter. See Fig. 2. The meter’s hemispherical 
light-collector should always be pointed at the camera lens. The 
body of the meter may be swiveled so as to permit easy reading 
of the scale at all times. 

Exposures will be those directly indicated by the meter, as 
long as the distance between subject and camera lens is at least 
8 times the focal length of the lens. 

In any kind of closeup photography the lens transmission 
may be affected by the focusing adjustment. Camera lenses are 
so constructed and calibrated that the indicated f-stop trans¬ 
mission is realized only when the lens focusing scale is set at 
infinity. As the focusing adjustment is changed to take care of 
nearby objects the relative transmission changes. In the case of 
still cameras, which have lenses with relatively long focal 
lengths, this effect may assume proportions of serious magni¬ 
tude. In the case of cine cameras the lens focal length is usually 
so short that the above named effect may usually be ignored. 
In general, if the distance from subject to camera is over eight 


56 • 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 




times the lens focal length, the effect is 
inconsequential. 

Many 16mm. cameras use a 1 inch lens 
as the standard. From the above it may 
be noted that if the distance from title 
board to camera is eight inches or more, 
the straight exposure as indicated by the 
incident light meter is quite appropriate. 

In the case of either title making or 
table-top photography, should the sub¬ 
ject be closer to the camera lens than a 
distance equal to eight times the focal 
length of the lens, special provision must 
be made to take care of the decreased 
transmission characteristics of the lens. 
Mathematical formulas may be used for 
the purpose. However, it is usually easier 
to make use of one of the special com¬ 
puters commercially made up for such 
purposes. These may be acquired at al¬ 
most any well stocked photo supply house. 

The computer described above does 
not, by itself, do the entire job of deter¬ 
mining exposure. It is a modifier only. 
The normal exposure is first determined 
by the use of the meter in the usual 
manner, then in the case of the ultra¬ 
close subjects, the normal reading is 
modified by use of the computer. 

However, as mentioned previously, 
the cine camera operator rarely encoun¬ 
ters conditions where the subject is closer 
to the camera than the critical "8 times” 
distance. In all other, more normal, work 


i, 

16mm FILM EDITING AIDS 


BY BELL & HOWELL 


1. B&H Filmotion Editor. Complete, convenient, 
speedy. Includes Viewer which shows actual 
movies on miniature screen, Model 136 
Splicer, Heavy-duty Rewinds. $151.00 

2. B&H Film Editor. Winds film either way 
through Direct Viewer. Viewer enlarges sta¬ 
tionary film frames for easy location of cut¬ 
ting points. Model 136 Splicer is included. 
400' . . . $72.00. 2000' . . . $80.00 

3. B&H Rewind-Splicer Model 72-M. Economical 
unit consisting of Model 72-L Splicer on a 
wood base with one geared rewind and one 
plain reel spindle. Handles both 16mm and 
8mm film. $15.50 

4. B&H Splicer Model 136. Makes the exclusive 
B&H diagonal splice, strong and pliable, on 
16mm silent, 16mm sound, and 8mm film. 
Base is machined for easy attachment of 
rewinds. $21.50 

5. B&H Reels & Cans. Capacity, 400' to 2000'. 
Reels are of rustproofed spring steel; have 
“touch-threading” hubs. Cans are easy to 
open without tools. 

6. Film Storage Case. Provides protective stor¬ 
age and convenient carrying of twelve 400' 
16mm films. Sturdy, metal container with 
sectional dividers and drop front. $5.00 

At better photo shops now—these and other B&H 
accessories. Or write for details. Bell & Howell 
Company, 7148 McCormick Road, Chicago 45. 



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February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


57 































AUXILIARY LENSES, used on your camera 
for ukra-closeup photography, may also 
be employed before your projector lens 
to afford wide angle projection. A 3 Vl 
diopter auxiliary, for example, centered 
at a distance of 3" in front of projector 
lens, will give an image 3 by 4 feet at a 
distance of 8 feet. 

• 

CLEAN YOUR PLASTIC title letters with 
soft cotton moistened in ordinary rub¬ 
bing alcohol. 

PROJECTION SCREENS, which have lost 
glass beads in patches may be repaired 
by spraying clear lacquer over beadless 
area with ordinary fly-spray gun, then 
sprinkling glass beads over area and al¬ 
lowing to dry. Beads may be purchased 
in bulk from most artist’s supply stores. 

• 

TO DEFLECT LIGHT CLARE issuing from 
top of projector, fold a piece of tin so it 
may be clamped to top of lamphouse, 
leaving two sides free for flow of heat. 
Where projector has round lamphouse, 
use a tin can of proper diameter and cut 
openings on two sides for escape of heat. 

• 

A 6 FT. FLEXIBLE steel tape, such as ob¬ 
tainable at dime stores, makes an excel¬ 
lent unipod support for movie cameras. 
Solder a 14 x 20 tripod screw Y%” in 
length to edge of tape case, opposite 
opening. To use, attach to camera, pull 
out tape full length, holding lead end 
under foot. Keeping tape taut will aid 
in holding camera steady. 

AN EVERREADY MOVIE SCREEN can be 

provided for your living room by mount¬ 
ing a panel, cut from a large white desk 
blotter, on the back of a large framed 
picture. When not in use, the blotter 
side remains against the wall with the 
picture hanging normally. For movies, 
simply turn the picture to bring screen 
into position for use. 

• 

IF YOU USE ALPHABET SOUP letters for 
movie titles tint them first for color mov¬ 
ies, using ordinary water colors or Tintex 
dyes. Apply color with brush and dry 
quickly. 

IF YOUR TRIPOD SLIPS on wet or slick 
floors, place small rubber crutch-tips over 
tips of tripod legs. Tips are obtainable at 
most five and ten cent stores. 


the direct reading from the incident light 
exposure meter may be used with com¬ 
plete confidence that perfectly exposed 
pictures will be achieved. 

Double exposed titles are sometimes 
very attractive. These can be made when 
one has facilities for backing up the film 
in the camera. The usual objective is to 
achieve a title having white letters super¬ 
imposed on either a still picture scene or 
a moving picture scene. 

A title like this may be made by first 
shooting the desired background scene. 
The exposure for this scene should be 
carefully determined by the Norwood 
Director meter. The lens aperture should 
be made smaller by about Va to V 2 f-stop 
less than normal indicated exposure. 

Film footages should be carefully 
noted for the length of the scene. After 
the background scene has been shot the 
film may be backed up for the length of 
the scene, while a lens cap covers the 
lens. The camera may then be mounted 
on the title board apparatus, and an ap¬ 
propriate title placed on the title board. 
The title should preferably be of white 
letters mounted on the blackest back¬ 
ground available. The exposure should 
again be under control of the meter. 
This time the full indicated exposure 
will be appropriate. Since the same meter 
has been used for both exposure deter¬ 
minations, and the meter directly meas¬ 
ured the incident light in each case, the 
two exposures will be perfectly balanced. 

The final effect will be brilliant let¬ 
tering against a slightly darkened back¬ 
ground. The result is particularly pleas¬ 
ing with natural color films. 


MERCURY CADMIUM 
LAMPS 


(Continued from Page 47) 


The lamps show a slight variation, one 
lamp from another, which is what we 
expect, because they do involve certain 
slight differences in design which we 
know of. The lamp required to give an 
accurate color match demands the use of 
a very pale pink filter before it, or before 
the camera lens, to render the desired 
color results. As a matter of fact, this 
pink filter slightly overcorrected the red 
in the spectrum. This leads me to believe 
that it is only a matter of adjustment of 
the cadmium and mercury ratio in the 
lamp, and that we can bring the light 
into line without the need of any filters 
whatever. The match is so close, and the 
filters so slight, you might say, in their 
filtering characteristics. 

"With the information that we have 
obtained from Technicolor and from 
the tests, and with the knowledge we 
have of the filtering characteristics, we 
now have the necessary facts that will 






enable us to work on the color of the 
light and get that finally into line. 

"There are several other things 
which were originally outlined and which 
still constitute real problems, but are 
further along in their solution. The two 
things that have always been brought up 
in connection with this type of lamp are 
what we call the immediate availability 
of light, and the ability to immediately 
re-start the lamp. 

"It is characteristic of any mercury 
lamp—those that we call electrical dis¬ 
charge or mercury arc lamps—that they 
emit light when the mercury vapor is up 
in pressure. They are very difficult to start 
when the mercury vapor is up to pressure. 
(These lamps are said to be "up to pres¬ 
sure" when the lamp has been lit for a 
period of time and reached its peak in 
color temperature and maximum bril¬ 
liance. Once the lamp is extinguished, 
the mercury vapor pressure remains "up” 
for an indefinite interval.—Editor) Thus 
the lamps are very difficult to re-start 
when the mercury vapor is up to pressure. 
The usual characteristics of a mercury 
lamp, such as perhaps many of you have 
seen in industrial lighting, is that the 
lamp is started of itself just by closing a 
switch, and then a matter of four of five 
minutes are necessary for the light to 
come up to full value. But if the light 
goes out, that is if the power is shut off 
for a moment, the lamp, of course, goes 
out and it will not immediately relight 
should the current be switched on again. 

"If we are going to make a lamp, or a 
lamp and its equipment, for studio light¬ 
ing, those two problems constitute very 
important elements in the design of any 
equipment or of the lamp and its equip¬ 
ment. 

"When working on the studio set, the 
lamps can be turned on perhaps a few 
minutes in advance—ten minutes or per¬ 
haps even 15 minutes—for a safety factor 
before shooting is to begin. In other 
words, the electricians could come onto 
the set, turn on the lamps and let them 
warm up. 

"Our work so far has shown that we 
can actually conserve the heat in the lamp 
by some form of enclosure and operate 
the lamp at very low wattage (between 
takes) to just keep it up to temperature. 
In other words, start the lamp and when 
the light is required, turn it up to full 
brilliance. Then when the lights are no 
longer required, we can simply turn a 
greater part of the power off. A 5,000 
or 6,000 watt lamp, say, might be oper¬ 
ated at 1,000 or 2,000 watts at the start, 
with the light intensity dropping to a 
point where it is of no photographic 
value; but the lamps would thus be kept 
warm by some form of an enclosure or 
perhaps by some type of auxiliary heaters. 
We see our way clear on that. There is 


58 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 











nothing impossible—nothing that cannot 
be solved by suitable mechanical design. 

We believe we already have a work¬ 
able answer to the immediate re-start 
problem. As I mentioned earlier, when 
the lamp is up to full operating pressure, 
it is difficult to start or light again. We 
find that by employing high voltage im¬ 
pulses, the lamp can be re-ignited and it 
will start right off at full power. There 
are a number of methods whereby we can 
attach or include impulse equipment in 
the lamp design. I will shortly explain 
about the equipment we have on demon¬ 
stration here tonight. 

Another problem that is of consider¬ 
able interest and on which I have been 
able to get considerable assistance here, is 
the type of lens required for mercury 
cadmium lighting equipment. The type 
of lens that is commonly used in both 
the arc lighting and incandescent lighting 
equipment of Hollywood studios is not 
the best for this type of light source. The 
mercury cadmium lamp has a very con¬ 
centrated light source, enclosed within a 
four inch quartz bulb. It is characteristic 
of the Inky” Fresnel lens that it is of 
short focus but designed for a rather 
comparatively large light source—inch 
and a quarter or an inch and a half square. 
The Fresnel lens used in arc equipment 



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February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


59 





























FOR HOME MOVIE FANS 


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ANIMATED 

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FOR YOUR HOME MOVIES 


TITLES THAT 
NOWf ^ MOVE 

Now! for the FIRST^\° R YOUR 
time, you can have 
rical style titles WITH FULL 
ANIMATION for your home movies. 

Why not start off every film with the 
glitter and brilliance of a professional 
film — just as you see in the preview 
films in YOUR theater! 

8 mm. 49c — 16 mm. 69c 


ASK YOUR DEALER FOR 


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EFFECTS! 



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is of long focus, made necessary by keep¬ 
ing the tail of the arc away from the lens. 
In designing this type of lens for the 
mercury cadmium lamp, we have no tail 
flame to contend with. Thus we can 
design a condenser or Fresnel lens so 
that the source can be placed close to it, 
and at the same time design it for the 
smaller light surface of this type lamp. 
That is a problem on which we have 
been receiving very close cooperation 
from the equipment manufacturers. 

As for the lamp itself, perhaps a few 
additional facts will be interesting: the 
lamps with which we are presently work¬ 
ing rate between 5,000 and 7,000 watts. 
We don’t consider the actual wattage nor 
the current requirements especially im¬ 
portant at this time. We are playing with 
a lamp, as I say, of this rating and it is 
best to confine our work to a particular 
type and get the bugs worked out of it. 
Then if more power is desired, we can 
go on up, and if you want the lamps 
smaller, we can make them that way, too. 

The lamp operates in connection with 
a ballast. The lamp itself is rated at about 
70-175 volts, and around 70 amperes. So 
you see we have something like 5,500 to 
6,600 watts and the lamp obviously can 
operate on the standard 115 volt circuits 
available in all studios. The lamp type 
we have here tonight is a direct current 
lamp. Mercury cadmium lamps can be 
made for AC also simply by altering 
the electrode design. 

The lamp operates in a horizontal 
position. The two electrodes enter the 
bulb at the sides, and the lamp is so de¬ 
signed it readily may be adapted to equip¬ 
ment that can be tilted up or down. The 
lamp stays in substantially the same posi¬ 
tion (located, as it is, in the axis of the 
lamp house). 

The equipment we have here tonight 
was put together primarily for the Tech¬ 
nicolor tests and we are not at this time 
ready to make any formal announcement 
of its availability. But it did the job very 
nicely, although it does not include the 
quick re-start mechanism, as we didn’t 
need it for the tests.’’ 


FILMS IN TELEVISION 


(Continued from Page 50) 

ditions. I could well have added that with 
the present floor space limitations from 
which Television suffers, film in gen¬ 
eral, and the feature picture in particu¬ 
lar, has considerable value to the program 
planners, who are frequently faced with 
the task of providing screen time when 
both our studios are tied up with major- 
production rehearsals and when, simul¬ 


taneously, there is no relief available 
from the outside-broadcast units because 
they are too involved in setting-up for 
the next O.B.s. This use of the feature 
picture will of course be of less import 
as more television floor space is built 
and the number of outside-broadcast 
units is increased. But the feature pic¬ 
ture will nevertheless have a permanent 
value as a complete "potted” television 
program provided always that it is not, 
as so many of them are, written and pro¬ 
duced specifically for mass audience 
reaction. 

Almost all studio cinematographers 
must, in their time, have seen completed 
pictures in their sttidio review theatres 
and later seen them projected in a 
crowded cinema. And they will agree 
with me that in nearly all cases the film 
acquired a new meaning in the cinema 
thanks to the presence of the audience. 
Those pictures if televised and viewed 
by a mere handful of people in a home 
will be judged coldly, as they were in 
the review theatre. In other words, com¬ 
paratively few motion pictures designed 
for the cinema make ideal television 
viewing, although of course their tech¬ 
nical perfection can rarely be matched 
by live television; it would be unthink¬ 
able to consider taking a given story and 
attempting to give it the same treatment 
in the television studio as it would be 
given in Elstree or Hollywood. 

Apart, however, from the lack of audi¬ 
ence reaction in the television home, 
there is little doubt that on account of 
the small screen of the cheaper television 
receiver as compared with that of the 
cinema, closeups must play a much larger 
part in television than they do in the 
commercial motion picture. There is a 
definite prescription to be followed in 
writing and shooting the ideal television 
film and, not unnaturally, the script¬ 
writers and directors of commercial films 
do not follow it. I am not trying to say 
that the average commercial feature pic¬ 
ture is not acceptable fare when tele¬ 
vised; I am merely trying to stress that 
it is not ideal television entertainment, 
and that if all the motion pictures made 
for the cinema were made available to 
us for televising, the number which we 
would select would be comparatively 
small. In connection with this there is, 
however, one more point to be remem¬ 
bered: television broadcasting is an 
admirable medium for bringing "the 
classic” into the home—classical paint¬ 
ings, classical sculpture, classical plays, 
AND classical motion pictures. And on 
this score we in Television would be 
very happy to have the pick of the films 
made for the cinema, so that we could 
select the occasional one and televise it 
for what it is, viz. a model of its type. 


60 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 




















































made not for televising but for the 
cinema. 

Is it economic for a film producer to 
make films on a considerable scale espe¬ 
cially for television broadcasting? I am 
often asked this question by film pro¬ 
ducers and I have a stock reply: No— 
but it may well be in a few years’ time 
when there will be very many television 
broadcasting systems throughout the 
world, and the majority of them will be, 
to a large extent, relying on film to fill 
their program schedules.” This, I think, 
ties up with what I said in the first para¬ 
graph of this article. 


PACKAGED ILLUMINATION 


<Continued from Page 49) 

generators and big studio lights, but with¬ 
out the tremendous transportation and 
labor costs the latter would have involved. 

There has long been a need for lighter, 
more compact set lighting units, espe¬ 
cially lights that could be safely operated 
on standard 110 volt power lines without 
creating troublesome fusing problems. A 
Color-Tran spotlight kit, comprising three 
spots and a broad, can be operated at full 
capacity on any 110 volt line fused for 
15 amperes. 

What Hunt was aiming for in develop¬ 
ing Color-Tran lighting was "packaged 
illumination” adequate for average loca¬ 
tion and small set lighting needs—ample 
illumination without the need of heavy 
lamp equipment and cumbersome gener¬ 
ators to supply the current to light them. 
The equipment, pictured on page 49, 
comes in two aluminum carrying cases, 
each slightly larger than a large-size suit¬ 
case. They may be carried easily in the 
trunk compartment or back seat of an 
automobile. 

The three spot lights, complete with 
bulbs, weigh but 10 pounds. Each has 
built-in barn doors which rotate a full 
360 degrees, and there is a slot to accept 
standard studio diffusion screens. Snoots, 
in two sizes, complete the accessories. An 
interesting feature is the way the tri- 
legged base of the standards automatically 
collapse when the lamps are lifted to 
change position—highly desirable when 
moving lamps in narrow quarters, espe¬ 
cially where there’s costly furniture that 
otherwise might be scratched. 

There are two types of kits—(1) the 
Color-Tran spot kit which includes 3 spot 
lights, 1 broad fill light and the De Luxe 
Color-Tran in one case, and 4 collapsible 
stands, 1 pair of snoots and four diffusion 
screens in the other; and (2) the Color- 
Tran Grover kit containing 2 Grover 
lights (see illustration), 2 stands and 1 
De Luxe Color-Tran. Necessary bulbs 



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Ys or 14 in. camera screw. 

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February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


61 






















• John Seitz was filming Rex Ingram’s 
production, The Arab,’ in northern Af¬ 
rica. 

• H enry Sharp was photographing 
Against The Rules,” a Thomas H. Ince 

production directed by Tohn Griffith 
Wray. 

• John Stumar was reading the script 
and making preparations for filming 

How To Educate A Wife,” for Warner 
Brothers, which William Seiter directed. 

• E. B. DuPar was signed by Warner 
Brothers to photograph Lover’s Lane,” 
and William Beaudine was signed to di¬ 
rect. 

• Herford Tynes Cowling returned 
from a photographic asignment in west¬ 
ern Tibet and related his experiences in 
an article in the February, 1924 issue of 
the American Cinematographer. 

• Cinematographers were voicing a 
strong protest against New York theatre 
exhibitors, who were reported deleting 
cinematographer’s credit titles from films 
before exhibiting them. 

• A. S. C. announced purchase of its own 
suite of offices in the then under construc¬ 
tion Guaranty Building on Hollywood 
Boulevard. In those days it was often pos¬ 
sible to buy offices outright instead of 
leasing them. 

• Max DuPont left for Papeete, Ta¬ 
hiti for a long rest to regain his health. 

• John W. Boyle, in Italy to shoot 
Ben Hur” for Goldwyn, found the stu¬ 
dios too small and lighting equipment 
very limited. Newly-made Italian friends 
had hosted him for Christmas, Boyle re¬ 
ported, stating the Yuletide dinner lasted 
from 8 P.M. until midnight. 

• Robert Kurrle and H. Lyman 
Broening were receiving lavish commen¬ 
dation for their camerawork on the Rock- 
ett-Lincoln production, "Abraham Lin¬ 
coln,” which was reported taking New 
York theatregoers by storm. 

• Norbert Brodin completed the first 
month of photography on "The Sea 
Hawk,’ Frank Lloyd’s production for 
First National. Broden enlisted services of 
Gil Warrenton, Faxon Dean and H. Ly¬ 
man Broening to film important scenes at 
sea for the production. 

8 Arthur Edeson, Phillip H. Whit¬ 
man and Kenneth MacLean wound 
up the photography on Douglas Fair- 
bank s Thief Of Bagdad, which occu¬ 
pied a 32 week filming schedule. (Imag¬ 
ine a schedule like that today!) 

• 


are included in the first outfit, not in¬ 
cluded in the second. 

The spotlights give illumination almost 
twice the intensity of standard 750 watt 
spots or flood lamps. The Grover is equiv¬ 
alent to a regular 1000 watt broad. The 
bulbs which furnish this illumination are 
standard reflector flood or spot lamps such 
as used for commercial illumination of 
store windows and displays. For photo¬ 
graphic purposes, their normal light out¬ 
put is increased by means of the Color- 
Tran transformer through which the 
power supply is fed to the lamps. The 
Color-Tran is the heart of the outfit— 
the packaged power unit by which the 
use of large lamps and equipment and 
power generators are made obsolete for 
many set lighting needs. 

Ordinary life of the bulbs is 1000 
hours. When used in conjunction with 
the Color-Tran, which kicks up the lamp's 
brilliance simply by stepping up the volt¬ 
age, their life is reduced to an average 
of twenty hours—still ample, though, 
to meet any photographic problem. Color 
temperature of these lamps is carefully 
controlled, and the flick of a switch 
affords temperature of either 3200° or 
3400° as desired. 

The following tables give some idea of 
the light value of Color-Tran illumination 
as compared with standard set lighting 
equipment: 


Light 

Distance 

Color-Tran Spot* 
(150 Watt 

PAR 38 Flood 

Commercial 750 
watt spot* * 
on flood. 

5 Ft. 

700 foot candles 

280 foot candles 

10 ” 

180 ” 

80 ” 

15 ” 

70 ” 

26 ” 

20 ” 

43 ” 

22 ” 

25 ” 

29 ” 

15 " 

*Amps required: 2% 


**Amps required: 6 V 2 



Color-Tran Grover* 

Light with 3 PAR 38 Junior Spot* * 

Distance 150-watt floods On Flood 


5 Ft. 1600 foot candles 


10 

400 ” 

325 foot candles 

15 

180 ” 

150 ” 

20 

110 ” 

90 ” . ” 

25 

70 ” 

59 ” 


*Amps required: 8 



*Amps required: 16 



Light 

Distance 

Color-Tran Grover* 
with 3 PAR 38 

150-watt floods 

Junior Spot* * 
On Flood 

5 Ft. 

950 foot candles 


10 ” 

500 ” 

500 foot candles 

15 ” 

250 ” 

250 ■ 

20 ” 

190 ” 

125 ” 

25 ” 

100 ” 

80 ” 

*Amps required: 13(4 


' *Amps required: 20 





Currently undergoing tests at Color- 
Tran laboratories is a new light which 
will provide illumination with an inten¬ 
sity equal that of a 500 watt spot light, 
but which will draw but 15 amperes of 
current. 

One feature which has made Color- 
Tran lighting equipment so popular is 
the comparative ease with which a set 
may be lit. The lamps may be burned at 
110 volts while they are being placed and 
until such time as it becomes necessary to 
take a meter reading or actually shoot the 
picture—a boon to actors, too, who no 
longer have to stand under brilliant, hot 
lamps while the camera is being lined up 
for a shot. 


THE SNAKE PIT 

(Continued from Page 48) 


Like almost everyone else engaged in 
the production of the picture, Tover was 
imbued with an almost religious zeal in 
his appreciation of the picture’s im¬ 
portance as a social document as well as 
a human drama. Along with the director 
and the principals of the cast, he visited 
and explored several state mental hos¬ 
pitals before the start of filming, in order 
that he might absorb the atmosphere 
and feel of such a place. He observed the 
inmates, their patterns of motion, and 
the effect of the light falling upon their 
contorted faces. In his photography he 
manages to exactly capture the mood of 
the type of institution portrayed. 

The director of photography’s most 
weighty problem, and one which per¬ 
sisted throughout nine tenths of the pic¬ 
ture, was having to work within the nar¬ 
row confines of the mental hospital 
rooms, wards and corridors. Rather than 
remove walls to make room for his crew 
and equipment as is customary, Tover 
kept his camera within the logical spacial 
limitations of the Juniper Hill Sanitarium 
set, in order that the feeling of confine¬ 
ment might convey itself to the audience 
and suggest the point of view of those 
shut within asylum walls. In spite of 
these limitations, however, there is camera 
movement synchronized accurately wdth 
the action of the players in such a way 
that the pace of the film moves briskly 
forward. 

Coming, as it does, at the end of a long 
and not always noteworthy cycle of 
psychological films, one might expect 
The Snake Pit" to be cluttered with 
camera cliches of the type that have be¬ 
come standard for the representation of 
mental turmoil on the screen. Unlike 
earlier portrayals of cinema psychosis, 
the film relies on no obvious tricks, but 
conveys the frenzy of its main character 
in terms of symbolism that is not only 


62 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 






































dramatically effective, but technically 
accurate from the psychiatric standpoint 
as well. 

In one sequence, for example, the main 
character has a mental relapse following 
interrogation by an unsympathetic and 
rather inept psychiatrist. In the swirling 
confusion that follows, she appears to 
be clinging perilously to the edge of a 
cliff, screaming with horror as the ocean 
churns far below. An invisible force 
pushes her off the cliff and she is sub¬ 
merged in the furiously swirling water. 
The scene dissolves back to reality to 
show her confined in a tub of warm water 
prescribed to soothe her hysteria. The 
symbolism is direct and accurate; the 
camera representation is forcefully sym¬ 
bolic. 

For the picture’s star, Miss Olivia de 
Havilland, the staging of this hydro¬ 
therapy nightmare was a physically ex¬ 
hausting ordeal. On the sound stage there 
was rigged a contraption reminiscent of 
Rube Goldberg which featured a 50- 
pound barrel of water that could be 
tipped to pour down a chute six feet 
above the star’s head, dumping a deluge 
squarely upon her as she wallowed in an 
8 by 10 foot tank. She was drenched with 
3,750 pounds of water before a perfect 
take was achieved, and had to take to 
her bed for two days to recover from the 
resultant cold and fever. 

One of the most visually impressive 
sequences in the picture is that which 
shows the main character in Ward 33, 
the lower depths of hell according to 
the asylum’s descending scale of mad¬ 
ness. She is surrounded by writhing, 
gesticulating, dancing, shouting inmates 
who rave with unbridled abandon. The 
camera moves from one to the other— 
a passionless but incisive observer. Finally 
it moves in to a close-up of the pro¬ 
tagonist as she gropes in the crannies of 
her mind to search out a simile with 
which to compare this den of human 
chaos. She recalls having read of the 
snake pits into which the insane were 
thrown in former times, on the theory 
that what might drive a normal person 
insane would shock a deranged person 
back to sanity. 

As this recollection filters through her 
mind, the camera swoops straight up to 
her standing in the midst of a writhing 
serpent-like mass of humanity. On up it 
goes until the edges of the frame become 
the sides of a deep pit, the snake pit from 
which the film draws it title. 

Executing this effect on the sound 
stage took a bit of doing. A special 
camera crane was rigged to sweep camera, 
operator and director to the very top of 
the stage; so high, in fact, that they could 
not stand up without bumping their 
heads against the ceiling. It was this 
scene that prompted the New York critics 



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February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


• 63 
















































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to speak of the beautifully mad ballet’’ 
which director Litvak and cinematog¬ 
rapher Tover created and photographed 
between them. 

It is worthwhile to note how perfectly 
the separate scenes of the picture go to¬ 
gether. Such a smooth flow from sequence 
to sequence indicates an unusual rapport 
between direction, camera and editing. 
There is a visual continuity that is paced 
by the staging of the action, carried along 
by the camera, and realized through care¬ 
ful montage of the separate scenes. From 
the audience point of view this means 
that the story moves smoothly and 
steadily along. There is never a dull 
moment, never a lag in the unfolding of 
the narrative. To coin a rather awkward 
but appropriate pun, one might say that 
"The Snake Pit’’ is quite literally a mov¬ 
ing picture. 

It would be difficult to say what one 
element gives this fine film its impact. 
It would, indeed, be impossible to credit 
such excellence to any single individual 
or department—for the creation of good 
cinema is a group endeavor, the unified 
effort of many people, the blending of 
many arts and crafts. "The Snake Pit’ is 
a triumphant example of such teamwork. 

FILMING THE MAN ON 
THE EIFFEL TOWER” 

(Continued from Page 47) 
American company was magnificent. The 
French people did everything humanly 
possible to aid Cortez and his staff during 
the power shortages. 

I would be remiss,’ Cortez says, not 
to give credit and considerable thanks 
to those men, from top French officials 
right down to the technicians on the set, 
for the tireless energy and assistance they 
contributed toward solving our lighting, 
power and production problems. My asso¬ 
ciate and chief gaffer, Lou Lavelli, assisted 
by M. Freddie of Joinville and M. Ray- 
mon Billancourt, did a noble and com¬ 
mendable job at all times.’’ 

Despite the power difficulties at the 
two French studios, Cortez managed to 
complete as many as 17 setups on some 
days; and for shooting color under such 
conditions as he encountered, conditions 
that often seemed unsurmountable, this 
may be considered a real achievement. 

Working conditions in the French 
studios differ from those we know in 
Hollywood. For instance, Cortez relates, 
they would begin working at noon each 
day and continue working right through 
until 7:30 in the evening, with only a 
brief rest period, during which members 
of the cast and crew would partake of a 
glass of wine and a jambon sandwich. 

Cortez reports that the French tech¬ 
nicians were not only eager and thorough 
workers, but anxious to learn all they 
could of American production methods, 


which they regard as the most advanced 
in the world. This is quite a compliment 
when we consider that the French are, 
themselves, producing some of the best 
and most profitable motion pictures cur¬ 
rently receiving international release. 

"My efficient staff,’’ said Cortez, "con¬ 
sisted of Tony Braun, Andre Germain, 
and Jean Bouvet. There was also Boris 
Korganoff who was my interpreter. I 
found it expedient to create an entirely 
new staff job on this production—that 
of "general assistant to the director of 
photography"—and Korganoff was the 
man who filled it, and admirably, too. 

"He had nothing to do with the 
camera,” Cortez continued, "but the all- 
around assistance he rendered me was of 
inestimable value. I’d like to sell this idea 
to Hollywood producers—that is, after 
the present production slump clears up.” 

Producers Irving Allen and Franchot 
Tone, as well as director Burgess Mere¬ 
dith and production manager Ruby Ros¬ 
enberg were very sympathetic and re¬ 
assuring in the understanding of the pho¬ 
tographic problems Cortez encountered, 
as well as of the extremely handicapping 
conditions under which he and his staff 
were often forced to work. "They were 
most cooperative and considerate at all 
times,” Cortez said. 

"The Man On The Eiffel Tower was 
adapted from the book by the same name. 
It is a mystery story culminating in a 
dramatic man hunt on the Eiffel Tower 
in Paris. The cast includes Charles 
Laughton, Franchot Tone, Burgess Mere¬ 
dith, Patricia Roc, Robert Hutton, Jean 
Wallace and Belita. Contributing much 
to the picture’s success, Cortez said, was 
the able counsel and assistance of art 
director M. Reynaud. 

Location filming took Cortez and his 
company to many of Paris' famed streets 
and boulevards, to the Eiffel Tower, and 
to many of Paris’ renowned buildings, 
cafes and parks, all of which provided 
the colorful background for the picture. 
This in itself should make the picture 
unusually interesting to American audi¬ 
ences, inasmuch as it will present in color, 
probably for the first time, a travelogue 
type of documentation of Paris and much 
of France, at the same time offering a 
gripping mystery drama enacted in the 
actual French locales. 

Perhaps the real challenge for Cortez 
in this assignment lay in the fact he 
had to start the picture "cold,” that is 
without shooting tests which would give 
him a check on lighting and makeup. 
There were no Ansco laboratories in 
Europe, at the time. Thus any tests he 
might make would have entailed a delay 
the company could ill afford, because tests 
would have to be sent to an Ansco labora¬ 
tory in the United States for developing 
and printing. But through courage, re- 


64 


o 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 


















sourcefulness and initiative the challenge 
was met. 

Thanks to Neal Nunan and Gar Meis¬ 
sner of the Hollywood Ansco Labora¬ 
tories,” Cortez said, "and to the Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer studio laboratory, where 
all the film was processed, I was delight¬ 
fully surprised at the results of the first 
rushes sent to me in Paris.” 

You may be sure,” he continued, 
that I spent many anxious days await¬ 
ing their arrival. Having returned to 
Hollywood, I have since had the pleasure 
of viewing the rest of the picture and am 
most enthusiastic about the results. I feel 
that we have given Ansco Color film 
the acid test, having put it through a 
major production under all sorts of con¬ 
ditions. It is safe to predict that Ansco 
Color film will really come into its own 
as a medium for feature film production, 
once The Man On The Eiffel Tower is 
released.” 

To Cortez, "The Man On The Eiffel 
Tower” has ceased to be a thrilling and 
unusual color film made in France. He 
has come to look upon it as an important 
medium by which we in Hollywood will 
have contributed much toward cementing 
friendly relationships between the Ameri¬ 
can and French motion picture industries 
and their technicians. 


THE CASE FOR 
THE CAMERAMEN 

(Continued from Page 45) 

front office, for reasons best known to 
themselves, will seldom openly criticise 
a director, but they have no compunctions 
about calling a cameraman on the carpet, 
once he’s suspected of braking production 
speed. It is situations such as these that 
too often develop the production office 
viewpoint that leads to criticism of the 
cameraman for conditions beyond his 
control. 

So often we have the situation where 
the cameraman of twenty or twenty-five 
years experience is working with a di¬ 
rector or producer who has recently come 
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between the knowledge of one and the 
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It takes many years of hard work and 
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photography. Even though a man may 
have become a director of photography 
only recently, he has first put in many 
years of training, working up from per¬ 
haps a film loader, laboratory technician 
or still man, to assistant cameraman and 
then operative cameraman. He qualifies as 
a director of photography by virtue of 
this vast, practical experience, first in the 



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American Cinematographer 


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issues also available. All contain valuable technical 
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motion picture photography. The December issues 
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THE AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 
1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 



66 • American Cinematographer 


fundamentals of motion picture photog¬ 
raphy and later in prolonged, actual expe¬ 
rience. 

Quite naturally he has acquired in 
this process a broad knowledge of pho¬ 
tography that enables him to skillfully 
light studio sets and to photograph them 
artfully and with the necessary dramatic 
impact. The average cameraman will 
spend from two to five years in each step 
of the ladder reaching toward the coveted 
position of director of photography— 
perhaps as many as twenty years in all 
before he is handed the photography 
directorship of a picture. In the light of 
these facts, a producer or director who 
neglects to make use of the full poten¬ 
tials of his cameraman is simply indulg¬ 
ing in incompetence. 

Any discussion of cameramen today 
invariably brings up the subject of 

speed’’—the speed at which they work 
—how fast they can make setups and get 
the takes in the can. Too often, of course, 
speed becomes a fetish of those with in¬ 
sufficient knowledge of lighting problems 
or photography; otherwise they would 
know that it takes so many lights to 
illuminate a given set and so many min¬ 
utes to place and adjust the lights in order 
to get the expected photographic results, 
and that breathing down a cameraman’s 
neck is not going to speed up the process. 

There are some directors of photog¬ 
raphy justly regarded as ’’speed camera¬ 
men,” but more often than not the repu¬ 
tation has come to them through the 
happy circumstance of working with a 
director whose sympathetic understanding 
of the cameraman’s problems has made 
speed possible. There are instances where 
a cameraman, working with such a di¬ 
rector, has brought a picture in within 
the scheduled 24 days. On his next assign¬ 
ment, with another director given a sim¬ 
ilar picture schedule, the picture takes 
thirty to forty days to shoot and invari¬ 
ably the cameramen is blamed for the 
delay. 

Not all directors, of course, pass the 
buck to their cameraman. There are 
many cinematographers who are highly 
respected by directors who lean heavily 
upon the cameraman’s ability and expe¬ 
rience in staging and photographing a 
successful production. Many directors, as 
well as stars, will not undertake a picture 
unless they can have a cinematographer 
of known ability in charge of the camera. 

As in all crafts, there are bound to be 
a few uncooperative cameramen, and per¬ 
haps the records of one or two have con¬ 
tributed to the present critical attitude 
we find today. Also occasionally we find 
the unscrupulous one—the fellow' of 
dubious skill who seeks to advance him¬ 
self by assuming a false front of ability. 
Hasn’t he, too, contributed something 

• February, 1949 


toward creating the critical attitude 
toward cameramen in some studios? 

Where a cameraman possesses genuine 
ability, it will generally be recognized 
during the course of his work. There are 
no miracles in the business of filming 
motion pictures, as most of us know, and 
the work that such men turn out under 
the label of economy or any other tag, 
quite often falls far short in quality of 
lighting, in cinematic technique and in all 
those little things that make a picture 
photographically acceptable on the screen. 

There are, of course, some motion pic¬ 
tures particularly suited to genuine econ¬ 
omy type of lighting and photography, 
but they are generally planned that way 
—pictures such as some of the com¬ 
paratively recent documentary features. 
Actually, however, this type of picture 
is not new, but merely a renaissance of 
the type of films produced thirty years 
ago. Rarely is so-called economy lighting 
and photography adaptable to produc¬ 
tions of epic proportions and cast with 
top ranking stars. 

Taking an honest view of the situation, 
it would seem that much of the produc¬ 
tion economy producers are looking for 
will become possible when they seek the 
counsel of the cameramen, take these men 
into their confidence when planning pic¬ 
tures and, finally, show genuine respect 
for their ability, their knowledge and 
artistry and their years of experience. 
Cinematography is an art and a science. 
It cannot be regimented nor placed on 
an assembly-line basis. 


TWO-CAMERA MAN 

(Continued from Page 53) 

cameras, Porep first constructed a special 
base for the tripod head from aluminum 
alloy. This was securely bolted to a "Pro¬ 
fessional Junior” tripod and the cameras 
then mounted upon it. Leads from the 
motor of each camera were channeled 
into a single switch, affording centralized 
control of both cameras. 

Special 1000 foot magazines were pro¬ 
vided the cameras especially for this 
assignment in order to insure a supply of 
film sufficient for filming a full half 
period of action without reloading. Maga¬ 
zines were then changed during the half, 
insuring a full load of film for the second 
half of the game. 

The lack of sunlight and ever changing 
light conditions occasioned by the threat¬ 
ening overcast that prevailed that day, 
caused some concern, Porep says, and 
it became necessary to take frequent light 
readings to insure accuracy of exposure 
for every foot of this important record. 

In between grid seasons, Porep concen- 



















trates on making movies of other sports. 
He invariably covers all important basket¬ 
ball games in his vicinity and last October 
he photographed a movie on golf at the 
Pebble Beach and Cypress Point golf 
courses. The film was produced by Grant- 
land Rice for Spaldings, sporting goods 
manufacturers. He also has filmed football 
movies for television and is currently con¬ 
centrating on subjects for this field with 
his camera. But come next January 1st, 
you’ll be sure to find Porep and his 
camera—or earner as. if the assignment 
demands—up on the Rose Bowl press 
box filming the 1950 Rose Bowl game. 


LENS LORE 


(Continued from Page 54) 


the so-called standard or normal lens. A 
telephoto lens, which brings things closer 
on the screen, takes in less of the scene 
area; but when this area is projected it 
assumes the same size on the screen as 
scenes made with lenses of other focal 
length. For example, suppose we are 
twenty feet from our subject and shoot 
the scene with a 50mm. lens. The image 
size on the screen will be the same as 
though we had shot it at a distance of 
ten feet, using the regular 25mm. lens 

One of the big advantages of using a 
telephoto lens, of course, is that it enables 
the movie maker to photograph interest¬ 
ing character studies of people unobtru¬ 
sively, standing some distance away. In¬ 
deed, with a telephoto lens on your 
camera, distance does lend enchantment 
in the way of some excellent, unposed 
movie shots. Every reader knows what 
happens when people are photographed 
with a movie camera at close range; they 
become self-conscious and look at the 
camera, which often contributes to some 
very uninteresting footage. 

One of the big advantages of the tele¬ 
photo lens in focusing mount is that it 
affords means of photographing small 
objects so they’ll appear highly magnified 
in screen-filling closeups when projected. 
The Wollensak 75 mm. telephoto for 
16mm. cameras, for example, will focus 
down to three feet, taking in an area 
4.2" by 3.1". The same lens adapted for 
an 8mm. camera would photograph an 
area one-half that size. 

With most Cine Kodak lenses, it is 
possible to pull out a little red plunger, 
thereby increasing the focusing range of 
the lens beyond the calibrations marked 
thereon. In such instances, however, one 
must use a through-the-lens focusing de¬ 
vice. The Eastman 63mm. telephoto for 
16mm. cameras will photograph at close 
range an area as small as 1 5/16" by 
15/16". With the Eastman 38mm. lens 
for 8mm. cameras, the smallest area that 


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valuable technical book are available to cinematographers, movie amateurs, schools and 
public libraries. 

No other book ever written contains so much data supplied by the professionals 
of Hollywood’s motion picture studios. $3.50 Postpaid 

AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1782 No. Orange Drive Hollywood 28, Calif. 


February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


67 
































can be photographed sharply is 1 1/16" 
by 13/16". 

Extreme closeup filming is also 
afforded by most wide angle lenses. The 
Bell & Howell Ansix 17mm. wide angle 
for 16mm. cameras, for example, when 
focused at three feet, takes in an area 1.8 
feet by 1.3 feet. The same lens, how¬ 
ever, will focus as close as 10 inches at 
which point it takes in a field so small 
as to be almost beyond measurement. 

When working with wide angle lenses, 
the foregound or near part of the sub¬ 
ject will be greatly enlarged as compared 
to the same area covered by a normal 
lens, and the farther end of the subject 
will appear very small. With a wide 
angle lens, backgrounds and foregrounds 
can be altered to suit your compositional 
needs. This is also true when a telephoto 
is used. This is demonstrated in the 
series of photos on page 54. Fig. 1 is a 
standard shot made with a normal 25mm. 
cine lens. Fig. 2 was also made with a 
25mm. lens, but with the camera eighteen 
feet from the man standing at the curb. 
Note, however, the change in perspective 
rendered in the third shot which was 
made with a telephoto lens at a distance 
for 75 feet from subject. Here subject 
remains the same size as in Fig. 2, but 
perspective of the background has been 
changed considerably. 

A unique effect on a flat screen can be 
gained if closeups are made with a long 
focal lens. The longer telephoto lenses 
tend to flatten out a closeup because these 
lenses have very shallow depth of field at 
close distances. Thus, in using a telephoto 
for closeups, the background is thrown 
out of focus, making the subject stand 
out more clearly. In color photography, 
the use of telephotos for this purpose is 
even more advantageous. 

The effect rendered by a wide angle 
lens is just the opposite. The extreme 
wide angle tends to distort foreground 
objects while distant objects seem even 
farther away than they normally appear 
to the eye. For this reason, wide angle 
lenses are often used in making photos 
for advertising purposes and their use is 
responsible for the elongated appearance 


of motor cars in many advertising illus¬ 
trations. 

Another advantage the use of a tele¬ 
photo lens affords is the ability to vir¬ 
tually re-arrange objects within a scene 
for compositional improvement. Proof of 
this may be seen in the change of per¬ 
spective wrought through use of the 
telephoto lens in Fig. 3. Note how the 
background appears closer to the cars and 
the man standing at curb. This per¬ 
spective could not be attained by shooting 
close up with a normal lens. 

Limited space precludes elaborating 
upon the many advantages of owning a 
full complement of lenses for your cine 
camera—i. e., besides your normal lens, 
a wide angle and a telephoto lens. But 
we hope this brief treatise may result in 
the reader experimenting with all his 
lenses in order that he may see for himself 
the broader compositional opportunities 
which they afford. As with a new golf 
club, you cannot know a lens’ full possi¬ 
bilities, its scope, nor its limitations 
either, unless you give it a fair trial— 
become fully acquainted with it. 


BULLETIN BOARD 

(Continued from Page 42) 


radically new principle. Meter, according 
to Norwood, gives instant color tempera¬ 
ture readings, indoors or out. 

HOMER VAN PELT, Columbia Pictures’ 
crack photographer, should have been 
credited last month for the excellent cover 
photo he made for the January issue of 
the "American Cinematographer.” 
Through an oversight his name was omit¬ 
ted in the customary place in the picture’s 
descriptive paragraph. 

• 

LEN ROOS, A.S.C.., made preparations to 
step up production of his Hallen magne¬ 
tic sound recorders following announce¬ 
ment that M-G-M, who has been quietly 
testing magnetic recording for sometime, 
plans to switch to tape recording for all 
its pictures in very near future. Roos, 



Wall 

Canteras 


Designing 
Manufacturing 
Lens 

Mountings 

16 and 35 mm. 
Baltar Lenses 

Photometric 
“f ’ Scaling 


Cine Special Repairs, Modifications 
Animation Stands ♦ Motors • Magic Eye Cameras 


whose recorder is designed especially to 
supplant optical recording for films, ex¬ 
pects rest of the studios to follow suit. 
Some are already testing his equipment, 
he states. 

0 

JOSEPH H. McNABB, pioneer in the mo¬ 
tion picture industry and president and 
chairman of the board of the Bell & 
Howell Company, died January 5th in 

Chicago after a 
brief illness. 

Mr. McNabb 
was born April 
15, 1887 in St. 
Thomas, Ontario, 
Canada. He had 
business experi¬ 
ence in railroad¬ 
ing where he 
served in capaci- 
j. h. McNabb ties from tele¬ 

graph operator to auditor to executive 
assistant of the Southern Pacific and other 
lines in mid-west and western United 
States. He later became general manager 
of the Bell & Howell Company at the age 
of 29 and president of that company 
at the age of 35. He had been asso¬ 
ciated with the company for over thirty- 
two years and had directed its growth 
from an organization fewer than eighty 
employees to one of the largest in the 
industry. 

He was an associate member of the 
American Society of Cinematographers. 

Mr. McNabb collaborated with George 
Eastman on the standardization of the 
present 16mm. film specifications. He de¬ 
veloped and produced the first 16mm. 
amateur spring-driven camera. He was 
also an inventor in his own right, having 
patents on film splicers and other devices 
for professional and amateur motion pic¬ 
ture equipment. 

In 1946 he entered into an agreement 
with the J. Arthur Rank Organization to 
manufacture and sell Bell & Howell 
equipment in Europe and the Empire. 

• 

RECENT PHOTOGRAPHY RAVE-IEWS: 

John Loves Mary —"A splendid photo¬ 
graphic job by Peverell Marley.” Life Of 
Riley — William Daniels performs a 
competent camera job.’’ Trouble Preferred 
— Benjamin Kline contributes a crafts¬ 
manlike photographic job.” Boston 
Blackie's Chinese Venture —"Vincent Far¬ 
rar’s photography captures all essentials 
artfully.’ Criss Cross — Frank Planer’s 
photography, centered around downtown 
Los Angeles, catches the full flavor of that 
interesting sector.” Alias Nick Beal — 
Lionel Lindon’s photography with its 
whirling fog and grey mist is a decided 
advantage.” Flaxy Martin —"Carl Guth¬ 
rie’s photography is appropriately low key 
. . . captures the flavor of the melodrama.” 





68 


American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 









CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS OF A.S.C. MEMBERS 

(Continued from Page 40) 


with William Holden, Joan Caulfield and 
Billy de Wolfe. Richard Haydn, director. 
‘'Daniel Fapp, "Red Hot and Blue,” 
with Betty Hutton and Victor Mature. 
John Farrow, director. 

R-K-0 

• Harry Wild, "The Big Steal,” with 
Robert Mitchum and William Bendix. 
Don Seigel, director. 

20th Century-Fox 

•Leon Shamroy. "Prince Of Foxes,” 

(Shooting in Italy) with Tyrone Power, 
Orson Welles and Wanda Hendrix. 

• Russell Harlan, "I Was a Male War 
Bride,’ (Shooting in Germany) with 
Cary Grant and Ann Sheridan. Howard 
Hawks, director. 

®Arthur Arling, "You’re My Every¬ 
thing," (Technicolor) with Anne Baxter, 
Dan Daley and Anne Revere. Walter 
Lang, director. 

• Charles Clarke, Slattery’s Hurri¬ 
cane, with Linda Darnell, Veronica 
Lake and Richard Widmark. Andre De- 
Toth. director. 

•Joseph LaShelle, "Come to the 
Stable,” with Loretta Young, Celeste 
Flolm and Elsa Lanchester. Henry Koster, 
director. 

® Joseph MacDonald, It Happens 
Every Spring,” with Ray Milland and 


Jean Peters. Lloyd Bacon, director. 
•Milton Krasner, "East Side Story,” 
with Richard Conte, Susan Hayward and 
Edward G. Robinson. Joseph Mankiewicz, 
director. 

•Ernest Palmer. "Oh, You Beautiful 
Doll,” with Mark Stevens, June Haver, 
and Gale Robbins. John Stahl, director. 

United Artists 

•Lionel Linden, "Twilight,” (Strand 
Prodn.) with Laraine Day, Dane Clark, 
Franchot Tone, Agnes Moorehead and 
Bruce Bennett. Irving Pichel, director. 

Universal-International 

•Russell Metty, "The Lady Gambles,” 
with Barbara Stanwyck and Robert Pres¬ 
ton. Michael Gordon, director. 

•William Daniels, "Illegal Entry,” 
with Howard Duff, Marta Toren and 
George Brent. Frederick deCordova, di¬ 
rector. 

•Frank Planer, "Take One False 
Step,” with William Powell, Shelly Win¬ 
ters and Marsha Hunt. Chester Erskine, 
director. 

Warner Bros. 

•Robert Burks and Wilfrid Cline, 
Task Force,” with Gary Cooper, Wayne 
Morris and Julie Brennan. Delmar Daves, 
director. 


WHAT’S NEW in equipment 

accessories and service 



UHLER PRINTER 

Uhler Cine Machine Company, 16519 Wash¬ 
burn, Detroit 21, Mich., have resumed pro¬ 
duction of their continuous film printer that 
will print either single or double system 16mm. 
picture and sound track simultaneously, also 
single or double width 8mm. films. Printing 


speed is 2000 feet per hour. Flanges hold up 
to 1200 feet of negative and positive film. 
Light control is semi-automatic. 



MITCHELL BLIMP 


Mitchell Camera Company Glendale, Calif., 
announces a new compact and scientifically 
sound-insulated blimp for the Mitchell 16mm. 
Professional camera. Constructed entirely of 
cast aluminum, it features the same kind of 
precision workmanship that goes into Mitchell 
cameras. Blimps afford shooting extreme close- 
ups without danger of recording camera noise, 
and permits smooth operation for follow-focus 
photography. 



THREE PROFESSIONAL 
HIGH FIDELITY MACHINES 
PRICED TO DEFY ALL COMPETITION 

Cine-Pro SIXTEEN MM 

FILM RECORDER 

FILM PHONOGRAPH 

TAPE RECORDER 
Cina-Pro CORPORATION 

1D6 West End Avenue 
NEW YORK 23. N. Y. TRAFALGAR 3-1411 


RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE 

Rents . . Sells . . Exchanges 

F very thing You Need for the 

PRODUCTION & PROJECTION 

of Motion Pictures Provided 
by a Veteran Organization 
of Specialists 

35 mm.16 mm. 

Television 


IN BUSINESS SINCE 1910 


729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Cable Address: RUBYCAM 



"millions fox 

defense 


. . . but you don't need 
millions to defend films 
against dirt, oil, scratches 
and other hazards. Insist 
on the reliable 


TRUSS 



Ull'* 


PEERLESS FILM TREATMENT 


m f—c* f* FILM PROCESSING 
ttKLtSS CORPORATION 

165 WEST 46th STREET, NEW YORK 19, N. Y. 


EERLESS 




February, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


• 69 































Classified Advertising 

n*TPf , Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per agate line (12 agate lines per inch). 
* C J . No discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE FOR SALE WANTED 


BASS SAYS: 

Since 1910 we have been in this happy 
business of trading and selling cameras 
and photo apparatus with complete satis¬ 
faction to all concerned. A few swell 
buys . . . 

New 1" Eymax F:4 in Eyemo C mount....$32.50 
100mm. Cooke Deep Field Panchro coated F:2.5 
in foe. Eyemo C mt. List $487.50—Net..$255.00 
Used 6" Cooke Tele-Kinic F:4.5, foe. C Eyemo 
mt. $137.50 

Used 16.5 cm. Zeiss Tessar F:4.5 foe. C Eyemo 
mt.$8 /.50 

Used 4" Cinemat F:2.9 foe. C Eyemo Mt...$65.00 
Eyemo Model A-4A, fitted with 1" F:4 5, 2" 
F:2.8, 6" F:4.5, 10" F:4.5, optical variable finder 

and case. $575.00 

Akeley, complete with Akeley Gyro tripod, 5 
mags., matched pair of F:3.5 lenses and 6" 

Telephoto . $425.00 

Eyemo, single lens, 3 speeds including 24, 

F:2.5 lens, Case.$225.00 

DeVry Automatic 35mm. with c :3.5 lens and 

case . $87.50 

WRITE BASS FIRST 

BASS CAMERA CO., 170 W. MADISON ST., 
CHICAGO 2, ILL. 


SPECIAL EYEMO CAMERAS—Rebuilt factory in¬ 
spected magazine and motor adaptation. 

EYEMO ASSCESSORIES AND PROFESSIONAL CINE 
EQUIPMENT, Eyemo Magazines, developing out¬ 
fits, printers. 

CINE LENSES—The world's largest selection of 
fine cine lenses (Zeiss, Cooke, Astro, Bausch & 
Lomb, Goerz and many others) available on 1 5 
day trial—High Speed, Wide Angle, Telephoto— 
In focusing mounts coated to fit—Eyemo, Bell 
& Howell, Professional, Mitchell 35 and 16, 
Maurer 

FREE CATALOG: Full description and prices. 
Send this ad to 

BURKE & JAMES, Inc. 

321 So. Wabash Ave. 

Chicago, III., U.S.A. 

ATTN: A. Caldwell 


NOW—HALF PRICE 

35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm. EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910. 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera & Film Exchange, 68 West 48th Street, 
New York 19, N. Y. 


EASTMAN 16MM. CINE’ SPECIAL 

15 and 25mm. lens; 2 matched 100' magazines; 
lens extension tubes; filters, masks, leather case 
with combination locks. Perfect condition, like 
new, $750.00. Charles S. Piper, 3037 N.E. 14th 
Ave.. Portland 12, Ore. 


COMPLETE LINE of amateur and professional cine 
equipment and lenses. Write for free bulletin. 
CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 N. Cahunega, 
Hollywood 28. HEmpstead 7373. 


DOCUMENTARY FILM “Come Again,’’ two reels, 
16mm. SOF, new prints $12.50. Film, equipment, 
bought, sold, traded. Lists free. Mogull’s, 68 W. 
48th St., New York. 


NEWMAN-SINCLAIR, runs 200 ft. one winding; 
3 Ross lenses; focus through gate; 3 maga¬ 
zines, $900.00. 

ARRIFLEX, 3 Zeiss coated lenses, 3 magazines, 
case Arriflex tripod, $1,200.00. 

AKELEY NEWSREEL, 4 magazines, 3 matched 
lenses, tripod, $550.00. 

EYEMO—Model Q—24 volt motor; 25, 50, 100, 
150mm. lenses; positive finder, magazine adap¬ 
tation, case, like new, $950.00. 

PAN ASTRO lenses, 40, 50, 75mm., in Mitchell 
mounts, $80.00 each. 40mm. Cooke Speed 
Pancro, $125.00. 

Will accept in trade Bell & Howell Head Unit I 
shuttle or other equipment. 

F.M.P., 106 Washington Place, New York 14, N. Y. 


CINE SPECIAL No. 7942. Carrying case, E. K. 
Optical View Finder, adjustable focal lengths, 
15mm. to 150mm. Yolo Fade Device E. K. 25mm. 
Lumenized lens. T stop calibrated. H & H color 
meter. Purchased NEW 1946. $600.00. JACK 
H. JOHNSON, 150 Wilton Dr., Los Angeles. 
GRanite 7604. 


NEW AURICON synchronous motor for Cine Kodak 
Special. Write to Robert W. Weyenberg, 1218 
W. Eight St., Appleton, Wisconsin. 


PROCESS your Ansco Color Movies! Complete 
equipment, chemicals, instructions, $99.00. 
Laboratory equipment lists free. 

MOGULL’S, 68 West 48 St., New York. 


AURICON BLIMP with synchronous motor drive, 
complete in leather carrying case. Never used 
and in original shipping case, $425. F.O.B. 
Cleveland. E. M. Reynolds, 165 East 191 Street, 
Cleveland 1 9, Ohio. 


WANTED 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 

MOTION PICTURES WANTED 

16mm. Kodachrome for school market. National 
organization interested completed films or uncut 
footage with educational value. Only professional 
material considered. Give full details first letter. 
Box 1053, AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. 


Your classified ad on this 
page reaches more buying 
prospects for motion pic¬ 
ture photographic equip¬ 
ment and supplies than 
any other medium. 


CLASSIFIED RATES 
10 cents a word 
Minimum 10 words 


Mail Remittance 
and Copy to 

AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 
1782 N. Orange Drive 
Hollywood 28, Calif. 


WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B & H, EYEMO, DEBRIE, AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


CAMERA & SOUND MEN 


SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Camera and sound men, artistically and scien¬ 
tifically skilled, well-equipped MODERN 
1200 Square Feet SOUND STUDIO, 
ideally suited for Television work. High-fidelity 
play-back. Stage set construction. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook Connecticut 
90 minutes from New York City 
Telephone: Newtown 581 
Ask for rates. 


FOOTAGE FOR SALE 


WEST AROUND CAPE HORN! 

FOOTAGE for magnificent 2-reeler for sale. 
35mm. B&W negative in perfect condition. The 
camera-log of last American sailing vessel to 
round the Horn, featuring the sea-adventures 
of two children, 6 & 4, with sharks, seals, 
albatross and some of the wildest weather ever 
filmed. Shots of the Horn, use of storm oil, etc. 
HERE ARE THE MAKINCS OF AN OSCAR WIN¬ 
NER. $7,500 takes negative and all rights. 

Warwick M. Tompkins 
1046 W. Edgeware Rd. 

Los Angeles 26, Cal. 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


NEW CINE SPECIAL SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 
Drives, $145.00; Cine Special Blimps, $295.00; 
Cinephone 35mm. Recorder with synchronous 
motor, $545.00; Houston 1200' daylight maga¬ 
zines, worth $225.00, now $97.50; Blimped 
35mm. Askania Studio Camera, 3 lenses, 4 
magazines, synchronous motor, rebuilt, $995.00; 
Neumade combination 16/35 Automatic Film 
Cleaner, $350.00 value, $194.50; Giant Spotlite 
Tripods 8' high, $9.95; Belhowell 16mm. Film¬ 
scoring Viewers, Gov’t, cost $300.00, $59.50; 
Bardwell McAlister 5000W floodlites, $111.75; 
1/1 2HP 1 1 0V Synchronous Motors, new, $57.50; 
B. Maurer Recording Outfit, $2275.00; 35mm. 
threeway Sound Moviola, rebuilt, $895.00. Send 
for Sturelab Catalog Supplement. Dept, f - 
S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corporation, 602 W. 
52nd Street, New York 19. 


LABORATORY SERVICES 


TWO ENLARGEMENTS and negative from your 
movie film. Send frames and $1.00. Curio-photo, 
1187 Jerome Ave., New York 52. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


70 • 




American Cinematographer 


February, 1949 



















































Maker of dreams • • • 


• To make dreams like this con¬ 
vincing ... to show them with the 
smoothness that brings life and 
reality . . . that is the job of the 
optical-effects man. 

Yet it is only one of his many 
contributions to modern pictures. 
By his skill with the optical printer 
. . . his production of fades and 
wipes, of dissolves and laps ... he 


plays an important part in giving 
American movies their high stand¬ 
ard of technical excellence. 

If the optical-effects man is to 
play this part to the full, he must 
use dependable film of superior 
quality. That’s why he usually pre¬ 
fers to work with the large and 
well-known family of Eastman 
motion picture films. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
FORT LEE • CHICAGO • HOLLYWOOD 







They are designed and built to work superbly 
together, these advanced Filmo 16mm cameras 
and Filmosound 16mm sound film projectors. 
Their film movement mechanisms are perfectly 
matched, to assure you the rock-steady screen 
pictures your high standards demand. 

FILMO AUTO MASTER CAMERA 

The only 16mm magazine-loading camera with 
a turret head that a utomatically matches the view¬ 
finder to the lens that’s in use. Five speeds includ¬ 
ing true slow motion; single-frame release. With 
1" f/1.9 Filmocoted lens only, $285.00 plus tax. 

ONE-CASE FILMOSOUND 

Shows professionally-made 16mm sound films 
and your own 16mm silent films, too. It is 
light, compact, and moderately priced. Yet it 
provides more than twice the sound output of 
other lightweight sound-film projectors. $449.00. 


FILMO 70-DA CAMERA 

The 16mm camera choice of a whole genera¬ 
tion of leading advanced workers, amateur 
and professional. Three-lens turret, seven op¬ 
erating speeds. Loads with 100-foot film spools. 
What you see, you get, with Filmo. With 1" 
f/1.9 Filmocoted lens only, $295.00 plus tax. 

NEW ACADEMY FILMOSOUND 

With its larger speaker (8-inch and 12-inch 
models available) built into a second case, this 
projector handles larger audiences than the 
One-Case model. Brilliant 1000-watt illumi¬ 
nation. With 8-inch speaker, $495.00. 


Every Filmo and Filmosound is guaranteed for 
lifel During life of product, any defects in 
workmanship or material will be remedied 
free (except transportation). 



For full details on these and other Filmo 16mm 
and 8mm Cameras and Projectors, see your 
dealer or write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 
McCormick Road, Chicago 45. Branches in 
New York, Hollywood, and Washington, D. C. 


Precision-Made by 





Bell £ Howell 




Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 

















$3.00 YEARLY IN U $. 


this month! 












DU PONT "SUPERIOR" 2 is an all¬ 
purpose negative raw stock that read¬ 
ily meets the requirements of leading 
cinematographers. It has extremely 
wide latitude and ample speed for 
correct exposures under adverse con¬ 


ditions of high- or low -key lighting. 
Approved for its uniformity of qual¬ 
ity. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 
(Inc.), Photo Products Department, 
Wilmington 98, Delaware. 

New York—Los Angeles—Chicago 


DU PONT MOTION PICTURE FILM 


mm> 


U. 5. PAT. Off 

BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING . . . THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



Tune in Du Pont “CAVALCADE OF AMERICA” 
Monday nights—NBC Coast to Coast 












fOUR NEEDS 

★ NEWSREELS 

★ TELEVISION 

★ INDUSTRIAL 
. FILMS 


FILMO 

SPECIALIST 


a asaomm i6mm camera 

Four-lens turret head. Seven accurate oper¬ 
ating speeds. Positive viewfinder. Uses 200- 
or 400-foot external film magazines or (in¬ 
ternally) 100-ft. film spools. Shift-over 
focusing. Three power sources: hand crank, 
spring motor, and electric motor. Write for 
brochure with full specifications. 


HEAVY-DUTY TRIPOD 

Telescoping maple legs 
extend to 63". Continu¬ 
ous 360° panoramic 
head accommodates 
any flat-base motion 
picture or still camera. 
Head tilts perpendic¬ 
ular to ground and 40° 
upward with 400' mag¬ 
azines ... 60° upward 
without magazines. 
Two-directional spirit 
level. Tilt mechanism 
locks with slight turn 
of rubber grip handle. 


EYEMO MODEL Q 
35mm CAMERA 


Has three-arm offset tur¬ 
ret, positive viewfinder, 
speed range 8 to 48 frames 
per second. Hand crank 
and prismatic focuser 
with magnifier (for view¬ 
ing through lens). Pro¬ 
vision for electric motor 
and external film maga¬ 
zines. Other Eyemo mod¬ 
els to suit your needs. 


AUTOMATIC FILM SPLICING MACHINES 

For every special need in pro- 

fessional film editing, B&H 

provides seven versatile 35mm 

splicing machines, all fully _ V 'M * 

automatic. Film-strong welds 

are inconspicuous, are easily, Jm 

quickly made. Other profes- /Jf AffCW 

sional models for 8mm and - 

16mm, or all three widths in 

one machine. Write for descriptive booklet. 


MODEL J 

CONTINUOUS 16mm 
FILM PRINTER 


Three-way aperture for contin¬ 
uous contact printing ... sound 
and picture separately or both 
together . . . monochrome or 
color film. Prints fine-grain 
duplicating and release stock. 
Minimum speed, 60 feet per 
minute. Many other models, 
details on request. 


GUARANTEED for LIFE 

During life of product, any defects in workmanship or 
material will be remedied free (except transportation ). 


Precision-Made by 


& Howell 


FOR DETAILS on anything in motion picture equipment, 
write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick Road, 
Chicago 45. 


Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 





















16mm Sound-On-Film Camera 


. . . Designed in Hollywood for the 
discriminating movie maker. Camera 
priced from $1095.00, complete with 
amplifier, microphone, tubes, batteries, 
headphones and instructions. 


Prompt delivery... see your dealer or 
write today lor further information. 



“Dual 
‘POena - lurntadlc 


★ ★★★★★★★★ 





Pd. k-" fddeeui 
Pia^eoalaneU 
“7xip»cC... 



P<vtia6le Powvt 
Supply 7i*UC ... 

★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 


* 



l/clodCy 
TKivuxpA&u... 

★ ★ ★ ★ 


★ 



RCA Licensed 
Guaranteed One Year 


BERNDT-BACH,Inc. 

7381 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles 36, Calif. 


MANUFACTURERS OF SOUND-ON-FILM 
RECORDING EQUIPMENT SINCE 1931 


1 

Hoi 

B u 11 e 

iy wot 

tin B i 

id 

o a r d 




PETER MOLE, A.S.C., in recognition of his contributions in development of studio lighting equip¬ 
ment, was tendered certificate of appreciation by Charles C. Clarke, A.S.C., in behalf of members of 
American Society of Cinematographers. Occasion was Society’s recent 30th Anniversary celebration. 


CELEBRATINC THIRTIETH Anniversary of 
founding of the Society of American Cinema¬ 
tographers, members of the A. S. C. gathered at 
the Society’s clubhouse in Hollywood the eve¬ 
ning of February 14th for dinner and to be 
entertained by various personalities including 
Dan Dailey, 20th Century-Fox screen star. 
Dailey recounted his experiences since entering 
films, and "rolled ’em in the aisles” with hu¬ 
morous anecdotes of his experiences with vari¬ 
ous studio executives and directors of photog¬ 
raphy. 

Peter Mole, of Mole-Richardson Company, 
was presented with an attractive Certificate Of 
Appreciation tendered him by members of the 
A. S. C. in recognition of his outstanding con¬ 
tributions in the development of lighting 
equipment for cinematography. 

Event also marked the Society’s annual 
March of Dimes fund raising in which mem¬ 
bers contributed generously to this worthy 
cause. 

Making his initial appearance at the club¬ 
house since becoming an associate member, 
was Mr. H. W. Remerschied, of the Bell & 
Howell Company, to whom members are in¬ 
debted for providing the excellent Filmosound 
16mm. projection facilities for the A. S. C.’s 
new projection booth. 

Renewing acquaintances and swapping stories 
was the indefatigable Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
the Society’s former president, who recently 
returned from Italy where for more than a year 
he directed the photography on 20th Century- 
Fox’s "Prince Of Foxes.” 

BRITISH SOCIETY G f Cinematographers was 
initially launched at an inaugural luncheon 
January 29th in London according to Jack 
Cardiff, A.S.C. Freddy Young was installed as 
president of the Society which numbers 55 
members. President Charles G. Clarke of the 
A. S. C., in behalf of members of the Ameri¬ 
can Society of Cinematographers, sent the Brit- 



SCREEN LUMINARY, Dan Dailey was guest 
of honor at A. S. C.’s 30th Anniversary din¬ 
ner, spoke humorously of his experiences 
with various A. S. C. members with whom 
he has worked. 


ish group a congratulatory cablegram on the 
occasion of their first meeting. 

• 

JOHN DORED, A. S. C., stationed in Berlin 
where he is active as one of Paramount’s news¬ 
reel cameramen. The ’hottest news spot in the 
world today,” Dored terms it. 

• 

CEORCE MANDL, A. S. C., w m shortly fly to 
Venezuela where he will photograph a series of 
pictures for the Princeton Film Center to be di¬ 
rected by Gunder von Fritsch. 

(Continued on Page 108) 






76 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 


















. . . making way for 
tomorrow 


THE STUDY of television’s photographic and 
lighting needs presently being undertaken by 
the American Society of Cinematographers is 
typical of this organization’s alert and forth¬ 
right aims in aiding the motion picture in¬ 
dustry to embrace a new and highly promising 
phase of picture making. 

It is a foregone conclusion that the television 
of tomorrow will consist mainly of filmed pro¬ 
grams and that Hollywood studios will supply 
the bulk of these films. Early use of films on 
video demonstrated that not every kind of film 
is acceptable for the medium; that films will 
have to be specifically made for television, films 
involving different lighting techniques and, 
especially, careful control over quality of the 
projection prints. 


AMERICAN 



Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

Technical Editor, Emery Huse Glenn R. Kershner Art Editor 

Circulation, MARGUERITE DEURR 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 MARCH • 1949 NO. 3 

CONTENTS 


The A. S. C.’s present efforts toward explor¬ 
ing television’s film needs and in developing 
a filming technique beneficial to electronics 
engineers and the film industry alike is a 
laudable effort that deserves the wholehearted 
cooperation of both industries. 

—A. E. G. 


ARTICLES 

1948 Nominees for Achievement Awards . 

The Red Shoes— By Herb Lightman .... 
Firelight That’s Real —By Frederick Foster 
A New Vest-pocket Color 

Temperature Meter —By Captain Don Norwood 


81 

82 

84 

85 




TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY 

A. S. C. Inaugurates Research on 

Photography for Television —By Victor Milner, A.S.C. . . 86 

The Cinematographer’s Place in Television— By John DeMos . . 87 

New Lens Testing Method May 

Improve TV Picture Quality— By R. B. Hartwell ... 88 

Off the Kinescope Tube . mi 


AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
FRED w. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 
Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
Alfred L. Gilks, Second Vice-President 
WILLIAM V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray RENNAHAN, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
John Arnold 
Sol Polito 
George Folsey 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 

ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

Milton Krasner 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 

°^§H to52 


16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Synchronized Sound for Home Movies —By Bemarr Wixon . . 91 

An Amateur with Professional Ideas —By Arthur Rowan ... 92 

Planning the 16mm. Commercial Film —By Charles Coring . . . 94 


FEATURES 

Hollywood Bulletin Board.75 

Current Assignments of A. S. C. Members.78 

Cine Kinks. ..... 96 

25 Years Ago with A. S. C. and Members.98 

Books You’ll Want to Read.104 

What’s New in Equipment, Accessories, Service .... 109 


ON THE COVER 

ROBERT BURKS, A.S.C. (directly behind camera), shoots a closeup for 
Warner Brothers’ production "The Fountainhead.” From left to right are: 
Earl Ellwood, Len South, James Bell, Robert Burks, Patricia Neal, Raymond 
Massey and King Vidor. 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 









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TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY is regularly covered in some phase in every 
issue of AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. If you are interested in television 
photography or cinematography for films for television, don’t miss a single issue 
of the AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Subscribe today, using postage-paid 
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CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS 
OF A.S.C. MEMBERS 

Major film productions on which members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers were en¬ 
gaged as directors of photography during the 
past month. 

★ ★★★★★★★ 

Columbia 

• Charles Lawton, Jr., "Tokyo Joe,” (San¬ 
tana Prodn.) with Humphrey Bogart, Florence 
Marley, Alexander Knox, Sessue Hayakawa. 
Stuart Heisler, director. 

® SOL POLITO, "Anna Lucasta,” (Security 
Pictures) with Paulette Goddard, Broderick 
Crawford, Bill Bishop, and Oscar Homolka. 
Irving Rapper, director. 

Independent 

• Lee Garmes, "Roseanna McCoy,” with 
Farley Granger, Joan Evans, Charles Bickford 
and Raymond Massey. Irving Reis, director. 

M-C-M 

• Robert Planck, "Madam Bovary,” with 
Jennifer Jones, Louis Jordan, James Mason 
and Van Heflin. Vincent Minnelli, director. 

• JOE Ruttenberg, "Forsyte Saga,” with 
Greer Garson, Errol Flynn, Walter Pidgeon, 
Robert Young and Janet Leigh. Compton 
Bennett, director. 

• HAROLD ROSSON, "Any Number Can Play,” 
with Clark Gable, Alexis Smith, Wendell 
Corey, Audrey Totter and Frank Morgan. 
Mervyn LeRoy, director. 

• Robert Surtees, "That Midnight Kiss,” 
with Kathryn Grayson, Mario Lanza, Jose 
Iturbi and Keenan Wynn. 

• JOHN Alton, "Border Incident,” with 
George Murphy, Ricardo Montalban and How¬ 
ard DaSilva. Anthony Mann, director. 

• PAUL Vogel, "Scene Of The Crime,” with 
Van Johnson, Gloria DeHaven, Tom Drake 
and Arlene Dahl. Ray Rowland, director. 

• GEORGE Folsey, "Operation Malaya,” with 
Spencer Tracy, James Stewart, Lionel Barry¬ 
more, Sydney Greenstreet, John Hodiak and 
Gilbert Roland. Richard Thorpe, director. 

• Harry Stradling, "Intruder In The Dust,” 
with Claude Jarman, Jr., Clarence Brown, di¬ 
rector. 

® Robert Planck, "The Red Danube,” with 
Walter Pidgeon, Peter Lawford, Ethel Barry¬ 
more, Janet Leigh, and Angela Lansbury. 
George Sidney, director. 

Paramount 

• Stuart Thompson, "Dear Wife,” with 
William Holden, Joan Caulfield, Billy deWolfe, 
Mona Freeman and Edward Arnold. Richard 
Haydn, director. 

• DANIEL Fapp, "Red, Hot and Blue,” with 
Betty Hutton, Victor Mature, June Havoc and 
William Demarest. John Farrow, director. 

• Charles Lang, "Rope Of Sand,” (Hal 
Wallis Prodn.) with Burt Lancaster, Paul 
Henreid, Claude Rains and Peter Lorre. Wil¬ 
liam Dieterle, director. 

• George Barnes, "Thelma Jordan,” (Hal 
Wallis Prodn.) with Barbara Stanwyck, Wen¬ 
dell Cory and Paul Kelly. Robert Siodmak, 
director. 

• John Seitz, "After Midnight,’ with Alan 
Ladd and Wanda Hendrix. Mitchell Leisen, 
director. 

(Continued on Page 108) 




78 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 


















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JOSEPH AUCUST (Deceased) 
“Portrait of Jennie” 


WILLIAM DANIELS, A.S.C. 
“The Naked City” 


CHARLES B. LANC, A.S.C. 
“A Foreign Affair” 


TED McCORD, A.S.C. 
“Johnny Belinda” 



NICK MUSURACA, A.S.C. CHARLES C. CLARKE, A.S.C. ROBERT PLANCK, A.S.C. WILLIAM SNYDER, A.S.C. 

“I Remember Mama” “Green Crass of Wyoming” “The Three Musketeers” “The Loves of Carmen” 



1948 NOMINEES 

E LEVEN directors of photography representing nine outstand¬ 
ing motion pictures have been nominated by members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers and directors of photo¬ 
graphy in the Hollywood studios as contenders for Academy 
Awards for achievement in photography for 1948. These nom¬ 
inees directed the photography on five black and white and four 
color productions as follows: 

Black and White 

Joseph August (deceased), "Portrait of Jennie" (Selznick), 
William Daniels, A.S.C., "The Naked City"(Universal-Inter.) 


for achievement awards 

in cinematography 

Charles B. Lang, Jr., A.S.C., "A Foreign Affair" (Paramount), 
Ted McCord, A.S.C., "Johnny Belinda (Warner Brothers), 
Nick Musuraca, A.S.C., "I Remember Mama" (R.K.O.), 

Color 

Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C., "The Green Grass Of Wyoming" 
(20th Century-Fox), 

Robert Planck, A.S.C., "The Three Musketeers” (M-G-M), 
William Snyder, A.S.C., "The Loves of Carmen" (Columbia), 
(Continued on Page 98) 


March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 




81 













THIS giant, 300 amp., water-cooled arc spotlight was specially built to provide a spot of light 
for the brilliant Red Shoes Ballet sequence. The British Mole-Richardson Company and Taylor 
Hobson Cooke’s engineers contributed to its design and manufacture. 


44THE RED SHOES is a happy mar- 

| riage of two great arts; the ballet and 
the motion picture. Produced in London, 
England, by The Archers’ (Michael 
Powell and Emeric Pressburger), who in 
the past brought Stairway to Heaven’' 
and Black Narcissus” to the screen, it 
is a visually beautiful and dramatically 
stimulating film. A good bit of its pic¬ 
torial effect is due to the outstanding 
Technicolor photography of Jack Cardiff, 
A.S.C., winner of last year’s Academy 
award for his lensing of "Black Narcissus.” 

"The Red Shoes” is a backstage story 
of the world of the ballet, a modern ro¬ 
mance with fairy tale overtones. It began 
in the mind of ace scenarist Emeric Press- 
burger who decided several years ago that 
he would like to make a film based on the 
Hans Christian Anderson story of the 
same name. The high point of the picture 
is a ballet interpreting the story of the 
girl who is bewitched by her red dancing 
shoes, and a direct parallel is drawn be¬ 
tween her and the heroine of the modern 
story. 

Powell and Pressburger who, under the 
name of The Archers,” comprise Brit¬ 
ain's foremost team of creative cinema 
artists, decided that this ballet must be 
presented in an entirely new way. In its 
primary sense, ballet is the art of telling 
a story by dance and mime to a musical 
accompaniment. Its whole essence is fluid¬ 
ity, and in previous ballet films the cam- 

82 • American Cinematographer 


era had fallen somewhat short of trans- 
fering this mercurial quality to the screen. 

The Archers” decided that their ballet 
should be presented as a complete entity 
within the framework of the film. It 
should run for under fifteen minutes, as 
film audiences tend to become restless at 
any longer interruption of the plot. And 
the ballet should be filmed without any 
cutaway shots, so that the motion picture 
spectator could imagine himself actually 
sitting in Monte Carlo Opera House 
watching it on the stage. 

The ballet sequence was planned long 
before production started on the film, and 
it was decided to work this sequence out 
first in the abstract form of the color 
cartoon. First the whole ballet sequence 
was worked out by production designer 
Hein Heckroth in the form of 120 full 
size color sketches. These were then photo¬ 
graphed and assembled in sequence, with 
each separate camera angle in its proper 
place. 

Next, composer Brian Easdale tailored 
his original ballet score to exactly fit the 
cartoon ballet. When this juxtaposition 
of picture and music had been okayed by 
choreographer Robert Helpmann and the 
production staff, the music was recorded 
by Sir Thomas Beecham and the Royal 
Philharmonic Orchestra. With sound and 
picture joined, "The Red Shoes” ballet 
was complete in cartoon form. The actual 
photography of the ballet presented a dif- 

• March, 1949 


The 

RED 


By HERB LICHTMAN 



A HICHLICHT is the sequence in which a pile of news¬ 
papers swirl and dance, ultimately assuming the form 
of a man dancing in unison with the ballet star. 


ficult challenge to director of photography 
Jack Cardiff, A.S.C., in that each shot had 
to match exactly with its cartoon counter¬ 
part, the dancers performing to a play¬ 
back of Beecham’s recording. 

As each shot in the ballet was com¬ 
pleted, it was exchanged for the corres¬ 
ponding cartoon scene, and the sketches 
slowly began to give way to live action 
sequences. The production staff constantly 
checked the composite reel to see how 
filming of the ballet was progressing. 

In the film, the ballet of "The Red 
Shoes” is represented as being performed 
on a conventional stage—but it is so very 
definitely a cinematic ballet that it could 
never actually be performed on a theatre 







SHOES 


Fhe ultimate in choreo- 

photography done in Techni¬ 
color by Jack Cardiff, A.S.C. 



THE FICURE gradually metamorphoses into a real live 
partner of the dancer and together they dance through 
a scene that is as brilliantly photographed as it was 
conceived. 


stage. It was created to utilize the full 
scope and wizardry of the camera, and it 
does this so successfully that a new word, 
"choreophotography,” has been coined to 
describe the fusing of the two separate 
arts. 

The ballet includes an impressionistic 
sequence in which the camera mirrors the 
ballerina’s subconscious mind. As she 
dances, the characters in the ballet iden¬ 
tify themselves with the personalities in¬ 
volved in her own life. The shoemaker 
is synonymous with the ballet impresario 
who fosters her ambition as a dancer, 
while her lover sympolizes the young com¬ 
poser who wrote the music for the ballet 
and whom she eventually marries. 


The ballet sequence is a fluid symphony 
of music, color and motion. It is packed 
full of camera effects which, however, are 
so smoothly executed that they rarely call 
attention to themselves as such. As a vis¬ 
ual spectacle, the ballet of "The Red 
Shoes’’ is well nigh in a class by itself. 

The groundwork for "The Red Shoes” 
was being laid while Cinematographer 
Cardiff was hard at work shooting "Black 
Narcissus.” All through the filming of 
that production he was busily reading up 
on the ballet, attending performances at 
Covent Garden, London, and rehearsals 
at the Sadler’s Wells school. Until then 
no ballet enthusiast, he slowly became 
imbued with the spirit of the art and be¬ 
gan to make slow-motion tests in black 
and white. 

"It had long been agreed that Ballet 
was a pure stage medium," Cardiff relates, 
describing the dilemma which presented 
itself to him. "Here was a theatre art 
created for viewing through a proscenium, 
and never intended to be seen from be¬ 
hind or enlarged to enormous individual 
close-ups and spiced up with trick shots. 
Yet—although the purists said that ballet 
must be honestly recorded without cinema 
stunts and cunning aids to dancers so that 
they could jump incredibly high with per¬ 
fect balloon —it was agreed that just re¬ 
cording ballet newsreel fashion would be 
wrong. Otherwise, why use film? 

"Having seen the tests I made we agreed 
that any tricks, such as slow motion, fast 
motion, or accentuating angles, should 
be so discreetly used that they would not 
be noticeable. Nevertheless, to interpret 
the choreography as though the audience 


was in the theatre, it was quite necessary 
for the camera to be a little dishonest. 
Strangely enough, even straightforward 
movements look wrong sometimes at the 
normal speed of twenty-four pictures per 
second. It proved necessary to use a little 
faster or slower camera speed.” 

In spite of Cardiff’s logic in explaining 
his camera treatment, he still had to cope 
with die-hard ballet purists who objected 
to this subtle encouragement with the 
camera. "We recognize a ballerina in the 
theatre by her own honest dancing, un¬ 
aided by tricks,” they would say, "and 
now you can make a dancer do literally 
anything —dance on a cloud, do a hundred 
pirouettes in one go, make some gargan¬ 
tuan bounds that would make Nijinsky 
hysterical; yet this Olympian virtuoso 
might, in reality, be a third-rate dancer! " 

In answer to this poser, Cardiff says: 
"Film adaptation of Ballet must be re¬ 
garded as a separate art. The purists must 
not count pirouettes and question the 
truth of faultless execution. They must re¬ 
cognize the fact that just as a film can 
use a dummy to fall over a cliff, or a 
model train to crash to destruction, so it 
must be allowed full expression in what 
is a perfect subject for the abstract styliza¬ 
tion and dream fantasy that a film can so 
well express.” 

From the technical standpoint, Cardiff 
was confronted with the problem of light¬ 
ing huge stage and theatre areas for Tech¬ 
nicolor photography, plus the necessity 
of finding a spotlight that would burn 
through the general set lighting to simul¬ 
ate an authentic stage spot effect. He 
(Continued on Page 99) 



CINEMATOGRAPHER Jack Cardiff is noted for his frequent friendly huddles with players during 
which he explains his photographic problems and secures their cooperation toward a better screen 
result. Crouched beside his Technicolor camera, Cardiff chats with stars Robert Helpmann, Moira 
Shearer and Leonide Massine. 




March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


83 








Firelight That's Real 

Lee Garmes, A. S. C., scores unusually realistic 
lighting effects in “Roseanna McCoy,” using 
the Toland & Hoge electrical firelight flasher. 

By FREDERICK FOSTER 



FIC. 1—This “Rube Goldberg” affair is the first really successful device for producing the true 
effect of firelight in motion pictures. Designed and assembled at the Samuel Goldwyn studios by 
the late Cregg Toland and Ralph Hoge, the unit consists of the flasher (center), and two bright 
metal reflecing units before which are hung twenty-four 1000- and 2000-watt lamps. 



FIC. 2—The lamps are deliberately suspended 
at various levels in order to produce flickering 
light from various angles, similar to that from 
a fireplace. The order, frequency and duration 
of light flashes from the lamps may be con¬ 
trolled. depending upon the type of fire to be 
simulated. 


FIC. S—Top view of flash-activating unit. At 
bottom is revolving cylinder with 24 contact 
points touching the cylinder. These excite 24 
solenoids which in turn send current momen¬ 
tarily to the lamps hung before the semi-circu¬ 
lar reflector on the set. As cylinder rotates, 
contacts “make and break.” 


T HE ILLUSION of flickering light from 
a fireplace is something that effects 
men have sought to perfect for years, but 
it remained for the late Gregg Toland 
and Samuel Goldwyn’s head grip, Ralph 
Hoge, to achieve it with an improvised 
lighting rig that might have been de¬ 
signed by Rube Goldberg. It is said to be 
the first gadget that actually creates the 
sort of light that a real fireplace produces; 
all the other effects used up until now 
produced a flickering light that lacked 
realism—the irregular flicker with con¬ 
stantly varying intensity that we really 
see if we study the light given off by a 
log fire. 

Toland first used his invention in film¬ 
ing Goldwyn’s Academy Award winner, 
Wuthering Heights,” and although it 
also was used later with equal success in 
Enchantment,” it has remained for Lee 
Garmes, A.S.C., to give this unique light¬ 
ing effect its supreme test in Samuel 
Goldwyn’s Roseanna McCoy.” 

Much of the charm as well as the dra¬ 
matic impact of "Roseanna McCoy” is due 
to the effective lighting of Garmes, who 
has set as a goal for this picture the most 
natural lighting it is possible to achieve 
with present-day equipment. Much of the 
action in "Roseanna McCoy” takes place 
at night or at dusk, or in the dimly lit in¬ 
teriors of mountaineer’s cabins. Garmes 
has sought to keep the lighting perfectly 
natural at all times and devoid of any 
lighting license of any kind. Light is 
concentrated on players’ faces, but it’s 
a subtly subdued light, and there is never 
distracting over-illumination in the back¬ 
grounds to divert attention. 

Garmes also is using "pin-point” aper¬ 
tures to achieve great depth of focus on 
all shots—something on which Toland 
specialized and which he had planned for 
this picture before he passed away. This 
treatment gives not only depth but brittle 
crispness to the scenes lit in low key— 
enhancing the subdued lighting by mak¬ 
ing objects stand out with greater clarity. 
There is less strain on the eyes in watch¬ 
ing these scenes on the screen, too. 

With so many of the interiors staged 
within two mountaineer s cabins, firelight 
naturally became the dominant problem 
inasmuch as "natural lighting” on these 
sets would mean in most instances light 
from the fireplace. To make this firelight 
appear completely natural, Garmes has 
brought Toland and Hoge’s effects device 
on the sound stage and put it to use. It 
consists of three units, as shown in Fig. 1, 
—the flasher (center) and the flashing 
reflectors at either side. In use, the flasher 
may be located in some remote corner of 
the sound stage while the flashing re¬ 
flectors are set up on or close to the set, 
depending upon the effect desired. The 
latter, shown in detail in Fig. 2, consists 
(Continued on Page 106) 




84 


o 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 



















A New, Vest-pocket 
Color Temperature Meter 

By CAPTAIN DON NORWOOD 


TEST MODEL of newly developed Norwood 
Color Temperature meter which has under¬ 
gone exhaustive tests in use with all types 
of color films, indoors and out. Compact 
and light in weight, meter reads color tem¬ 
perature directly. Detachable scale plates 
also afford direct readings in terms of 
correction filters required and for the 
various types of color films. 



CAPTAIN Don Norwood, who also intro¬ 
duced the Norwood Director exposure meter, 
shows pocket-size feature of meter. It is 
estimated new meter will sell for about 
same price as average exposure meters. 


S EVERAL YEARS ago, in 1939-40 to 
be exact, I had the pleasure of intro¬ 
ducing, in the columns of the American 
Cinematographer, a new and valuable type 
of exposure meter. That meter was the 
Norwood Director. It represented the cul¬ 
mination of several years of prior research 
and development in my laboratory. The 
meter apparently filled a distinct need, 
because now many tens of thousands of 
those meters have been manufactured and 
are giving excellent service to photo¬ 
graphers. 

At this time I again take pleasure in 
introducing, in the American Cinemato¬ 
grapher, another new meter. This meter 
is a device for measuring color tempera¬ 
ture of illumination. This meter also is 
the result of considerable intensive re¬ 
search. It offers a number of practical 
advantages not found in any similar de¬ 
vice. 

Professional cinematographers are well 
aware that the color balance of illumina¬ 
tion is a factor of considerable import¬ 
ance. In the case of black and white 
films, variations in color temperature may 
cause quite noticeable variations in film 
results. In the case of color films the color 


temperature is a decidedly critical matter. 
Color temperature must be exactly right 
to match the color balance of the color 
film if satisfactory results are to be at¬ 
tained. 

The above described situation points 
to the need for a good practical color 
temperature meter. I have developed a 
meter which seems to me to just fill the 
bill. The illustration (above right) shows 
a 44 view of the complete meter. The 
instrument is in the shape of a disk, 
being 2 9/16 inches in diameter and only 
1 inch in thickness. A number of ele¬ 
ments are installed in that compact disk. 
The galvanometer dial may be seen at 
the left. The color temperature scale 
plate may be seen on the circumference 
of the disk. A color valve is located on 
the far side of the disk. This color valve 
is operated when the circumferential rim, 
which carries the color temperature scale, 
is turned. Inside of the disk is a a gal¬ 
vanometer movement, a photo-voltaic cell, 
and color filters. 

I will describe some of the require- 
March, 1949 • 


ments of a good practical meter for this 
purpose, and show how the Norwood 
Color Temperature meter meets those 
requirements. 

First, the instrument must be quite 
accurate. This fact rules out the visual 
type meter, since that type depends on 
personal color vision. Color vision may 
vary from individual to individual, and 
varies in any given individual according 
to circumstances, which makes it unde¬ 
sirable for use as a reference standard. 
The Norwood Color-Temperature meter 
makes use of a photo-voltaic cell, a gal¬ 
vanometer, filters and light valves. It is 
quite impersonal, and highly accurate. 

A practical color temperature meter 
must be easy to operate. Tie Norwood 
C-T meter is operated by pointing it to¬ 
ward the light source, and rotating the 
light valve until the galvanometer needle 
points to zero. At this time the color tem¬ 
perature may be read on the circumferen¬ 
tial scale, adjacent to the index line. The 
null-reading position of the galvanometer 
f Continued on Page 96) 

American Cinematographer • 85 











TEMPORARILY chairmanned by Stanley Cortes (seated), A. S. C.’s Television Research Commit¬ 
tee includes (left to right) Lee Carmes, George Folsey, Karl Struss, Victor Milner, Charles Rosher, 
and Arthur Miller and Hal Mohr, not pictured—all members of the A. S. C. 

A.S.C. Inaugurates Research 
On Photography For Television 

Eight-man research committee begins study of tele¬ 
vision's lighting and photographic requirements. 

By VICTOR MILNER, A.S.C. 


A NTICIPATING the role motion pic¬ 
tures and particularly directors of pho¬ 
tography utlimately will play in television, 
the American Society of Cinematogra¬ 
phers last month appointed an eight-man 
research committee for the purpose of 
studying and reporting on equipment and 
techniques presently employed in both 
live and film television broadcasting. Tem¬ 
porarily chairmanned by Stanley Cortez, 
A.S.C., the committee includes Victor Mil¬ 
ner, Karl Struss, Hal Mohr, George Fol¬ 
sey, Charles Rosher, Lee Garmes, and 
Arthur Miller—all members of the A.S.C. 


Anticipating that closer cooperation be¬ 
tween television and motion picture tech¬ 
nicians is inevitable and because there’s 
a rising opinion that the latter industry’s 
directors of photography are the logical 
men to aid TV in improving lighting 
and video camera techniques, members 
of the A. S. C. have taken the initiative, 
just as they did in the early days of the 
motion picture industry’s transition from 
silent to sound films and, later, with the 
introduction of color to motion pictures. 

Recently it has been implied that Hol¬ 
lywood technicians have attempted to in- 

• 


trude their techniques on television pro¬ 
duction. The point was made again at the 
recent Academy of Television Arts and 
Sciences’ awards presentation ceremonies 
when one spokesman voiced his disap¬ 
proval of what he termed the intrusion’’ 
of the motion picture industry and its 
film technicians in television. The So¬ 
ciety’s research committee wishes to re¬ 
assure television men that their aim is to 
help rather than hinder them. 

Happily, the Society’s interest in tele¬ 
vision is being accepted with enthusiasm 
by most of the electronics engineers of 
Hollywood’s television industry. Top men 
in NBC’s television staff recently ap¬ 
peared before members of the A. S. C., at 
one of the Society’s recent technical meet¬ 
ings, enlightening them on television’s 
aims as regards photography and the pro¬ 
duction of films for the medium. More re¬ 
cently, A. S. C.’s research committee was 
invited to visit NBC’s television studios 
in Hollywood, where demonstrations of 
the type of motion picture photography 
most suitable for television were pre¬ 
sented. Also demonstrated were the re¬ 
sults on the television screen of motion 
picture films improperly printed for the 
medium. 

NBC engineers demonstrated the net¬ 
work’s modern processing and projection 
equipment for telecasting of both 16mm. 
and 35mm. motion picture films. At the 
same time, the engineers demonstrated on 
closed circuits the maximum reception 
quality that may be achieved with Kine¬ 
scope film productions—motion pictures 
made of live television programs photo¬ 
graphed in 16mm. directly off the kine¬ 
scope tube. 

The committee’s research program in- 
clude’s a series of analytical studies to 
determine the best type of photography 
suitable for TV transmission; the best 
types of shots for television films; the 
suitability of current studio lighting tech¬ 
niques to the production of live TV 
shows; and the extent to which funda¬ 
mental feature film techniques can be 
utilized in the production of motion pic¬ 
tures for television. The application of 
process photography and background pro¬ 
jection in live shows will also be explored. 

The actual photography of live shows 
will also be studied. The Society members 
will probably undergo a brief instruction 
course in the operation of the RCA image 
orthicon television studio camera, so that 
they shall be better informed on the scope 
(Continued on Page 100) 


86 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 






















T ELEVISION, far from threatening 
the security and future of Hollywood’s 
motion picture photographers, actually 
will open up broad new horizons for many 
of them. In addition to the renewed stu¬ 
dio production activity that will follow, 
when the use of films in television really 
hits its stride, TV studios will undoubted¬ 
ly draw upon Hollywood cinematograph¬ 
ers to man its cameras and to bring to 
the industry their broad knowledge of 
photography and lighting. 

Lighting, of course, is the one big pro¬ 
blem of TV which is being kicked around 
not unmercifully by some of the TV men 
themselves and by TV’s armchair critics. 
The fact is, however, that even where 
improved lighting is in effect, it is still 
possible for the picture to turn out bad 
on the receiver screen because of several 
factors. For one thing, the electronics en¬ 
gineer at the studio holds the success of 
any TV program’s pictorial quality in the 
palm of his hand — virtually between 
thumb and forefinger—as he twists the 
tiny dials that raise or lower contrast or 
balance the overall contrast of the picture. 
Add to this the impulse of the average 
receiver owner to tamper with the con¬ 
trols of his set and it is easy to see that 
what goes into the Kinescope tube good, 
can come out bad at the receiving end. 

Television producers are generally 
agreed that the great need today is for 
experienced motion picture cameramen, 
lighting engineers and motion picture di¬ 
rectors, and as soon as the business justi¬ 
fies the cost, these men will be sought for 
the important contributions they can 
bring to the industry. 

I feel fortunate in being among the 
first motion picture cameramen to ex¬ 
perience the transition from a photo¬ 
graphic to an electronic camera. I had 
{Continued' on Page 102) 




KLAC-TV’s cameraman, John DeMos, was formerly a newsreel photographer and cameraman on 
commercial film productions and brings to West Coast television a fresh approach to TV camera 
technique. His coverage of grid events in Los Angeles last season has been hailed as some of the 
best TV photography of football to date. 

The Cinematographer's 
Place In Television 

By JOHN De MOS 

Television Cameraman, KLAC-TV 



AMONG improvements recently introduced at KLAC-TV are regular 
motion picture lighting equipment, dimmers and other lighting controls. 
Front fiil lights are used on the camera and position of overhead lights 
are remote controlled at an off-stage point. 


HERE is an overhead view of KLAC-TV’s lighting equipment—standard 
motion picture lighting units mounted on tubular metal rigging above 
the stage. With this equipment KLAC-TV is achieving excellent model¬ 
ing and multi-dimensional effects in lighting studio productions. 






March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


87 










New LensTesting Method May 
Improve TV Picture Quality 

RCA develops method of analyzing and rating ability 
of various types of lenses to show picture detail. 

By R. B. HARTWELL 


NEW DEGREE of realism in televi¬ 
sion may result from a new method 
of measuring contrast characteristics of 
both optical and electrical lenses. Devel¬ 
oped by Otto H. Schade, advance develop¬ 
ment engineer of the Tube Department 
of the Radio Corporation of America, the 
method is also applicable to contrast 
measurements for different types of pho¬ 
tographic film and television screen ma¬ 
terials. 

Employing what is essentially a tele¬ 
vision pickup and reproduction system, 
it provides the television industry with 
the first known practical method of ana¬ 
lyzing and rating the ability of various 
types of lenses to show picture detail. 

For industries developing or using 
image-forming devices, this method means 
the end of guesswork and, for the first 
time, permits objective selection of lenses 
that will produce the best results in vari¬ 
ous types of systems. Data on the imaging 


power of the human eye has been incor¬ 
porated in the procedure for plotting the 
overall response of lenses and other ele¬ 
ments, so that the practical value of im¬ 
provements in picture quality can be de¬ 
termined in terms of the observer’s abil¬ 
ity to detect them. 

The theoretical values by which lenses 
have been rated heretofore, Mr. Schade 
explained, are based on their limiting or 
highest power of resolution—that is, the 
greatest number of lines of picture detail 
per millimeter which they can focus on 
film or viewing screen. 

However, useful resolutions for photog¬ 
raphy and television are limited, respec¬ 
tively, by the response of photographic 
film and the width of television frequency 
channels. To improve picture detail with¬ 
in these limitations, the research engineer 
in these fields must strive for sharper con¬ 
trast of light and dark picture elements 
within lower ranges of resolution—about 


50 lines per millimeter in photography, 
and one-fifth as many lines in television. 
The system developed by Mr. Schade af¬ 
fords the first practical means of deter¬ 
mining the contrast response of lenses in 
these ranges, or in any specified range 
from zero to the limiting resolution. 

The equipment chain employed in the 
system, he explained, consists essentially 
of a specimen mount, a lens mount, a 
microscope, a television camera, a televi¬ 
sion picture tube or kinescope, and an 
oscilloscope, arranged in that order. A test 
pattern made up of a series of vertical 
and horizontal lines of diminishing size 
and spacing is mounted before the lens 
to be tested or rated, and a greatly re¬ 
duced image of the pattern is produced. 
The microscope enlarges this image be¬ 
fore it is picked up by the television cam¬ 
era, providing a large, easily studied tele¬ 
vision image on the kinescope, and a 
large, acurate "trace” or wave-form image 
on the oscilloscope. The latter image is 
formed by feeding a portion of the elec¬ 
trical signal from the television camera 
to the oscilloscope. 

Using this trace or wave-form as a ba¬ 
sis, Mr. Schade has worked out a system 
for plotting curves on a chart to show 
the contrast or detail response of a given 
lens at any degree of resolution. 

Similar ratings for the electrostatic or 
electromagnetic lenses used in television 
camera tubes can be charted by an appli¬ 
cation of the same principle, while ratings 
for similar lenses in kinescopes are estab¬ 
lished by a modification of the system em¬ 
ploying RCA’s "flying spot” scanning 
tube to analyze the kinescope image. 

"It is theoretically possible to compute 
the detail contrast of a lens at any reso¬ 
lution, Mr. Schade said, if we know the 
size and light intensity distribution of 
the light spot formed as the image of a 
point of light. The finer the spot, the bet¬ 
ter the detail contrast. 

"However, since this spot assumes all 
kinds of queer shapes, particularly in the 
case of optical lenses, when it is moved 
over the picture area, measurement of its 
size and light distribution is very diffi¬ 
cult. Even when such measurements can 
be made, there is the problem of using 
the spot to generate a picture before we 
can determine how it affects detail con¬ 
trast. 

It remained for television to provide 
the practical means for obtaining these 
data, which are needed, not only by tele¬ 
vision itself, but by all activities concerned 
with image-forming devices. A television 
system is actually a continuously tracing 
micro photometer in which a tiny "scan¬ 
ning aperture”—the electron beam—ana¬ 
lyzes the image along hundreds of parallel 
lines, translating light intensity into elec¬ 
trical currents which can be made visible 
again as an image on a kinescope or as a 
(Continued on Page 102) 



The realism of a simple scene, such as being televised here, may depend as much upon the 
camera’s optics as it does on lighting and other factors, according to recent findings by engineers 
who have devised a new means of testing contrast characteristics of the lenses used in television. 





88 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 








SINCERE 

CONGRATULATIONS 

to all nominees 
for Academy Awards 

OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENT 
BEST PHOTOGRAPHY 


We Are Genuinely Proud 
of the Contribution Made By 


EASTMAN FILMS 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 


FORT LEE 


HOLLYWOOD 


CHICACO 




One way to make a baby (or grownup) relax! 


Sometimes, when you’re taking indoor 
movies of a baby, or even of an adult, it’s 
pretty hard to get them to relax. 

For as soon as you throw on your 
flood lights, they start to get tense—to 
fidget and wiggle under the glaring 
lights. 

There’s one way, however, to help 
overcome this reaction. And that’s to 
use super-fast Ansco Triple S Pan Re¬ 
versible Film. For with this fast film in 
your camera, you can use less artificial 
lighting or move your lights farther 
back. 

Result: less glare—your subject is not 
so conscious of the lights—is more re¬ 
laxed—less apt to squint. 

And outdoors or indoors, you can get 
your subject in good focus over a much 


wider range if you use Triple S Pan 
Film. For the speed of this film lets you 
stop down for extra depth of field. 

Triple S Pan has a long, smooth gra¬ 
dation scale. Because of this, your movie 
scenes will be complimented for their 
fresh, professional look. Let your dealer 
tell you more about Ansco Triple S Pan 
Reversible Film. Ansco, Binghamton, 
N. Y. A Division of General Aniline & 
Film Corporation. “From Research to 
Reality.” 


TIPS ON TITLES 


_ Next time you 

take pictures of your child, try printing 
the title on a large piece of cardboard— 
have your child walk in with the card¬ 
board under her arm, and then hold it 
up in front of the camera. Makes a very 
effective title run. 


-ASK FOR- 

Ansco 

8 AND 16MM 
TRIPLE S PAN FILM 




















W E MADE our silent camera talk! And 
we did it for only a fraction of the 
cost usually associated with sound pro¬ 
jection. Putting sound into home movies 
has always been a highly desirable but 
almost impossible task, but the growth 
of wire recording gave us a clue. Why 
not synchronize our silent projector with 
the sound from a wire recorded script. 
Sounds simple? Well! The main problem 
was to put feet of film and revolutions 
per minute on a comparative basis, and 
since the wire recorder runs at a constant 
speed, the projector has to be synchronized 
to the recorder. That briefly is what lead 
to the development of the Silvertone 
Home Movie Sound Kit. 

The simplest method for checking the 
speed of any rotating mechanism is the 
use of the stroboscope, a flat disc with a 
number of black and white segments 
around its perimeter, such as commonly 
used for testing speed of phonograph 
turntables. This disc, when revolving and 
illuminated by an intermittent light, such 
as an alternating current incandescent 
lamp, will appear motionless when travel 
speed of the segments correspond to the 
light flash interval. 

We found that the flickering light is¬ 
suing from a projector lens could also be 
utilized for this purpose when the strobos¬ 
cope is designed with respect to the pro¬ 
jector flicker interval. We found that by 
reflecting this light back from the screen 
by means of a small mirror, so that it 
would be made to fall upon the strobo¬ 
scope disc by means of a second reflecting 
mirror, it would net the same speed con¬ 
trolling result. However, in this instance, 
we place the strobo disc on the recorder 
turntable which already has a fixed speed, 
and use it to keep in check the speed, of 
the projector by adjusting the projector 
speed until it coincides with that of the 
recorder. That took care of operating both 
projector and recorder in sync. 

Our next problem was how to get both 
film and sound recording to start simul¬ 
taneously or in sync. This was solved by 
attaching to the film a generous leader 
strip and punching three cue marks at 
one end with a pin, each 12 frames apart. 
This gave us a Get ready’, 'Get set’, Go’ 
indication on the screen. When the Go’ 
dot flashed on the screen we started the 
recorder and adjusted the speed control on 
the projector until the stroboscope disc 
looked like it was standing still. We then 
maintained this condition by readjustment 



of the speed control. The better grades 
of projectors will run very steady and 
require little attention. Thus you can con¬ 
centrate on the recording, or film, depend¬ 
ing upon whether you are making the 
sound track or enjoying the results. 

Take your movies at your convenience, 
edit them, prepare a script, or commen¬ 



tary, and make your own "talkies’ by 
putting the sound on wire. One person 
can actually do the job, but the task will 
be easier and lots more fun if you have 
a couple of helpers. For example, one per¬ 
son on synchronization, one handling 
scripts, another assisting with sound ef- 
(Continued on Page 106) 


SHOWINC the new Silvertone movie sound kit in use. Projector speed is kept in sync with 
wire recorder by means of stroboscope disc and light reflected from screen to disc. In operation, 
flickering light beam from projector is reflected from screen by small mirror back to an¬ 
other mirror on recorder, thence to strobo disc on turntable (see dotted lines). Operator adjusts 
projector speed until strobo disc segments appear stationary, indicating both machines are in sync. 

Synchronized Sound 
For Home Movies 

New method employing mirrors and a stroboscope 
insures absolute synchronization of home recorded 
sound with 8mm. or 16mm. movies. 

By BERNARR WIXON 

Radio Division, Sears, Roebuck & Co. 




March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


91 







Vc* \ fv> 4i • 



THE professional results obtained by amateur film producer, Ray 
Maker, are a product of painstaking preparation. He is shown here 
putting finishing touches on his midget train, the wrecking of 
which is one of high spots in his picture, “Dark Timber.” 



HOLLYWOOD’S best special effects men have never surpassed Ray 
Maker in the effectiveness of this miniature scene which was staged 
in an old Oakland, Calif., rock quarry. Maker built the model engine 
and cars himself. 


An Amateur With 


Professional Ideas 


Although his 16mm. movies display every professional 
technique, Ray Maker, Oakland, Calif., garageman in¬ 
sists he's still an amateur movie maker. 


By ARTHUR ROWAN 


R AY MAKER was born in Sacramento, 
California, 52 years ago, knows min¬ 
ing and pioneer history, has never been in 
professional movie work and has no re¬ 
latives in the business. He once worked 


as a movie projectionist and that started 
him on his hobby of making movies. 

During the past ten years Maker has 
completed ten 16mm. movies, eight of 
them in color and sound. His most recent 





RAY MAKER (plaid shirt, cigar, far rightl gathers his cast and technicians from within his wide 
circle of friends. His wife acts as script girl and camera assistant. Maker filmed “Dark Timber” 
with a battery driven Auricon camera and enlisted aid of two friends to also cover the action 
with their cameras while shooting the spectacular train wrecking scene. 




production tops them all. Titled Dark 
Timber,” it is a pioneer logging story 
about a villianous lumberman who seeks 
to control the industry regardless of cost, 
blowing up railroad trestles, if necessary, 
in order to keep out competition. 

The production of this picture de¬ 
manded use of all the latest Hollywood 
production techniques except, perhaps, 
background projection—possibly the only 
one Maker has not attempted thus far. 
But he will, eventually, and successfully, 
too. Maker is an example of the real 
dyed-in-the-wool amateur movie maker— 
the fellow who avidly studies movie mak¬ 
ing techniques from the screen, reads 
everything he can on professional motion 
picture production techniques, then sets 
about to reproduce the same techniques 
with 16mm. equipment. The fact Maker 
has been avidly turning out amateur 
movie films for 15 years proves that 
there’s endless enjoyment in the hobby 
once you turn to serious work instead of 
simply shooting movies hit or miss. 

Maker writes all his stories, directs, 
builds scenery and miniatures, assembles 
actors from among his friend and gets 
more ambitious with each new success. 
His studio for interior shots is at his 
home, where his wife often assists as 
script girl and camera operator. Screen 
actor Gregg McClure, featured in "The 
Great John L,” is said to have played his 
first movie role in one of Ray Maker’s 
early 16mm. films. 

After completing a script, Maker usu- 
(Continued on Page 97) 


92 


American Cinematographer 




March. 1949 







Kodascope Sixteen-20 Projector 
The same mechanical and optical 
excellence, the same lens-lamp 
versatility as Sixteen-10—plus 
extra ease in use...luxury, “push¬ 
button" operation. $245, with 
Standard Carrying Case; 
$261.50, with Projecto Case. 


• ••for Superb 16mm. Motion Picture Showings 


... take corner-to-corner 
sharpness, for example 

Sharp in the center. . . sharp in every corner! The 
superb, over-all focus you get with a 1 6mm. Koda¬ 
scope projector is to a large extent the result of the 
Kodak Field Flattener, a unique optical device in¬ 
tegral with the Kodak 2-inch f/1.6 Ektanon Projec¬ 
tion Lens—standard equipment with all 16mm. 
Kodascope projectors. The Field Flattener corrects 
the light rays that form the outer edges of the pic¬ 
ture so that they come into the same plane of focus 
as those forming the center. 

You’ll see the results on your screen— better, 
crisper, more uniform rendition of your movies! 



Important as it is to the proper projection of 16mm. 
movies, the field-flattening element that is part of the standard lens 
regularly supplied with 16mm. Kodascope projectors is but one of 
many reasons for making a Kodascope projector your projector. 

Another is optical versatility—both of the "Sixteens” illustrated 
above come equipped with 2-inch lenses and 750-watt lamps . . . ideal 
for average projection conditions. But if you plan to show r your 
movies under unusual conditions—long "throws” in spacious audi¬ 
toriums, or very short "throws” in small rooms—you can buy your 
projector "tailored” to your needs with your choice of several other 
lenses and lamps so that screen areas and brilliance are exactly right 
for the size and seating of your audiences. All standard and accessory 
Kodak Projection Lenses are Lumenized —ultrahard coated at all glass- 
air surfaces for better, brighter movies. Whatever your lens-lamp 
selection, screen results will be unsurpassed. 

You’ll also like the ease of operating a Kodascope projector— 
adjustment controls are simple and positive in action . . . conven¬ 
iently located. Threading is handy, too—sprockets and gate are 
wide-opening, easily accessible. 

Trimly handsome in appearance, rugged in operation, Kodascope 
projectors are outstanding performers on every count. Better plan to 
see them soon—at your Kodak dealer’s. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 

Prices are subject to change without notice 


"Kodak” is a trade-mark 



























IT IS important to have the cameraman present on all important pre-production conferences. 
Looking at the story in terms of camera angles, lighting etc., he can suggest many short cuts 
that not only will save money but enhance the production, too.— Photo courtesy Rockett Pictures. 


Planning The 16mm 
Commercial Film 

The first in a series of articles dealing with 
making of 16 mm. commercial films points up 
the importance of careful production planning. 


By CHARLES LOR I NC 


P RODUCTION planning is at least as 
important to the 16mm. commercial 
film producer as it is to the executive 
producer in Hollywood — perhaps more 
so, since the commercial producer rarely 
has at his command the budget and shoot¬ 
ing schedule alloted to even the humblest 
Hollywood quickie. Both time and money 
are usually limited in the shooting of the 
average 16mm. commercial, and it is in¬ 
telligent production planning more than 
any other one element that spells the dif¬ 
ference between profit or possible loss to 
the producer. 

Production planning of a commercial 
94 • American Cinematographer 


or industrial feature should begin with 
the very first conferences between pro¬ 
ducer and client. Certain basic decisions 
must be agreed upon before even the most 
rudimentary script can be written, name¬ 
ly: how much money the client will allot 
for the production, and how much time 
will be available to produce the film. 
Clients are prone to underestimate both 
factors, with resultant strain to the pro¬ 
ducer, so it is well to get these matters 
settled before any elaborate production 
plans are made. 

Once these basic decisions are settled 
the producer will know just how much 

• March, 1949 


production value he can include in his 
script and will instruct his writer accord¬ 
ingly. The writer will then know whether 
he can go ahead and write an epic with 
a "cast of thousands,” or whether he’ll 
have to hold his imagination in check. 

All through the writing of the script, 
the producer should work very closely 
with the writer and director to make sure 
the screenplay is following the produc¬ 
tion plan agreed upon. Even veteran 
screenwriters, when left to their uncon¬ 
trolled devices, have a way of writing the 
producer into a corner. They will, for ex¬ 
ample, concieve sequences that sound per¬ 
fectly wonderful on paper but which 
would require the facilities of M-G-M to 
stage convincingly on the screen. Or, if 
they are less accustomed to the limitations 
of 16mm. filming, they might write in a 
sequence similar to one they have seen 
in a Disney extravagnaza—something that 
required a whole staff of special effects 
experts even for the great Walt to pro¬ 
duce. 

In order to establish a relationship be¬ 
tween budget and production value as 
set down in the script, it is necessary to 
review the elements involved. The first 
factor to be considered is whether the 
picture is to be shot in color or black and 
white. Color is more effective than black 
and white, but it is also more costly in 
terms of raw stock and the extra light 
required for interior set-ups. 

The second element to be taken into 
consideration is that of sound. If the pic¬ 
ture is to be a sound film, an extra 10 to 
25 per cent is automatically added to the 
budget. Narrated sound is usually fairly 
easy to negotiate, since there are any 
number of laboratories that provide a 
complete music and recording service for 
the small producer who does not have his 
own sound facilities. Direct lip-sync sound 
is a much more costly and difficult pro¬ 
position to arrange. Outside of New 
York and Hollywood there are few stu¬ 
dios that specialize in this service, and 
the small producer is either obliged to 
buy his own direct sound equipment or 
import a trained crew with sound truck 
from the nearest film center. Both alter¬ 
natives are costly. 

Whether the film requires a good many 
interior set-ups or can be staged mainly 
out-of-doors will have considerable in¬ 
fluence on both the budget and shooting 
schedule. Interior set-ups are expensive 
because they require not only the rental 
or purchase of lighting units, but the 
installation (in many cases) of special 
lines to carry the current load. From the 
shooting schedule standpoint, the extra 
time involved in moving equipment to 
the location, installing power lines and 
setting up lights, amounts to a very sub¬ 
stantial item. 

After the shooting script has been ap- 






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proved, the director of the film and his 
assistant break it down into a shooting 
schedule, which is nothing more than a 
calendar of filming. If possible the entire 
script is taken apart and a definite time 
is set for shooting each scene. A well- 
planned shooting schedule can save a 
world of time and confusion for the pro¬ 
duction staff. 

In setting up the shooting schedule, 
list for earliest shooting the scenes which 
require the least staging. In this way you 
will be getting a good part of your script 
"in the can’’ in the shortest possible time 
(always a comforting thought), and you 
will also have your crew busy while the 
elements of more complicated scenes are 
being assembled. 

One of the first steps in setting up the 
shooting schedule is to go through the 
script very carefully and list the locations, 
props and personnel necessary for shoot¬ 
ing each scene—also, any special equip¬ 
ment outside of that generally available 
which must be procured. Wheels should 
immediately be set in motion to secure 
in advance everything that will be needed 
for a particular day’s shooting. Location 
sites should be scouted and selected. Spec¬ 
ial props and costumes should be ar¬ 
ranged for. Cast and additional crew 
members (if required) should be lined 
up. Any special equipment that is neces¬ 
sary should be either bought or rented. 
In short, every detail should be arranged 
for in advance, so that when the time 
comes to shoot a particular scene there 
will be no possible slip-up to cause delay. 

Make a careful check of all proposed 
interior locations to make sure that suf¬ 
ficient electrical current is available. For 
black and white filming, standard circuits 
frequently will do the trick, but for color 
filming on any substantial scale, arrange¬ 
ments will have to be made to secure a 
more powerful current. In large buildings 
or factories sufficient power may be ob¬ 
tained by tying an auxiliary cable directly 
into the main switchboard. The mainten¬ 
ance man on the premises should be called 
in to make this connection, since he is 
usually familiar with the board and its 
separate circuits. Where such an arrange¬ 
ment is not practical, it may be necessary 
to arrange for a special transformer or 
generator. In any event, all such arrange¬ 
ments should be made well in advance. 

Props and costumes provide a problem 
all their own. Wherever possible these 
should be borrowed or rented. Quite of¬ 
ten, however, it is necessary to make 
special costumes and build props. This 
should be done while the crew is busy 
shooting routine shots. 

In deciding which scenes are to be 
filmed, several elements must be taken 
into consideration. As a general rule, 
scenes in a common locale or with the 
same crew members should be grouped 


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March, 1949 


o 


American Cinematographer 


95 













FOR TABLE TOP MOVIES of winter scenes, 
use moth flakes for snow. To simulate 
hills or rocky terrain, use crumpled paper. 
Before sprinkling surface with moth 
flakes, spray with a tacky solution con¬ 
sisting of diluted mucilage applied with 
a fly-spray gun. 

• 

USE YOUR TYPEWRITER TITLER for 

shooting ultra-closeups of flowers, insects, 
and other nature subjects. Simply frame 
your subject within the title card frame, 
making sure that subject is kept the same 
distance from lens as indicated for title 
cards. 

• 

WHEN SPLICES FAIL TO HOLD because 
cement is too thin (thus drying too rapi¬ 
dly) add a piece of film to the cement— 
about two frames from which emulsion 
has been thoroughly removed. 

• 

ATTACH A TWO-WAY spirit level to 
your tripod base to insure setting camera 
level each time. Levels may be purchased 
at small cost from hardware stores or but¬ 
cher supply houses. Mount level on thin 
metal plate drilled to fit over tripod screw, 

between camera and tripod head. 

• 

RIGHT ANCLE PRISM FINDERS, available 
at most war surplus stores, make excellent 
finders for shooting movies unobstrusively 
of children or others shy of the camera. 
Gadget enables you to point at subject 
while facing away at right angle. 

• 

PUNCH A SMALL HOLE i n the rubber 
cap on your camera lens to permit 
breathing’ and thus prevent oxidation 
of your lens, where camera is stored for 
long periods of time with lens capped. 

• 

TO PREVENT PROJECTOR being pulled to 
floor by careless feet entangling the ex¬ 
tension cord, twist cord around table 
leg three times before plugging into pro¬ 
jector. 

NOISY PROJECTORS can be "sound¬ 
proofed” by placing over them a "blimp” 
made of a corrugated carton of suitable 
size in which openings have been cut for 
the light beam and exhaust from lamp 
house. 

• 

AFTER USINC YOUR CAMERA at the 

beach, at sea, or near the ocean, clean all 
bright trim thoroughly with carbon- tet¬ 
rachloride to remove any deposits of salt 
spray that might permanently mar the 
finish. 


together for shooting, even though they 
might be widely scattered in the actual 
sequence of the script. Thus, if scenes 22, 
83, and 147 all take place in the same 
far-flung locale, it is common sense to 
schedule them for shooting at the same 
time, instead of making three separate 
trips to the location. While shooting in 
sequence might be dramatically more 
understandable for the actors, it is rarely 
as economical as grouping scenes for max¬ 
imum efficiency in filming. 

If the time alloted for filming the pic¬ 
ture is limited, as is usually the case in 
the commercial film, it is wise to set up 
an alternate shooting schedule for inter¬ 
iors or exteriors. In this regard, weather 
should be the deciding factor. Exteriors 
should be scheduled for shooting first, 
weather permitting—but an alternate in¬ 
terior sequence should be penciled in just 
in case a monsoon overtakes the crew on 
the day scheduled for filming. With nec¬ 
essary prepartions for the standby se¬ 
quence made in advance, the crew need 
only move indoors to continue shooting. 
In complicated sequences, always allot an 
extra day or two for unforeseen hold-ups, 
as these are almost certain to occur. 

There is another factor which is often 
ignored, but which can raise the very 
devil with the shooting schedule and the 
ultimate delivery of the finished film, 
and that is the time that must be alloted 
for lab processing, sound recording and 
any other services which the producer 


is quite easy to note because a relatively 
small movement of the light valve will 
cause the needle to move over quite a 
distance. 

A color temperature meter should be 
readily portable. Large, ungainly devices 
that are cumbersome and awkard to lug 
around are, in general, considered to be 
unsatisfactory. A satisfactory device should 
preferably be small enough to slip into 
a shirt pocket. The Norwood C-T meter 
works on such a strikingly satisfactory 
principle that it is possible to make the 
instrument small enough to slip into a 
shirt pocket. 

A desirable C-T meter should be mod¬ 
erate in cost. A reasonable cost for a color 
temperature meter would be about the 
same as for a first class type exposure 
meter. The design of the Norwood C-T 
meter is such as to facilitate quantity pro¬ 
duction procedures, with respect to run- 
of-the-mill cells, galvanometers, filters, 
and other elements of the electrical cir¬ 
cuits. In addition, this meter does not 
require costly linkages and numerous 
moving parts. Therefore the production 
cost will be relatively low and the meter 

• 


must have done outside of his own or¬ 
ganization. Very often the producer, know¬ 
ing the working speed of his own crew, 
will promise the client a completed film 
on a certain date, only to find that delivery 
is delayed by an unforeseen hold-up at 
the lab. Know your outside services and 
the time schedules upon which they oper¬ 
ate. Check to see exactly how long it 
takes to have a work-print made and edge- 
numbered, how long it takes to process 
original footage, how much time must 
be allotted for recording and re-recording. 
Be sure to allow time for mailing both 
ways to plants located outside of the city. 
When all these estimates have been made, 
add a few extra days to your estimate just 
for safety. 

If, in the planning of the shooting 
schedule, it is found that certain scenes 
require preparation that is unduly elabor¬ 
ate to the effect of the scene in the fin¬ 
ished picture, modifications should be 
made. Very often it is possible to revise 
the shooting requirements of the scene 
to secure the same effect with a much 
simpler set-up. Using a bit of originality, 
it is often possible to convey a feeling 
of great production value with staging 
that is really quite simple to set up. 

In any event, production planning is 
easily worth whatever time the 16mm. 
commercial producer invests in it. It 
should be instituted as normal routine if 
a truly professional approach to produc¬ 
tion is desired. 


will sell for a very reasonable price. 

The Norwood C-T meter is provided 
with a unique type of scale which offers 
some rather advantageous features. To 
begin with, the scale is very long for such 
a small instrument. The overall scale 
length is four inches. This long scale 
provides for well separated scale divis¬ 
ions. This makes for very easy and ac¬ 
curate reading of the scale. Next, the 
scale plate is readily demountable. It 
may be attached in position in just a 
moment. Various alternate scale plates 
are available. 

One scale plate may be calibrated in 
terms of Degrees Kelvin for a useful 
color temperature scale, extending from 
2000°K to 20,000°K. 

Another scale may be calibrated in the 
newer color temperature units termed 
"Mireds.” Mireds mean micro-reciprocal- 
degrees. A mired scale offers some im¬ 
portant advantages. The photographically 
useful mired scale extends from 50 to 
500 mireds. No one has to use this scale 
but it will be available for those who 
wish it. 

Another scale plate which is available 


NEW NORWOOD COLOR TEMPERATURE METER 

(Continued from Page 85) 


96 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 














is very interesting and appears to be one 
which will have extensive use. This scale 
is based on the premise that utmost simp¬ 
licity of operation and most direct read¬ 
ing of results are important objectives. 
For example, suppose that a photographer 
is working outdoors with color film, in 
uncontrolled illumination. Under these 
conditions it is quite probable that he will 
have to use a filter over the camera lens 
in order to make the transmitted light 
match the characteristics of the film in 
the camera. What he desires then of a 
color temperature meter is the most direct 
indication of the proper filter to use under 
the circumstances. If translation from a 
Degrees Kelvin scale through tables, car¬ 
ried in the pocket, etc., to a final answer 
in terms of what filter to use, can be 
avoided, so much the better. 

The Norwood C-T meter is equipped 
to provide a direct answer in terms of the 
appropriate correction filter. A scale plate, 
which may be attached to the meter, is 
calibrated directly in terms of filters for a 
given type of film. Available also is a 
demountable scale plate for outdoor color 
film, such as Kodachrome Outdoor or 
Ansco Color Outdoor, and Harrison fil¬ 
ters. Operation of the meter is quite easy. 
The appropriate scale is snapped into 
position. The meter is pointed toward 



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STAINLESS PRODUCTS 




March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


97 












































• Karl Brown, who just returned from 
location in Southern Mississippi where 
he shot James Cruze s production, ' Mag¬ 
nolia,'’ moved into his new home in the 
Hollywood hills, which boasted a lavish 
photographic darkroom as one of its many 
features. 

• Frank B. Good got a breather be 
tween pictures when he wound up the 
photography on "Boy Of Flanders,” which 
starred Jackie Coogan. 

• Victor Milner, who photographed 
the picture, was supervising the making 
of release prints for Fred Niblo’s "Thy 
Name Is Woman.” 

• George Schneiderman was on loca¬ 
tion in Wadsworth, Nevada, filming the 
Fox production, "Transcontinental Rail¬ 
road.” 

• James Van Trees put the final scene 
of "Lilies Of The Field” in the can at 
First National and prepared to take an 
extended vacation. 

® Jackson Rose was at Universal shoot¬ 
ing "An Old Man’s Darling,” which 
starred Laura LaPlante. Previously, he 
had photographed P. P. Sheehan’s initial 
production foir Universal—"Innocent,” 
a King Baggot feature. 

• Fred Jackman received a deserving 
accolade from the Los Angeles Times 
which published an article commending 
his direction of the Hal Roach release, 
"King Of Wild Horses,” photographed 
by his brother, Floyd Jackman. 

• REGGI Lyons resumed his association 
with J. Stuart Blackton, with whom he 
had been cinematographer many years 
before, and started shooting Blackton’s 
Vitagraph production, "Between Friends.” 

9 Notice in the March, 1924 issue of 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
stated: A.S.C. Members are seldom at 
liberty. When they are, they may be 
reached by phoning or writing A.S.C. 
headquarters. 

• Dan Clark wound up the photo¬ 
graphy on "Fine And Dandy,” starring 
Tom Mix, and began preparations im¬ 
mediately to shoot another Tom Mix 
feature, The Trouble Shooter.” 

• Twenty-five Years Ago it was cus¬ 
tomary for the cinematographer to super¬ 
vise the making of all release prints on 
important productions. Engaged in this 
activity in March, 1924, were: Arthur 
Edeson on Doug Fairbanks Sr’s., "Thief 
Of Bagdad,” Charles Rosher on Mary 
Pickford’s Dorothy Vernon of Haddon 
Hall,” and Victor Milner on Fred Niblo’s 
"Thy Name Is Woman.” 


the light source. The light valve is turned 
until the null reading is shown on the 
galvanometer. Adjacent to the rim index 
line will be found an indication of the 
proper filter to use. Very simple. An 
additional convenience has been provided 
by showing the appropriate filter factor 
adjacent to each filter reading on the 
scale plate. 

Alternate scale plates are available for 
other makes of filters and other types of 
color films. The average photographer will 
probably be equipped with one brand of 
filters and likely will not make frequent 
changes of type of color film in his cam¬ 
era. Under these conditions there will be 
no need for frequent changes of scale 
plate on the meter, although such changes 
are very easily made when desired, as has 
been pointed out. 

A very important feature of the Nor¬ 
wood C-T meter is the fact that its opera¬ 
tion is independent of the light intensity. 
It is a null-reading type of instrument 
that functions with balanced electrical 
circuits. Due to this fact, variations in 
light intensity will not affect the meter. 
The meter is sensitive exclusively to 
changes in color temperature of illumina¬ 
tion. 

Consider what this means in studio 
practice. An important use of a color 
temperature meter in the studio is to 
check each light unit and achieve a pro¬ 
per color temperature of light radiated 
therefrom. With some types of color tem¬ 
perature meters it is necessary to go 
through a cycle of operations to adjust 
the meter to the intensity of the light 
before a color temperature reading can 


Joseph Valentine, A.S.C., Joan Of 
Arc” (Sierra-R.K.O.), 

William V. Skall, A.S.C., "Joan Of 
Arc” (Sierra-R.K.O.), 

Winton Hoch, A.S.C., Joan Of Arc” 
(Sierra-R.K.O). 

"Joan Of Arc,” probably one of the 
most extensive Technicolor motion pic¬ 
ture undertakings in recent years, was a 
three-way camera asignment demanding 
the services of Joseph Valentine, William 
V. Skall and Winton Hoch. Should this 
picture be selected by the Academy of 
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as the 
best in the color division, Valentine, Skall 
and Hoch will share equally in the award, 
each receiving an Oscar in recognition of 
their contribution in the filming of this 
picture. 

Actually the pictures and not the men 
who filmed them are the contenders for 
the Academy Awards, but of course the 
directors of photography shall receive the 


be taken. Suppose the color temperature 
of the light is too high. If an electrician 
reduces the color temperature of the light 
by reducing voltage or by installation of 
a filter, the intensity as well as the color 
temperature is reduced. Then the cycle 
of operations of that meter must be re¬ 
peated. It might be necessary to run 
through the cycle four or five times to 
reach the proper color temperature for 
one lamp. Repeat this for each lamp, 
and a tedious routine is involved. 

The Norwood C-T meter is quite in¬ 
dependent of variation in light intensity. 
This makes it possible to present the 
Norwood C-T meter to the desired color 
temperature by simply turning the light- 
valve element until the desired reading 
shows on the scale plate. Then the meter 
is pointed at the studio lamp. If the light 
is too red or too blue that fact will be 
indicated on the galvanometer dial. The 
studio lamp is then adjusted until the 
null reading shows on the meter. At that 
time the studio lamp has the correct color 
temperature. It is as simple as that. 

It will probably be evident to the ex¬ 
perienced cinematographer that a great 
deal of careful thought has gone into the 
design of this Norwood C-T meter. A 
constant objective of the designer has 
been to produce an instrument that would, 
as nearly as possible, be ideal from the 
photographer’s point of view. It has been 
made compact, rugged, accurate, free from 
complicated parts, simple to operate, easy 
to read, gives directly significant indica¬ 
tions, and is so designed that it may be 
produced at a very reasonable cost. 


Oscars when the final results are an¬ 
nounced. The eleven films under consid¬ 
eration and listed above are currently be¬ 
ing voted on by some 2000 members of 
the Academy to select the best black and 
white and the best color production of 
1948. The winners will be announced, 
along with the best achievements in other 
branches of creative motion picture pro¬ 
duction, at the gala annual Academy 
Award presentation which will take place 
this year at the Academy’s own theatre 
in Beverly Hills, on the night of March 
24th. 

The nine contending films were select¬ 
ed by the top directors of photography in 
the industry from a list of 47 films nomi¬ 
nated by the men who filmed them. Each 
year each director of photography is in¬ 
vited to nominate one production in 
either or both black and white or color 
on which he has received single or joint 
screen credit. This is included on a pre- 


1948 NOMINEES 

(Continued from Page 81) 


98 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 






















liminary or primary ballot which is sent 
to each director of photography in the in¬ 
dustry who then votes for ten or less 
productions in black and white and eight 
in color in the order of his preference. 
The eighteen productions thus selected 
are then screened by the Academy to give 
all directors of photography an oppor¬ 
tunity to see these productions under the 
same conditions. 

At the conclusion of the screenings an¬ 
other ballot, listing the eighteen produc¬ 
tions, is then sent to all directors of pho¬ 
tography who vote for five black and 
white and four color productions in the 
order of their preference. The nine pro¬ 
ductions receiving the greatest number of 
votes are nominated for the annual Cine¬ 
matographic Achievement awards. Only 
Academy members participate in the final 
voting—the procedure now going on and 
which culminates in the final announce¬ 
ments March 24th. 

Of the eleven men whose films are 
nominated for 1948 awards, only one— 
Charles B. Lang, Jr.—has graced the win¬ 
ner’s circle in the past. That was in 1933 
when he was awarded an Oscar for his 
photography of 'Farewell To Arms.” 

Not a single foreign film nominee sur¬ 
vived the finals. In the initial nomina¬ 
tions were eleven black and white and 
four color foreign productions. Of these, 
only ’’Hamlet,’’ "An Ideal Husband,” and 
’The Red Shoes” survived the first or 
preliminary ballot and were listed among 
the eighteen films placed on the second 
or nominating ballot. 

A full account of the winning films 
and the men who photographed them will 
appear in the April issue of American 
Cinematographer. 


THE RED SHOES 


(Continued from Page 83) 

travelled to Hollywood to confer with 
technical experts in the science of set 
lighting, and returned with blueprints for 
an arc light that could be boosted from 
the usual 150 amps, to 200 amps. Even 
this monster lamp, however, failed to give 
him enough light for the effect he re¬ 
quired. 

After consultation with Mole-Richard- 
son and Taylor Hobson Cooke, a lamp was 
conceived that would make a searchlight 
look like a pocket flashlight. It took many 
months to design the lamp and make the 
lenses, but both firms had the new unit 
ready by the first day of shooting. It was 
a 300 amp., water-cooled arc that pro¬ 
duced a comfortable 1,200 foot-candles 
100 ft. away from the subject. It con¬ 
tributes much to the authentic ballet at¬ 
mosphere of the staging. 

The new 225 amp. Mole - Richardson 





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The head, made of Dow 
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March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


90 





















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' Brute’’ was another important item in 
the staging of the ballets for The Red 
Shoes.” Cardiff managed to obtain two 
of these in Hollywood and had them 
flown to England just in time for the 
filming of the dances. These big arcs 
could cover the entire corps-de-ballet in 
one clear source of light, and still produce 
a Technicolor light level. 

Several very unusual special effects 
were devised especially for the ballet se¬ 
quence, and some were adaptations of 
previously accepted techniques. 

One of the most effective transitions, 
that of the full stage changing from day 
to night, was done by dissolving five sep¬ 
arate background paintings. The "dance 
of exhaustion” was shot straight at nor¬ 
mal speed against a series of planned con¬ 
tinuous transparent screens hung with 
cellophane. The whole emotional effect 
was produced by the movement of the 
dancer. 

In one sequence huge transparent leaves 
swirl down around the dancer. This was 
shot at varying speeds, none higher than 
fifty-six frames a second. The cellophane 
falling leaves were released by hundreds 
of invisible wires. The set itself was com¬ 
posed by arranging transparent screens. 

The effect of the huge shadows of the 
Shoemaker’s hands menacing the dancer 
was achieved by using two 25 amp. brutes 
with the condenser lens replaced by a 
sheet of plain glass. 

The striking effect of the dancer soar¬ 
ing through a changing surrealistic land¬ 
scape was gained through the use of the 
"Gunnshot” procress, developed in Eng¬ 
land by George Gunn of Technicolor. The 
setting was created through the use of 
painted backings of cellophane sheets, 
cellophane foregrounds and chemical ef¬ 
fects produced in water. The dancer was 
super-imposed by Gunn’s traveling matte 
process. 

One very effective sequence is that in 
which a pile of newspapers on the ground 


begins to swirl and dance until it as¬ 
sumes the outline of a figure which sud¬ 
denly changes into a man. This news¬ 
paper dance was shot at varying speeds. 
For example, one continuous shot started 
at eight frames a second and finished at 
thirty-two. The newspaper figure was con¬ 
structed by the trick department and hung 
on wires puppet fashion so that it could 
be rehearsed to the music. The effect of 
the figure changing into the dancer and 
vice versa was done by cutting at the 
exact frame, tests having shown that dis¬ 
solves were too slow. This dance ends 
with the dancer leaping at 48 frames 
which changes to 24 as he touches the 
ground. 

An especially effective shot is that which 
is filmed from the back of the stage out 
toward the audience, with roaring waves 
filling the auditorium. This was a straight 
double exposure of the studio set, a paint¬ 
ing, and a real shot of the sea made at 
Cornwall. Footlights on the stage were 
partly practical and partly painted. This 
must have been a very difficult shot to 
balance. 

Even the smallest cut was shot to a play¬ 
back of the complete musical score, and 
it was as much the precision of the danc¬ 
ers as that of the technicians that made 
the sequence possible. 

While the 'Red Shoes” ballet is the 
dramatic and visual climax of the film, 
it is only a small part of the picture’s 2V2 
hour length. The film contains many 
other excellent sequences filmed on loca¬ 
tion in Monte Carlo, Paris and other ex¬ 
otic spots. The beautiful settings and 
wonderful mood lighting are a perfect 
complement to an intriguing dramatic 
story. For Jack Cardiff it was a camera¬ 
man’s dream,” embracing the warm scenic 
beauty of the Cote D’Azur, the splendor 
of first nights in European capitals, the 
hard work and play and squabbles of an 
international ballet company. For the 
audience it is a rare clinematic experience 


A. S. C.’s RESEARCH FOR TELEVISION 

(Continued from Page 86) 


of this relatively strange new instrument 
of photography. Inevitably there will be 
some who will prefer to pursue this 
phase of television work rather than the 
making of films for television. 

It is, of course, the motion picture in¬ 
dustry’s repeated affirmation to enter the 
field of TV film production on a large 
scale that prompts the Society’s interest 
in pursuing research now. For if the 
studios ultimately undertake to supply 
television with films especially made for 
the medium, the photography will become 
one of the most important factors contrib¬ 


uting to such films’ success. Obviously 
directors of photography would be dere¬ 
lict in their duty not to give the prospect 
their immediate attention. 

Substantiating the view that the mo¬ 
tion picture industry is vitally interested 
in production of films for video is the 
recent announcement that National Broad¬ 
casting Company heads had engaged in 
"exploratory” discusions with Warner 
Brothers on the production of special films 
for telecasting by the network. 

William Paley, of C.B.S., was subse¬ 
quently reported ready to lead the Co- 




100 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 




















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release special made TV films are Boris 
Morris, Samuel Bronsten and Allen Kent. 
These are just a few of Hollywood’s fea¬ 
ture film producers making motions in 
this direction. The town is full of small 
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American Cinematographer 


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and if called upon to do so. And as can¬ 
didates for live show television camera¬ 
men, members of the A. S. C., given rea¬ 
sonable training in the fundamentals of 
electronics, are especially qualified by rea¬ 
son of their long and specialized experi¬ 
ence in studio set lighting and camera 
techniques. Both the television and mo¬ 
tion picture industries, we are sure, will 
be glad to know of the forthright and 
constructive action which the Society is 
presently undertaking. 


NEW LENS TESTING 
METHOD 

(Continued from Page 88) 

trace of light on an oscilloscope. 

"By using a microscope as a camera 
lens, the tiniest image detail can be mag¬ 
nified to a size so large as to occupy the 
whole kinescope screen, or to produce 
large, accurate traces on the oscilloscope. 
The light sensitivity of the image orthi- 
con camera tube permits instantaneous 
observation and measurement of detail 
response beyond that of the best camera 
lenses, and even of lower-power micro¬ 
scope objectives. 

"The trace on the oscilloscope can be 
calibrated quickly, easily, and accurately 
by focusing on the photosurface of the 
television pickup tube a measured amount 
of light sufficient to cancel one of the dark 
lines in the kinescope image. 

"A general method has been worked 
out for measuring and plotting the detail 
response of lenses, film, and television 
image devices in the form of curves show¬ 
ing all values of detail response from zero 
to the limiting resolution, and for various 
angles and colors of light. 

"A simple method is also provided for 
finding the overall response of systems in 
which several imaging processes occur, 
such as a motion picture process involving 
camera lens, film, and projection lens, or 
an even more complicated television proc¬ 
ess where a scene may be picked up by a 
camera lens, transformed into an electrical 
image by a television picture tube, limited 
in resolution by an electrical channel, re¬ 
constructed as an optical image by a kine¬ 
scope, and projected by an optical lens to 
a viewing screen.” 


CINEMATOGRAPHER’S 
PLACE IN TELEVISION 


(Continued from Page 87) 


been a newsreel cameraman and photo¬ 
grapher of commercial films when I de¬ 
cided to get into television. Filming foot¬ 
ball games with a newsreel camera had 
been my forte, so it was natural that I 
should be interested in watching the local 
(Continued on Page 104) 






102 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 


























off the 

KINESCOPE 

tube... 


PRINTS FOR TELEVISION 

35mm • 16mm 


LEW O’CONNELL, A.S.C. after thoroughly 
exploring the one-minute’ commercial 
field, is producing a series of spot an¬ 
nouncement films for a Los Angeles dog 
food manufacturer. Enterprise is O’Con¬ 
nell’s own in which he produces the films 
completely, photographing, editing, titl¬ 
ing them as well as recording the sound 
for same. 

★ 

K LAC-TV w ill install kinescope recording 
equipment this month, to be readied for 
regular operation beginning April 1st. 

★ 

COL. NATHAN LEVINSON, 0 f Warner 
Brothers, is developing improved type 
of mobile kinescope unit that will have 
special shock absorbing equipment, en¬ 
abling unit to be transported anywhere. 
Equipment will enable station to record 
daytime events on the spot for delayed 
telecast in the evening. 

★ 

TELEVISION will give the motion picture 
industry its greatest impetus since the 
advent of sound said Spyros Skouras re¬ 
cently, citing that theatre TV is inevitable. 

★ 

KINESCOPE recording equipment was in¬ 
stalled early in February in NBC’s tele¬ 
vision station KNBH in Hollywood. The 
equipment will make it possible for sta¬ 
tion to record on film the programs pre¬ 
sented by KNBH for later presentation 
by other NBC stations. 

★ 

BELL TELEPHONE’S base rate for a tele¬ 
vision channel between two cities is re¬ 
ported at $35.00 per month per airline 
mile for eight consecutive hours per day. 
Charge for station connections in each 
city are $500 per month per station. 

★ 

FEATURE FILMS MADE IN future primar¬ 
ily for television, says Samuel Goldwyn, 
will differ chiefly in technique variation. 
There will be greater emphasis on story 
values, a return to lustier, broader type 
of acting, pacing will be more rapid and 
running time will be limited to one hour. 
★ 

PHILADELPHIA i s reported first city to 
place censorship restrictions on all motion 
pictures for television in that city. Re¬ 
gulation is being fought by local TV 
stations. 

★ 

A PORTABLE TELEVISION screen has been 
developed that can. be detached from the 
set and carried into another room. 


A continuing program of research has enabled us to pro¬ 
vide the television industry with the best prints for TV 
film programs, assuring highest quality picture reception 

Exhaustive tests have provided our engi¬ 
neers with data on film densities best suited 
to the peculiar needs of the TV pickup tube. 

Insure the success of your TV films by having them de¬ 
veloped and printed by the laboratory that has consis¬ 
tently served the motion picture industry for the past 
thirty years. 


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March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


103 




















BOOKS you'll want to read.. 


Electron-optics, by Paul Hatschek. 
American Photographic Publishing Co., 
$3.50. 

When this book was written in 1935- 
36, electron-optics was in its infancy, al¬ 
though it had already made it possible to 
build a number of remarkable devices, 
such as for example the kinescope tubes 
for television, etc. The author s purpose 
was to present fundamentals of this sci¬ 
ence in a simplified form so its mysteries 
could be revealed to a wide audience of 
readers who had no previous acquaintance 
with the subject. The book is a must for 
students of television. In short it is a text¬ 
book of the fundamentals of electronics 
written in plain language. Its 180 pages 
are profusely illustrated with photos and 
understandable diagrams. 

• 

Photographic Emulsion Technique, 
by T. 'Thorne Baker, F.R.P.S. American 
Photographic Publishing Co., Boston. 
$7.50. 

This book covers the full gamut of sci¬ 
ence and production of photographic 
emulsions and deals with the subject from 
the beginning to present day methods and 
experiments. The book is intended not 
only as a guide for practical emulsion 
making, but as a textbook for technical 
students, industrial chemists, and photog¬ 
raphers generally who may wish, for 
some special reason, to prepare photo¬ 
graphic emulsions of a special type to suit 
their needs. Generously illustrated, the 
book’s 340 pages will provide a valuable 
fund of knowledge and data for both ama¬ 
teur and professional, as well as the scien¬ 
tist. 

• 

Films In Business and Industry, by 
Henry Clay Gipson. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., $4.00. 

This book is a timely guide to modern 
practices in the use and production of 
non-theatrical motion pictures and slide- 
films. Generously illustrated and contain¬ 
ing many case histories, the volume dis¬ 
cusses the various ways in which films 
can be profitably applied to business, 
personnel training, advertising of pro¬ 
ducts and services, promoting safety cam¬ 
paigns, etc. To anyone contemplating the 
production of such films, it gives valuable 
and helpful guidance. 

The special sections devoted to the 
use of films in television and related 
fields, make the book of unusual interest 
to those engaged in television film pro¬ 
duction. 


Better Color Movies, by Fred Bond. 
Camera Craft Publishing Co., $5.00. 

The author of the now famous "West¬ 
ward How,” comprehensive photographic 
guide to the West, now brings the color 
movie enthusiast the benefit of his years 
of study and experience in working exclu¬ 
sively with color; beginning with color 
movies more than fifteen years ago when 
Kodachrome film was first introduced. 
The book is devoted to all the more com¬ 
mon problems of the amateur movie 
maker. Its 156 pages is abundantly illus¬ 
trated with both black and white and 
color photos and helpful charts. It deals 
with color cinematography and lighting, 
both indoors and out; the calculation of 
exposure; night photography; color con¬ 
tinuity, etc. A real must for every cinema¬ 
tographer, professional as well as amateur. 

• 

British Film Industry Year Book, 
edited by John Sullivan. Film Press, Ltd., 
London, England. An unusually compre¬ 
hensive information volume which in¬ 
cludes such data as British feature films 
completed in 1947; British studios and 
personnel; text of workers’ contract agree¬ 
ments; roster of actors and actresses; al¬ 
phabetical listing of technicians, etc. List¬ 
ings of players and personnel includes 
recent credits. 

Principles of Stereoscopy, by Herbert 
C. McCay. American Photographic Pub¬ 
lishing Co., $5.00. 

The author, a popular writer on many 
photographic subjects, from years of ex¬ 
perience tells enough of the theory to 
give a complete grasp of the principles 
involved. He then proceeds to give de¬ 
tailed directions for each of the steps 
required to make successful stereograms. 
The book’s 190 pages are amply illus¬ 
trated with pictures and diagrams. Its 19 
chapters cover every phase of the art from 
elementary stereography to practical stereo 
technique, and goes on to cover special 
proceses and applications. 

Writer McKay knows his subject well 
and has covered it fully and comprehen¬ 
sively. His aim was to give the beginner 
guidance which will enable him to derive 
utmost benefit from the an; and he has 
succeeded well. 




104 • American Cinematographer • March, 1949 


grid games on television. The camera 
work on the first game I chanced to see 
on a television receiver convinced me 
there was opportunity for an experienced 
newsreel man to improve the quality of 
TV coverage of grid games, so I decided 
to look into it. I applied for the job at 
KLAC-TV in Hollywood, was accepted, 
and after a brief schooling in the elec¬ 
tronics phase of television camera work, 
was sent out to cover one of the west’s 
important football games without ever 
having photographed with a TV camera. 

One of the excellent features of a TV 
camera that a cinematographer notices 
first is the electronic viewfinder, which 
enables him to see the scene exactly as 
it is picked by his camera lens. This is 
directly in back of the camera and with 
the studio RCA cameras the hood is 
hinged so that the finder may easily be 
used with the camera set at various 
heights. The camera has a rotary 7 four- 
lens turret and usually comes equipped 
with three Ektar lenses of various focal 
lengths, ranging from 50mm. to 135mm. 
The turret is rotated by turning a knob 
at back of the camera. The lenses are 
focused by operating a lever on the side 
of the camera that moves the pickup tube 
toward or away from the camera lens. 
Of course, there is a preliminary focusing 
of the lens that takes place before shoot¬ 
ing begins and with some cameras the 
lens diaphragms are locked in position, 
once the desired stop is established. 

Once the TV camera is on the air, it 
remains on during the entire interval of 
the broadcast. This means the camera¬ 
man is operating the camera every min¬ 
ute. The director of the program relays 
his instructions to the cameraman by in¬ 
tercom and there is a red light that glows 
inside the viewfinder to indicate when 
the camera is cut into the main channel 
and its pickup is actually going out on 
the air—this, where two or more cameras 
are focused on a scene or remote event 
such as a football game. Back in the con¬ 
trol room, the results of the TV cameras 
are channeled to their respective monitors. 
Here the electronics engineer or program 
director watches each monitor and inter¬ 
cuts the various camera pickups to pro¬ 
vide an interplay of camera angles from 
long shot to closeup, as the script or his 
judgment demands. 

Obviously it is impossible for the TV 
cameraman to follow a script or cue 
sheet, so the program director does it 
for him, sending instructions for changing 
camera angle or lens over the intercom. 

My most interesting remote assignment 
was photographing the USC-Notre Dame 
football game last year at the Los An¬ 
geles Coliseum, with KLAC’s television 
cameraman Arch Griffin on the other 
camera. There are always two or more 
cameras photographing a television event, 
indoors or out. The important thing the 



TV cameraman must develop is the ability 
to work smoothly with his teammate; to 
know his technique, how he thinks and 
to anticipate not only his next move but 
that of the program director. In no other 
field of photography is this so important. 
Smooth teamwork is a prime requisite. 

In the matter of lighting studio broad¬ 
casts, I think that KLAC-TV is the first 
to thoroughly explore the application of 
motion picture lighting techniques. Work¬ 
ing closely with lighting technicians in 
the motion picture industry, they have 
engaged one of Hollywood’s top flight 
lighting engineers. Typical motion pic¬ 
ture studio lighting equipment has been 
brought in, along with dimmer banks 
and other lighting controls, and for the 
first time in the history of West Coast 
television, KLAC-TV is giving its audi¬ 
ences real motion picture lighting on its 
live broadcasts. 

One important motion picture techni¬ 
que we hope to develop more thoroughly 
here is the "reverse shot,” in which one 
TV camera virtually shoots against the 
other, with one camera concealed behind 
a screen or flat with a camouflaged open¬ 
ing for the lens. This innovation—for 
television, at least—was introduced re¬ 
cently by one New York TV station and 
only proves again that there are many 
cinematic techniques which also are suit¬ 
able for TV photography, and will be in¬ 
troduced as more and more cinemato¬ 
graphers come into television either as 
cameraman or as consultants. 

The qualities necessary for a good tele¬ 
vision cameraman are many, but I think 
the most important are: that he be as 
nimble as a cat, have the memory of an 
elephant, and the ability to anticipate ac¬ 
tion like a mongoose. The successful tele¬ 
vision cameraman will be a new breed, 
combining these physical characteristics 
with a wide knowledge or experience in 
motion picture photography, a keen ear 
for sound, and, if possible, some elec¬ 
tronics experience. Moreover, I believe 
that many of television s directors of the 
future are to be found within the ranks 
of Hollywoods cinematographers who are 
especially qualified for the job by virtue 
of their specialized training in motion 
picture production. 

I recall a prophetic incident that oc¬ 
curred to me several years ago when I 
was a motion picture cameraman in the 
army. I had met David Sarnoff by chance 
and we got to talking about cinemato¬ 
graphy and its relation to the future of 
television. Mr. Sarnoff said that every 
motion picture cameraman should look 
forward to the advent of commercial tele¬ 
vision and advised me to get into it. I 
didn t realize at the time the significance 
of his words; but here I am today, work¬ 
ing behind a television camera. And I 
think that shortly we shall see other cine¬ 
matographers filling a similar role. 



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March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


105 




















2 IMPORTANT 
BOOKS 


For Every Movie Maker, 
Amateur Or Professional 



Source of QUICK ANSWERS to such ques¬ 
tions as: “What is the angle of view of my 
25mm. lens?” “What’s the depth of focus of 
my 50mm. lens at 12 feet?” "How much 
film will a 30 second take consume at 24 
f.p.s.?” “What’s the Weston daylight rating 
of Ansco Ultra-Pan negative?” “What stop 
shall I use to shoot at 8 f.p.s. if exposure at 
16 f.p.s. is f/4.5?” And thousands more! 
A handbook that’s a must for every motion 
picture cameraman, professional or amateur. 

Price $5.00 Postpaid 



Rare! Published in 1930, limited number of 
original editions availabe! Written by top 
technicians in the motion picture industry, 
book includes chapters on timely subjects 
ranging from Optical science of cinemato¬ 
graphy to color photography, lighting, sound 
recording, etc. Printed on fine coated paper; 
hundreds of illustrations; bound in blue 
leatherette. 

Special price $3.50 Postpaid 

American Society Of Cinematographers 

1782 No. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


FIRELIGHT THAT’S REAL 


(Continued from Page 84) 


of an array of twenty-four 1000- or 2000- 
watt lamps suspended at various heights 
before a curved metal reflector, about 
three by four feet in size. Each of the 
lamps is made to flicker off and on at in¬ 
tervals by the flasher, which is similar in 
principle to an electric sign flasher. A 
multi-wire cable extends from the flasher 
to the reflector and feeds the lamps. 

Figure 3. shows a top view of the flash¬ 
er. In the immediate foreground is the 
revolving cylinder with twenty-four con¬ 
tact points which touch the cylinder and 
excite 24 solenoids which in turn send 
current momentarily to the lamps. The 
order, frequency and duration of light 
flashes is governed by the area of the cyl¬ 
inder left exposed to each of the contact 
points. This can be altered as required, de¬ 
pending on the type of firelight desired. 
And there are quite a number of varia¬ 
tions, as Gregg Toland found out after 
considerable study and observation of fires 
of various types. 

As the cylinder rotates, the points are 
made to break, causing the momentary 
flash of the various lamps. Because the 
unit can be varied in frequency, speed 
and intensity, any type of firelight can be 
simulated by the turn of a dial, and the 
lights themselves dimmed or brightened 
for any lens opening. In "Wuthering 
Heights’’ the unit was employed to create 
the illusion of light from the huge log 
fireplaces in the Georgian interiors, and 
for "Enchantment” the steadier and softer 
illumination of an English coal-grate. For 
Roseanna McCoy,” the mechanism is 
adjusted to imitate the pine-knot fires so 
popular in the Kentucky mountains. 

The circuits leading to the lamps are 
first sent through a dimmer bank, which 
permits lowering or raising the intensity 
of the flashing lamps. Other means are 
used to vary the effect such as altering the 
interval of flash, altering the location of 
the flash from first one side of the re¬ 
flector then the other, and also the bank 
of lamps is often divided into two alter¬ 
nating levels of light intensity to give 
further realism to the firelight flicker. 

Where the effect of firelight only is de¬ 
sired on the set, that is—where the fire¬ 
place or fire does not actually appear in 
the scene—the light from the large mul¬ 
tiple-lamped reflectors is usually cast into 
the scene from off stage, upon the back¬ 
ground or perhaps upon the player’s faces. 
Frequently a mirror is used to reflect this 
light into certain parts of the set. 

The frequency and intensity of flicker 
may also be varied to suit the dramatic 
situation. Thus the right firelight can 


heighten the effect for intensely dramatic 
shots, or it may be subdued—the contrast 
between shadows and light lessened—for 
a more somber mood, a slower pace. 

We saw another version of this light¬ 
ing gadget in use on the Roseanna Mc¬ 
Coy” cabin set on the Goldwyn sound 
stage. In this instance the camera faced 
the fireplace; so the flasher-lamps—much 
smaller this time—were carefully hidden 
among the prop coals in the fireplace 
grate—and their effect augmented by real 
flame fed by jets of gas. 

Sometime later, in the projection room, 
we saw the photographic result of the 
shots made on this set. It was not difficult 
for anyone who has experienced repose 
beside a warm, dancing fire at dusk to 
appreciate the realism which Garmes in¬ 
jected into those scenes. And we are sure 
that Gregg Toland, too, would have been 
happy with the result. 


SYNCHRONIZED SOUND 
FOR HOME MOVIES 

(Continued from Page 91) 

fects where needed, etc. Notes made at 
the time the film is shot will help put 
the sounds where they belong. Back¬ 
grounds and sound effects may be ob¬ 
tained from regular disc type records. 

A complete package is being offered 
in Sears, Roebuck and Co. mail order and 
retail stores which contains the required 
accessories to synchronize any silent pro¬ 
jector to a Silvertone wire recorder. This 
package also contains four 12 inch vinyl 
sound effects records, an illustrated in¬ 
struction booklet and a convenient storage 
album. It sells for $14.95 in Sears’ retail 
stores and $13-95 plus postage by mail 
order. 

While primarily developed for use 
with Sears Roebuck’s Silvertone wire re¬ 
corder, it can also be used with any other 
make wire recorder which winds the wire 
in a slot in the rim of the turntable and 
has a turntable speed of 78 R.P.M. (same 
speed as for playing standard disc rec¬ 
ords ). 

To make sound movies by this method 
you need a projector, a wire recorder, and 
a synchronizing kit. Set up the projector 
and screen in the usual manner. Place 
the wire recorder to the right or left of 
the projector, depending upon whether 
you are right or left handed. 

The kit contains two mirrors and 
brackets. One is placed at a corner of the 
screen in such a way as to pick up some 




106 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 










of the light projected onto the screen. 
It has a clamp for screens having a square 
cross piece at the top. With some screens 
it may be necessary to notch the cross 
piece, or drill a small hole to provide a 
good attachment of this mirror. Adjust 
the mirror to reflect light from the screen 
back to the recorder. The second mirror 
is then set in a screw-in fitting located 
near the recorder turntable. 

Place the synchronizing disc on the 
recorder turntable. With the projector 
running adjust the mirror on the screen 
to reflect light to the mirror on the re¬ 
corder. Adjust the mirror on the recorder 
so it reflects this light onto the strobo¬ 
scope disc. There are two sides to the 
disc, A and B. Both sides are calibrated 
for projectors operating at 16 frames per 
second, but inasmuch as all projectors do 
not have the same type shutters—some 
are two-blade, some three-blade, etc—the 
disc has a stroboscope on both sides. The 
segments on one side are calibrated for 
projectors having a shutter providing 1 
or 3 interruptions per frame, while those 
on the opposite side are calibrated for use 
with projectors giving a 2 or 4 interrup¬ 
tion shutter action. Unless you know the 
type shutter on your projector, it will be 
necessary for you to first make a test run 
with the stroboscope disc in place, in 
order to determine which side is to be 
used. 

To do this, place the disc on the re¬ 
corder turntable, with or without the re¬ 
cording wire threaded for use, then start 
projector and recorder and adjust mirrors 
until the reflected light is seen falling on 
the stroboscope disc. Adjust the projector 
speed control until the white lines or 
segments in the stroboscope disc appear 
to remain fixed. If, despite adjustment of 
the projector speed control, the segments 
cannot be made to appear motionless but 
tend to travel to the right or to the left, 
then turn the disc over and repeat the 
speed adjustment. One side or the other 
will be found to be correct, and when you 


determine which side is the one to use 
with your projector, mark it plainly for 
future reference. 

Assuming that the film has been edited, 
the leader "cued,” and a script prepared, 
thread the projector, load the wire re¬ 
corder and make ready to record. Check 
mirrors again for focusing. Have the 
script, helpers, 'sound effects man’ and 
others participating, ready. 

Start the projector and watch for the 
three dots to flash on the screen. When 
the Go’ flash appears, start the recorder 
and quickly adjust the speed control on 
the projector until the strobo disc seg¬ 
ments appear to stand still, same as when 
you made the check above. Start the sound 
part as soon as the recorder starts and 
avoid dead spots. Then go right ahead 
with the script. 

When you are through, rewind both 
wire and film. Then reload recorder, and 
rethread the projector. Start the projector, 
watch those cues,’ start the recorder on 
playback, and bring the projector into 
synchronism as before. Then sit back and 
watch how those silent films come to life. 
The participants will get a bang out of it 
too. Jf you secure good sound results 
on the first try—fine. If not, just do it 
over. You can reuse recording wire inde¬ 
finitely and when a recording is made, 
whatever is on the wire may be automati¬ 
cally erased, so it’s no problem to do it 
over. In fact you will end up by doing 
it anyway because you will invariably see 
improvements that you can make. The 
wire required for each film can be cut off 
the main spool and wound on a spare so 
it may be kept with the reel of film. 

Once you try this new, easy method of 
recording sound, the usual run of silent 
films will seem dull by comparison. The 
use of the wire recorder in this manner 
is practical and economical, especially 
since the wire can be reused without loss. 
The wire recorder also has an advantage 
over other types of recording because it 
will record or playback for as long as one 
hour without interruption. 


AMATEUR WITH PROFESSIONAL IDEAS 

(Continued from Page 92) 


ally scouts around among his neighbors 
and friends for players, casting his char¬ 
acters according to their personalities and 
appearance, or their ability to furnish 
some particular, hard-to-find costume or 
props. Nobody gets paid for acting and 
Maker already has established quite a 
stable of "stock” players, whom he can 
usually call upon to portray featured roles 
in his pictures. These include an artist, 
an Oakland newspaperman, a special po¬ 
lice officer, a dress shop owner, a Berkeley, 
Calif., mailman, and two housewives 


whose acting abilities may someday at¬ 
tract the roving eye of a Hollywood tal¬ 
ent scout. 

What makes movie making so appeal¬ 
ing to Maker is that every picture supplies 
an outlet for his wide range of talents. 
He wouldn’t be satisfied merely to set up, 
focus and shoot his camera; he wants the 
fun of not only writing the story, but of 
personally scouting all exterior locations, 
selecting wardrobe and costumes and of 
personally building any props he is unable 
to locate already made. (Cont’d on Pg. 108) 


LOW 

PRINT 

COST 


. figures down to how many 
play-days you realize from a 
print. The way to insure longer 
playing life is to have all your 
prints treated with 


& 


EERLESS 

FILM TREATMENT 

To forestall damage, have your 
prints treated where they are 
made. However, if Peerless Film 
Treatment is not available at 
your laboratory, write us for 
a list of laboratories showing 
where you can most conven¬ 
iently have your film treated. 
And, when writing, be sure to 
ash for your copy of. . . 

“20 QUESTIONS” 

This is an interesting, informative 
booklet that tells you all about 
Peerless Film Treatment . . . the 
proven vapor-in-vacuum process that 
toughens the emulsion, makes it oil 
resistant, scratch resistant, wear 
resistant. 


mess 



H 


EERLESS 

FILM PROCESSING CORP 

165 W. 46th St., New York 19, N. Y. 


RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE 

Rents .. Sells .. Exchanges 

Everything You Need for the 

PRODUCTION & PROJECTION 

of Motion Pictures Provided 
by a Veteran Organization 
of Specialists 

35 mm.16 mm. 

Television 


IN BUSINESS SINCE 1910 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Cable Address: RUBYCAM 


DIRECT 16MM SOUND 

with MAURER RECORDING SYSTEM 


For the Producer of 16mm. Business, 
Educational and Religious Films. 

• Edge Numbered • Synchronized Studio 

Work Prints Photography 

• Sound Recording • Release Prints— 

• Duplicate Negatives Color and B&W 


GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 

164 N. Wacker Dr., Dept. A . Chicago 6, III. 




• 107 


March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 















































































The highlight of 'Dark Timber,” his 
latest film, of course, was the project of 
making the miniature logging train and 
of staging the several sequences in minia¬ 
ture, including the hazardous scene in 
which the train is blown up while travel¬ 
ing over a wooden trestle. Maker con¬ 
structed a scale working model of the 
old Shay engine in his garage, along with 
a number of flat cars. The gears from 
four egg beaters served as part of the 
engine mechanism. 

A small railroad trestle and tracks were 
built in a rock quarry in the hills behind 
Oakland, and carefully blended in with 
the terrain so they would appear full size 
running through regular size mountain 
country. Behind the engine came flat cars 
loaded with fake logs, made from tree 
limbs appropriately cut and scarred. At 
the quarry rim, another trestle had been 
built for the explosion scene. It was here 
that the villian of the story was to dyna¬ 
mite the tracks and blow up the opposi¬ 
tion’s train as it tried to move out its 
logs. A mouse trap tripped just before the 
explosion, catapulated a miniature figure 
of the villian from the engine cab in con¬ 
vincing fashion. 

Maker says there was pretty close to 
$10,000 worth of equipment at the scene 
when the explosion sequence was filmed. 
Extras doubled as firemen, when not be¬ 
fore the camera, and stood around with 
water buckets in the event of fire. Two 
pounds of black powder was discharged 
electrically as the brave engine chugged 
along the trestle. Maker was on the 
quarry floor shooting up with a telephoto 


Paramount (Cont’d) 

•Leo Tover, "My Friend Irma,” (Hal 
Wallis Prodn.) with Marie Wilson, John 
Lund, Diana Lynn, and Don DeFore. 
George Marshall, director. 

20th Century-Fox 

• Russell Harlan, "I Was A Male 
War Bride,” with Cary Grant, Ann Sheri¬ 
dan, William Chellee. Howard Hawks, 
director. 

• Joseph LaShelle, "Come To The 
Stable,” with Loretta Young, Celeste Holm 
and Elsa Lanchester. Henry Koster, di¬ 
rector. 

• Milton Krasner, "East Side Story,” 
(title later changed to House Of Strang¬ 
ers’’) with Richard Conte, Susan Hay¬ 
ward and Edward G. Robinson. Joseph 
Mankiewicz, director. 


lens as the tracks blew up and the train 
plunged into the canyon below, looking 
pretty much as it would in real life. The 
shot was perfect. It had to be. There was 
only one miniature train and Maker could 
hardly be expected to have a double on 
hand, just in case things went wrong. 

Maker shot the entire picture using his 
Auricon single system sound camera, for 
which he has built a special blimp. Later 
he dubbed in sound and background 
music supplied by Maker’s Studios’ own 
amateur musicians playing together as an 
orchestra. 

Maker estimates it takes about four 
months to shoot one of his photoplay 
films and that the cost averages about 
$400.00 per picture. He is reimbursed 
for this by renting his films out to clubs 
and lodges at a straight $15.00 fee. With 
this small return, he buys more film and 
makes more pictures. 

Among Maker’s outstanding produc¬ 
tions are such titles as : "Lem The Spec¬ 
ialist,” a Chic Sale type of comedy; "Six 
Gun Saga”; "The Death Ray,” a grue¬ 
some thing Maker finally had to restrict; 
"West of the Brazos,” "Call of The 
Mounties” and "The Devil’s Kitchen.” 
This last one satisfied that urge in Maker 
that might have made him a Robert 
Montgomery or Orson Welles. It was the 
story of a journey to hell—tops artistic¬ 
ally, but hard on the audience. 

"Dark Timber,” sneak previewed in 
Oakland recently, is currently undergoing 
some revision and re-takes. Maker hopes 
to bring it to Hollywood for its premiere 
showing sometime in April. 


• Harry Jackson, ”Oh You Beautiful 
Doll, (Technicolor) with Mark Stevens, 
June Haver, Gale Robbins, S. Z. Sakall 
and Charlotte Greenwood. John Stahl, 
director. 

• Joseph LaShelle, "Everybody Does 
It,” with Linda Darnell, Celeste Holm, 
Paul Douglas and Charles Coburn. Ed- 
mound Goulding, director. 

United Artists 

•Lionel Lindon, "Twilight,” (Strand 
Prodn.) with Laraine Day, Dane Clark, 
Franchot Tone and Agnes Moorhead. 
Irving Pichel, director. 

Universal-International 

• Frank Planer, " Take One False 
Step,” with William Powell, Shelly Win¬ 
ters and Marsha Hunt. Chester Erskine, 
director. 


BULLETIN BOARD 

(Continued from Page 76) 

WILLIAM SNYDER, A. S. C., was unin 
tentionally omitted from the list of Acad- 
amy Award nominees which appeared on 
page 42 of our February issue. Snyder 
photographed Columbia’s Technicolor 
production "The Loves Of Carmen” 
which is among the final four contenders 
in the color division for a cinematograph¬ 
ic achievement award in that division. 

Also omitted in the February listing 
were the names of William V. Skall, 
A.S.C. and Winton Hoch, A.S.C. who 
should have been listed along with Jo¬ 
seph Valentine, A.S.C., as co-photogra¬ 
phers of Joan Of Arc,” also a nominee 
for an Academy Award for color pho¬ 
tography. 

• 

MITCHELL CAMERA’S public relations 
man, Rudy Stolz, has pointed out an error 
in our story last month, describing a 
cameraman’s use of twin-Mitchell T6’ 
cameras in filming the Rose Bowl game, 
citing it was a Mitchell tripod that was 
used with the camera, not a "Professional 

Jr-’ 

LEN ROOS, A.S.C., is taking his Hallen 
magnetic recorder to New York where 
it will be demonstrated before Eastern 
TV and film producers at the Barbazon- 
Plaza hotel March 8th. 

JANUARY-FEBRUARY issue of DuPont’s 
house magazine "Better Living,” features 
a two page picture spread pointing up the 
important film productions made during 
past 20 years on which DuPont film was 
used exclusively. Each of the 20 produc¬ 
tions was photographed by a member of 
the A.S.C. 

• 

RECENT HOLLYWOOD visitors include 
Jack Draper, of Mexico City, and Jack 
Coote, noted color expert of England. 
Draper is undertaking a 16mm. produc¬ 
tion in Mexico. Coote, with his associates, 
are developing a new color process for 
use by English studios. 


• William Daniels, " The Western 
Story,” with Yvonne DeCarlo, Charles 
Coburn, Scott Brady and John Russell. 
Frederick de Cordova, director. 

• Russell Metty, "Curtain Call At 
Cactus Creek,” with Donald O’Connor, 
Eve Arden, Vincent Price, Gale Storm 
and Walter Brennan. Charles Lamont, 
director. 

• Irving Glassberg, "Sword In The 
Desert," with Marta Toren, Stephen Mc¬ 
Nally and Paul Christian. George Sher¬ 
man, director. 


CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS OF A.S.C. MEMBERS 

(Continued from Page 78) 




108 


American Cinematographer, 


March, 1949 




WHAT’S NEW 

in equipment, accessories, service 


B&H’s New 8mm. Projector 

Bell & Howell Company has announced 
its new 8mm. "Filmo Regent' projector. 
Priced at $149-50, the Regent’’ has many 
new features including 400 ft. film capac¬ 
ity, single frame projection, 500-W pre¬ 
aligned lamp, and a 1" f/1.6 lens. New 
projector operates on AC current only. 



Precision-built motors 

The Hallen Corp., Burbank, Calif., has 
installed very latest type precision testing 
equipment for checking speed of synch¬ 
ronous motors and other parts of the 
Hailen synchronous magnetic recorders 
which record magnetically on oxide- 
coated film \lV 2 mm. in width. Motors, 
which are of special design, insure ab¬ 
solute constant speed of 90 feet per 
minute, according to Len Roos, A.S.C., 
president of the corporation. 


Mitchell ‘16’ Reduced 

Mitchell Camera Corp., Glendale, Cali¬ 
fornia announces that price of the Mit¬ 
chell T6’ professional camera has been 
reduced several hundred dollars, citing 
improved production methods as enabling 
them to pass benefits on to the purchaser. 


New S.O.S. Catalog 

A new 64-page catalog covering every 
phase of motion picture theatre operation 
has been issued by S.O.S. Cinema Supply 
Corp., New York. Over 100 illustrations 
distributed throughout the book along¬ 
side text make it simple to order the wan¬ 
ted part or item. Sections are devoted to 
equipment for photography, portable and 
home movies, 16mm. and 35mm. projec¬ 
tion, and for stage, studio and recording 
laboratory needs. 

Automatic Dissolve 

Joseph Yolo, Hollywood, Calif., an¬ 
nounces a new improved model of the 


Yolo automatic dissolve for Cine Special 
cameras. Device is more compact, smooth¬ 
er working and may now be attached 
instantly to any Cine Special camera. Dis¬ 
solve device enables camera operator to 
produce smooth fades and more profes¬ 
sional-like dissolves automatically with 
the Cine Special camera. 


Matched Lenses 

American Bolex Co., New York City, 
announces a set of matched Kern lenses 
for the Bolex H-16 (16mm.) motion pic¬ 
ture camera. Three lenses—a Kern Switar 
1" f/1.4, a Kern Yvar 3" f/2.5 and a 
Kern Yvar 15mm. f/2.8 are all coated 
lenses, controlled by precise manufacture 
and test to insure that pictures made with 
one lens at a given diaphragm stop will 
match those made at the same setting 
with either of the other lenses. A feature 
of the Switar lens is the ingenious and 
easy-to-read depth-of-field guage. Focusing 
scale ranges from D /2 ft. to infinity. All 
three lenses have C” mounts for use with 
other 16mm. cameras. 



Vari-speed camera motors 

A tachometer for indicating a range of 
speeds from 8 to 50 f.p.s. is the unique 
feature of a new variable speed camera 
motor being marketed by National Cine 
Equipment Co., New York. Motors may 
be supplied with bases to fit the Maurer 
and Cine Special cameras. Motor avail¬ 
able in 12-v DC, speed 8-50 frames; 115-v 
AC, 60 cycle, synchronous, single phase, 
or 220-v AC 60 cycle, 3 phase, synchron¬ 
ous. 

< ■ > 



U. S. Pat. No. 2260368 

G0ERZ AMERICAN 
APOGOR 

F :2.3 

the movie lens with microscopic 
definition successful cameramen 
have been waiting for— 

A new six element high quality lens for the 16 
and 35mm. film camera. Corrected for all aberra¬ 
tion at full opening, giving highest definition in 
black-&-white and color. Made by skilled tech¬ 
nicians with many years of optical training. 

Fitted to precision focusing mount which moves 
the lens smoothly without rotating elements or, 
shifting image. 

This lens comes in C mount for 16mm. cameras. 
Fitting to other cameras upon special order. 

Sizes available now: 35 and 50mm. uncoated 
and 75mm. coated. 

Write for prices, giving your dealer's name. 

The e,p. G0ERZ AMERICAN 

OPTICAL COMPANY 
OFFICE AND FACTORY 
317 EAST 34 ST., NEW YORK 16, N. Y. 

AC-3 


. 



TO YOUR 

SILENT FILMS 

( Music * Narration * Special Effects) 
LET us convert your 16 mm picture to a sound film 
of the highest quality. Skilled technical staff, and 
finest sound recording equipment and studio fa¬ 
cilities to serve industrial, amateur and educational 
film producers. Write TELEFILM, Inc., Dept. A-ll 
6039 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood 28, Calif, 
for prices and literature. 

OUR SERVICE IS USED BY: J* 


• AiResearch Mfg. Co. • Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 

• Douglas Aircraft Co. • Food Machinery Corp. 

• U. S. Naval Photo Services Dept. • Santa Fe Railroad 
* Standard Oil Co. of Calif. 


TELEFILM 


'J3 


HOLLYWOOD 


THE OIME STOP STORE... 

EVERYTHING FOR STUDIO, CUTTINC ROOM 

AND LAB —Lights, Mikes, Booms, Dollies, Lenses, 
Television Background Projectors, Screens, Movi¬ 
olas, Recorders, Printers, etc. Send for Catalog 
Sturelab—new edition under way. 

S. 0. S. Cinema Supply Corp. 

Dept. F, 602 West 52nd St., New York 19 




March, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


109 





















Classified Advertising 

n A TEC . Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per agate line (12 agate lines per inch). 

J • No discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE 


BASS SAYS: 

Since 1910 we have been in this happy 
business of trading and selling cameras 
and photo apparatus with complete satis¬ 
faction to all concerned. A few swell 
buys . . . 

New 1" Eymax F:4 in Eyemo C mount....$32.50 
100mm. Cooke Deep Field Panchro coated F:2.5 
in foe. Eyemo C mt. List $487.50—Net..$255.00 
Used 6" Cooke Tele-Kinic F:4.5, foe. C Eyemo 
mt.$137.50 

Used 16.5 cm. Zeiss Tessar F:4.5 foe. C Eyemo 
mt.$87.50 

Used 4" Cinemat F:2.9 foe. C Eyemo Mt .$65.00 
Eyemo Model A-4A, fitted with 1" F:4 5, 2" 
F:2.8, 6" F:4.5, 10" F:4.5, optical variable finder 

and case.$575.00 

Akeley, complete with Akeley Gyro tripod, 5 
mags., matched pair of F:3.5 lenses and 6" 

Telephoto . $425.00 

Eyemo, single lens, 3 speeds including 24. 

F:2.5 lens, Case.$225.00 

DeVry Automatic 35mm. with F:3.5 lens and 

case .$87.50 

WRITE BASS FIRST 

BASS CAMERA CO., 170 .W. MADISON ST., 
CHICAGO 2, ILL. 


SPECIAL EYEMO CAMERAS—Rebuilt factory in¬ 
spected magazine and motor adaptation. 

EYEMO ASSCESSORIES AND PROFESSIONAL CINE 
EQUIPMENT, Eyemo Magazines, developing out¬ 
fits, printers. 

CINE LENSES—-The world’s largest selection of 
fine cine lenses (Zeiss, Cooke, Astro, Bausch & 
Lomb, Goerz and many others) available on 15 
day trial—High Speed, Wide Angle, Telephoto— 
In focusing mounts coated to fit—Eyemo, Bell 
& Howell, Professional, Mitchell 35 and 16, 
Maurer 

FREE CATALOG: Full description and prices. 
Send this ad to 

BURKE & |AMES, Inc. 

321 So. Wabash Ave. 

Chicago, III., U.S.A. 

ATTN: A. Caldwell 


NOW—HALF PRICE 

35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm. EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910. 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera & Film Exchange, 68 West 48th Street, 
New York 19, N. Y. 


COMPLETE LINE of amateur and professional cine 
equipment and lenses. Write for free bulletin. 
CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 N. Cahunega, 
Hollywood 28. HEmpstead 7373. 


CINE LENSES in focusing “C” mount: 1" FI.5 
Cooke Kinnic, $69.50; 1" FI.9 Kodak Anastigmat, 
Cine Special Mount, $59.50; 2" F3.5 Ektar, 
coated, $49.50; 3" FI.9 Dallmeyer Kinemato- 
graph, $124.50; 3" F3 Goerz Hypar, $79.50; 4" 
F2.7 Kodak Anastigmat, coated, new, $85.00; 
6" F4.5 Eymax, coated, new $98.00; 360mm. 
F5.5 Schneider Tele-Xenar, Leitz Mirror Reflex 
Housing, $350.00. WELLS-SMITH CAMERA 
COMPANY, 1 5 East Washington St., Dept. AC-3, 
Chicago 2, Illinois. 


FOR SALE 


FOTOSONIC’S SPECIALS 

7 SPOTLIGHTS “Baby-kegs,” Brand New with barn 
doors $45.00 each. 1 CINE SPECIAL with f 1.9 
25mm. lens, f 2.7 102mm. and f 2.7 63mm. 
lenses; spare 100' magazine, masks, filters, tele¬ 
photo lens-adapter, case and Weston I Exposure 
meter—excellent condition $695.00. 1 INTER¬ 
LOCK MOTOR for R-2 Reproducers for Sound 
Recording System; Brand New $450.00. MANY 
OTHER items of great interest to photographers, 
at really low cost. Write to FOTOSON 1C, INC., 
132 West 43rd Street, New York 18, N.Y. 


THEATRE CHAIRS bought and sold. R. Bovilsky, 
1061 Lara Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 


REAL SACRIFICE. Just bought Brand New Film- 
sound 179E. Must sell. Bought at $579.00 with 
accessories worth $20.00. Selling $400.00. Guar¬ 
anteed 100%. Life-time Guarantee Card still 
available. ISABEL DZUNG, 631 West 152nd St., 
New York City. 


AURICON MODEL NR20 RECORDER with NR22 
wiring (new) complete with amplifier and re¬ 
corder with 1 1 0V AC and 12V battery and recti¬ 
fier; 16 mm Camera with sync, motor drive and 
Tripod, Sync. Projector and Film Phonograph, 
16" Transcription Turn-table—78 to 33 1/3 RPM 
with Pickup Turntable. Pickup and Film Phono¬ 
graph are matched to Film Recorder. Equipment 
is in portable carrying cases. Complete $1200.00. 
The AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, Box 1054 


WANTED 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 


MOTION PICTURES WANTED 

16mm. Kodachrome for school market. National 
organization interested completed films or uncut 
footage with educational value. Only professional 
material considered. Give full details first letter. 
Box 1053, AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 


Your classified ad on this 
page reaches more buying 
prospects for motion pic¬ 
ture photographic equip¬ 
ment and supplies than 
any other medium. 

CLASSIFIED RATES 
10 cents a word 
Minimum 10 words 


Mail Remittance 
and Copy to 

AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
1782 N. Orange Drive 
Hollywood 28, Calif. 


WANTED 


WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B & H, EYEMO, DEBRIE, AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


CAMERA & SOUND MEN 


SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Camera and sound men, artistically and scien¬ 
tifically skilled, well-equipped MODERN 
1200 Square Feet SOUND STUDIO, 
ideally suited for Television work. High-fidelity 
play-back. Stage set construction. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook Connecticut 
90 minutes from New York City 
Telephone: Newtown 581 
Ask for rates. 


FOOTAGE FOR SALE 


WEST AROUND CAPE HORN! 

FOOTAGE for magnificent 2-reeler for sale. 
35mm. B&W negative in perfect condition. The 
camera-log of last American sailing vessel to 
round the Horn, featuring the sea-adventures 
of two children, 6 & 4, with sharks, seals, 
albatross and some of the wildest weather ever 
filmed. Shots of the Horn, use of storm oil, etc. 
HERE ARE THE MAKINCS OF AN OSCAR WIN¬ 
NER. $7,500 takes negative and all rights. 
Warwick M. Tompkins 
1046 W. Edgeware Rd. 

Los Angeles 26, Cal. 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


ZOOMAR A 16MM Lens, Focus 17MM to 106MM, 
worth $1750.00, Special $1175.00; Belhowell J 
16mm Printer, $2750.00; 18' Microphone Boom 
$300.00; Stop Watch Timer, $24.75; Cinephone 
35mm Recorder, $495.00; Houston 1200' day¬ 
light loading magazines, $97.50; Blimped 35mm 
Askania Studio Camera, 3 lenses, 4 magazines, 
synchronous motor, rebuilt, $995.00; Neumade 
combination 16/35mm Automatic Film Cleaner, 
$350.00 value, $194.50; Giant Spotlite Tripods 
8' high, $9.95; Belhowell 16 mm Filmscoring 
Viewers, Gov’t cost $300.00, $59.50; Bardwell 
McAlister 5000W floodlites, $11.75; 1/12HP 

1 10V Synchronous Motors, new, $57.50; Sound 
Moviolas lowest in years. Send for 1949 Sturelab 
Catalog. Dept, f—S.O.S. CINEMA SUPPLY COR¬ 
PORATION, 602 W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


LABORATORY SERVICES 


TWO ENLARGEMENTS and negative from your 
movie film. Send frames and $1.00. Curio-photo, 
1187 Jerome Ave., New York 52. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 






110 


American Cinematographer 


March, 1949 



















































Guardian of her most important "bath” 


C OSTLY shots like this might be 
so much spoiled footage . . . 
save for the vigilance and knowl¬ 
edge of the laboratory man. 

He makes sure that the dailies 
take their all-important bath . . . in¬ 
specting, testing, keeping constant 
check as the exposed footage runs 
through the developing, fixing, and 
washing tanks and driers. 

To his skill and watchfulness ... as 


• • ® 

film representing “box-office gold” 
literally slips through his careful fin¬ 
gers . . . motion pictures owe much 
of their well-earned reputation for 
technical excellence. 

This skill is more effective . . . the 
burden ofconstant vigilance lessened 
. . . when he works with depend¬ 
able film of superior quality. That’s 
why he always welcomes the family 
of Eastman motion picture films. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
FORT LEE • CHICAGO • 


HOLLYWOOD 




















SUPERIORITY OF BELL & HOWELL PROJECTORS 

PROVED CONCLUSIVELY 

BY THESE STARTLING COMPARATIVE TESTS! 



BELL & HOWELL 

PROJECTOR “A” 
PROJECTOR “B” 
PROJECTOR “C” 
PROJECTOR “D” 
PROJECTOR “E” 
PROJECTOR “F” 


No 

Twice (Major) 

Once (Minor) 

Once (Minor) 

Twice (Major) 

Twice (Major) 

Four Times 
(Major) 


No 

9 times 

1 6 times 

2 times 

1 5 times 
6 times 
27 times 


Once (at 80 hrs.) 

4 times 

6 times 

Once (at 64 hrs.) 

7 times 
3 times 

1 3 times 


Steady 

Very Unsteady 
Steady 

Slightly Unsteady 
Very Unsteady 
Unsteady 
Very Unsteady 


Excellent 

Fair** 

Poor 

Fairly Good** 
Poor** 

Fairly Good** 
Poor 


In a dramatic battle of elimination, seven 
competitive projectors are running continu¬ 
ously ... 24 hours a day ... on laboratory 
test stands. 

As machines fail, they are removed, re¬ 
paired, and replaced in the test. Because of 
low down time, the B&H FILMOSOUND 
(right) has passed 300 hours with a tremen¬ 
dous lead over any other machine in the race. 

In buying a projector... especially for day- 
in, day-out use . . . make sure you choose 
a projector that is performance-tested. 
Make sure it’s a Bell & Howell! 


PROJECTOR 


MACHINE 

REPAIRED 


FILM 

BROKE 


REPLACED 


PICTURE FILM* 

STEADINESS PROTECTION 



Lightweight, portable. Provides 80-minute show 
. . . stops for individual still pictures. Reverses 
instantly. Brilliant 1000-watt lamp. Double the 
sound output of other lightweight sound pro¬ 
jectors. Approved by Underwriters’ Laboratories. 
With 8", separate speaker, only $495. 

ALL FILMOS ARE GUARANTEED FOR LIFE! 

During life of product, any defects in workman¬ 
ship or material will be remedied free (except 
transportation). 


* Ratings indicate condition of film relative to scratches and wear. 
** Indicates machine also deposits oil on film. 


★ ONE-CASE FILMOSOUND (shown above) 


Outstanding picture brilliance from 1000-watt lamp. Natural 
sound from built-in 6" speaker. Fast rewind, instant reverse. 
Stops for stills. Approved by Underwriters’ Laboratories. An 
amazing value . . . $449. 

FOR FULL DETAILS, write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 
McCormick Road, Chicago 45. Branches in New York, Holly¬ 
wood, and Washington, D. C. 




























AMERICAN 



This Issue— 


ACADEMY AWARD WINNERS 

• TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY SECTION 


APRIL 

1949 














DU PONT 



A NEW FAST FILM 


DUPONT 



TYPE 428 


If you use sheet film here is the 
answer to your film problems . . . the 
New Du Pont High Speed Pan Type 
428. It's fast... but it's more than that. 
It's versatile. At the recommended 
speed ratings it gives you perfectly 
balanced negatives . . . indoors or out 
... by daylight, by photo or electronic 
flash. But, you can go beyond that. As 
long as there is sufficient light to regis¬ 
ter on the film you can get a printable 



Reg. u.s. pat. off 


BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 
. . .THROUGH CHEMISTRY 


negative. The reason for this amazing 
reserve of speed results from the ex¬ 
tended contrast of this film ... contrast 
that extends right down to the "toe" of 
the exposure curve. With the new 
Du Pont High Speed Pan Type 428, you 
are loaded for any kind of picture. 

Your "Defender" dealer has it on 
his shelves now ... in the distinctive 
blue and yellow package. Ask for 
Du Pont High Speed Pan Type 428. 

E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO., (INC.) 

Photo Products Dept., Wilmington 98, Delaware 
In Canada, Canadian Industries Ltd., 

912 New Birks Building, Montreal, P. Q. 

TUNE IN "CAVALCADE OF AMERICA " 
MONDAY EVENINGS - N B C - CO AST TO COAST 







For OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE 


♦ ' V'" ^' ' T ' ^- r % " s A '' 7 



in 16mm, 


it’s the FILMO 
SPECIALIST 


Especially designed for advanced 
photographers, amateur or pro¬ 
fessional, this superb 16mm mo¬ 
tion picture camera is fully capa¬ 
ble of any assignment. Shift-over 
focusing on a full-frame image 
. . . 4-lens turret head ... 7 oper¬ 
ating speeds for every require¬ 
ment, including true slow motion. 
Uses external film magazines or 
(internally) 100-foot spools. Three 
power sources: spring motor, hand 
crank, and 12-, 24-, or 115-volt 
electric motor. Ask your Bell & 
Howell dealer to demonstrate this 
tremendously versatile precision 
camera. 



in 35mm, it’s the EYEMO 


GUARANTEED FOR LIFE. During life of product, any defects in work¬ 
manship or material will be remedied free (except transportation). 

Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick Road, Chicago 45. 
Branches in New York, Hollywood, and Washington, D. C. 


Precision-Made by 

Bell & Howell 

Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 

Equipment for Hollywood and the World 

■ 


A leading favorite for years among 
discriminating professional photogra¬ 
phers. Models to meet every need. 
Model Q (right) has three-arm offset 
turret . . . prismatic focusing magnifier 
(for direct viewing through lens), and 
provisions for adding external film 
magazines and electric motor drive. 
Sold direct by Bell & Howell Company. 


























CUT COST ON 
FILM PRODUCTION 

for 

16mm 

AND 

35mm 

1000 ' 
capacity 

TO MAKE ROOM, we’re sacrificing these 
efficient, automatic film cleaning machines 

-—worth $400 . only $194.50 

BETTER BUY THESE. TOO 


Stop Watch Film Timers.$ 24.75 

35mm. Cinephone Recorders. 495.00 

Zoomar A 16mm. Lens. 1175.00 

8' Tripods for Spots, etc. 9.95 

Auricon 16mm. Recorders. 535.00 

Sound Movieola Composite 35mm. 495.00 

B&H Sound Printer, Model D. 2250.00 

Bardwell 5KW Floodlites. 111.75 

Blue Seal Recording Amplifier. 495.00 

Houston 16mm. Processors. 3485.00 

Synchronous Motors 1/12 H.P. 57.50 


• For details and catalog STURELAB 
write Dept. F. 

S. 0. S. Cinema Supply Corp. 

602 West 52nd St., New York 19, N. Y. 



f -^ 

A NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOCUE OF 
1,000 RARE, OUT-OF-PRINT and NEW 

1 -FILM- 

—BOOKS— 

Also: DANCE, THEATRE 
& COSTUMING 

\Vrite for your FREE copy 

A & B BOOKSELLERS 

Specialists in Film Books 

Dept. AC, 63 Fifth Ave., New York 3 
OR. 3-1570 

V_ J 


DIRECT 16MM SOUND 

with MAURER RECORDING SYSTEM 


For the Producer of 16mm. Business, 
Educational and Religious Films. 

• Edge Numbered • Synchronized Studio 

Work Prints Photography 

• Sound Recording • Release Prints— 

• Duplicate Negatives Color and B&W 


GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 

164 N. Wacker Dr., Dept. A . Chicago 6, III. 


Hollywood 

Bulletin Board 



Look Award Winner 


RUSSELL HARLAN, A.S.C. may have missed 
an Academy Award for his photography 
of Red River” but he was compensated 
for the loss, in part at least, by the Look 
Magazine Annual Movie Award. 

Harlan, while in Europe filming I 
Was A Male War Bride” for 20th Cen¬ 
tury-Fox, failed to receive the Academy 
announcements and nomination entry 
blanks mailed to him, with the result 
that his fine picture was not a contender 
for a 1948 Academy Award on any of 
the 'ballots. 

Look Magazine, which polls its readers 
annually for opinions on the best pictures 
of the year and for best achievement in 
all branches of the art, including cinema¬ 
tography, selected Red River” for best 
photography. 

Harlan subsequently received the 
award, a handsome engraved plaque, but 
was unable to be present at the presenta¬ 
tion ceremonies which each year are pre¬ 
sided over by Bob Hope of radio. 

Harlan is considered one of the fore¬ 
most cinematographers of western stories. 
As a former cowboy in Arizona and 
Texas, Harlan acquired a substantial west¬ 
ern background and a natural love for 
wild, western scenery which he so aptly 
translates to his cinematic compositions. 

The March issue of Look Magazine, 
commenting on Harlan’s cinematography, 
states, 'As director of photography on 
"Red River,” Russell Harlan filmed one 
of the greatest westerns since "The Cov¬ 
ered Wagon.” His feeling for space and 


sunlight, and the pictorial excitement of 
his magnificient trail herd and stampede 
scenes win for him the Look Achieve¬ 
ment Award for cinematography.” 

• 

Y. FRANK FREEMAN, vice-president of 
Paramount Pictures, Inc., and Charles 
Bracket and Billy Wilder, writers and co¬ 
producers of many hit films were guests 
of the A. S. C. at the Society’s monthly 
meeting March 7th. Freeman who submit¬ 
ted to numerous questions, following his 
main talk, predicted the foreign situation 
would improve and return to near-normal 
in two years. He also suggested an all¬ 
industry conference between studios and 
unions as a probable answer to present 
production problems. "Certainly, such a 
conference would help reach mutual un¬ 
derstandings and result in increased em¬ 
ployment,” Mr. Freeman declared. 

THE A.S.C.’s new projection booth, which 
is to be formally dedicated this month, 
will also provide for 16mm. film pro¬ 
grams. The Society has acquired a Bell 
& Howell 16mm. Auditorium sound pro¬ 
jector which has been installed alongside 
the RCA-Brenkert 35mm. projectors in 
the booth adjacent to the clubhouse. These 
facilities will enable the Society not only 
to screen televsion and commercial film 
productions, but to include in its screen 
programs, some of the outstanding 16mm. 
films produced by amateurs. 

CHARLES C. CLARKE, A.S.C., is in Borneo 
shooting background material for Twen¬ 
tieth Century-Fox’s forthcoming produc¬ 
tion, "Three Came Home.” The assign¬ 
ment will take about three weeks. Upon 
his return home, Clarke goes to Germany 
where he will shoot a picture for Fox. 

• 

LEN ROOS, A.S.C., has resigned from the 
presidency of the Hallen Corporation, 
makers of Hallen synchronous magnetic 
tape recorders. Plans for the future are 
undetermined, he said. 

• 

PETER MOLE, A.S.C., president of Mole- 
Richardson Company, is Europe-bound. 
He will visit England, France, Switzer¬ 
land and Italy, sizing up the current pro¬ 
duction situation there and confer with 
the company’s various European plant 
heads. He will be gone three months. 

(Continued on Page 148) 




116 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 


































. . . Oscars and 
incentive 

IT IS QUITE LIKELY that in spite of the con¬ 
troversy that followed the annual Academy 
Awards presentations this year, the traditional 
Oscars will continue to be awarded annually 
as in the past. And this is a good thing—good 
for the motion picture industry, its artists and 
craftsmen, and the Academy. 

Without the incentive that goes with striving 
for and winning an Oscar, we doubt that the 
motion picture as an entertainment medium 
would have reached the pinnacle of popular 
appeal it enjoys today. Shorn of recognition 
for artistic perfection, it is quite likely that 
pictures today would be produced on an assem¬ 
bly-line basis, with the commercial side of the 
business dominating its activities and its des¬ 
tiny. 

In the department of photography, at least, 
the annual Academy Awards are a genuine in¬ 
spiration to the directors of photography with¬ 
in the A. S. C. Should the industry ever make 
the unwise decision to withdraw its support, 
resulting in abandonment of the Academy, 
the A. S. C. in all probability would establish 
its own annual awards for achievement in pho¬ 
tography. The recent addition of modern, fully 
equipped projection facilities to the A. S. C. 
clubhouse in Hollywood could make such a 
decision feasible at any time. 

—A. E. G. 

★ 


★ 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 

Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
Alfred L. Gilks, Second Vice-President 
WILLIAM V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
RAY Rennahan, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
John Arnold 
Sol Polito 
George Folsey 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 

ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

Milton Krasner 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 



AMERICAN 



THE MAGAZINE OF MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY 


Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

Technical Editor, Emery HUSE Glenn R. Kershner Art Editor 

Circulation, MARGUERITE DEURR 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 APRIL • 1949 NO. 4 


CONTENTS 

ARTICLES 

1948 Academy Awards for Cinematography — By Arthur Gavin . . 121 
Technicolor Photography Under Water — By James Housler . 122 

Sound Stage Seafarer — By Herb A. Lightman .123 


TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY 

Directors of Photography Report on 

Television Research — By John Forbes .124 

Films for Television — By Norman Keane .125 

There's a Future in Television Films — By Frederick Foster . . . 126 


16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Give Your Vacation Movies a "Break”/— By Alfred L. Gilks, A.S.C. . 128 

Directing the Commercial Film— By Charles Loring . . . 130 

LENS Facts— By Jackson Rose, A.S.C. . . . . . . . 134 


FEATURES 

Hollywood Bulletin Board .116 

Current Assignments of A. S. C. Members .118 

Cine Kinks .138 

25 Years Ago with A. S. C. and Members .140 

Off the Kinescope Tube .146 


ON THE COVER 

THE FIVE A. S. C. members who received Oscars this year for achievement 

•C 

in cinematography are, reading clockwise from bottom left: William Daniels, 
for black and white photography, "The Naked City;” Joseph Valentine, for 
color photography, "Joan Of Arc;” Paul Eagler, for collaboration in special 
effects photography, "Portrait Of Jennie;” Winton Hoch, for color photog¬ 
raphy, "Joan Of Arc;” and William Skall, for color photography, "Joan Of 
Arc.” 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 
















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STANDARD TRIPOD BASE AND COLLAPSIBLE ADJUSTABLE METAL TRIANCLE 


BUMP for 16mm. E 


CINE SPECIAL 


This Blimp constructed of Dow 
Metal magnesium, is thoroughly in¬ 
sulated to afford absolute silent 
operation. Exclusive features: Fol¬ 
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change of lens focus while camera 
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Handles 16mm. EK Cine 
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motor; 35mm. DeVry; B&H 
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magazine; and all 16mm. 
hand-held cameras. Head is 
interchangeable with the 
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GFAR DRIVE 

The head, made of Dow 
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— ALSO AVAILABLE- 

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CHANCING BAGS “HI-HATS” 


Send for our catalog. It describes all our products completely 


For use with Bolex and Cine Special 
16mm. cameras. Holds two 2" sq. 
glass filters and a round 2 V 2 " Pola 
Screen with handle which can be ro¬ 
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from 1 5mm. to 6" telephoto and elim¬ 
inates need of various filters. Preci¬ 
sion made of the finest materials. Com¬ 
pact, simple to assemble and dismount. 
May be permanently affixed to camera 
or quickly detached. 


CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS 
OF A.S.C. MEMBERS 

Major film productions on which members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers were en¬ 
gaged as directors of photography during the 
past month. 

★ ★★★★★★★ 

Columbia 

• Charles Lawton, Jr., "Tokyo Joe,” (San¬ 
tana Prodn.) with Humphrey Bogart, Florence 
Marley, Alexander Knox, Sessue Hayakawa. 
Stuart Heisler, director. 

• Charles Lawton Jr., "Miss Grant Takes 
Richmond,” with Lucille Ball, William Holden, 
Janis Carter and Gloria Henry. Lloyd Bacon, 
director. 

© IRA MORGAN, "Barbary Pirate,” with Don¬ 
ald Woods, Trudy Marshall, Lenore Aubert 
and John Dehner. Lew Sanders, director. 

Independent 

o henry Freulich, "Not Wanted,” (Emer¬ 
ald-Film Classics) with Sally Forest, Leo Penn, 
Dorothy Adams, Rita Lupino. Elmer Clifton, 
director. 

« Gilbert Warrenton, "Alimony,” (Orbit- 
Equity-E-L) with Martha Vickers, John Beal 
and Hilary Brooke. Alfred Zeisler, director. 

M-G-M 

© ROBERT Planck, "Madam Bovary,” with 
Jennifer Jones, Louis Jordan, James Mason 
and Van Heflin. Vincent Minnelli, director. 

© JOE Ruttenberg, "Forsyte Saga,” with 
Greer Garson, Errol Flynn, Walter Pidgeon, 
Robert Young and Janet Leigh. Compton 
Bennett, director. 

• Robert Surtees, "That Midnight Kiss,” 
with Kathryn Grayson, Mario Lanza, Jose 
Iturbi and Keenan Wynn. 

0 Paul Vogel, "Scene Of The Crime,” with 
Van Johnson, Gloria DeHaven, Tom Drake 
and Arlene Dahl. Ray Rowland, director. 

• George Folsey, "Operation Malaya,” with 
Spencer Tracy, James Stewart, Lionel Barry¬ 
more, Sydney Greenstreet, John Hodiak and 
Gilbert Roland. Richard Thorpe, director. 

® Harry Stradling, "Intruder In The Dust,” 
with Claude Jarman, Jr., Clarence Brown, di¬ 
rector. 

© Charles Rosher, "The Red Danube,” 
with Walter Pidgeon, Peter Lawford, Ethel 
Barrymore, Janet Leigh and Angela Lansbury. 
George Sidney, director. 

Monogram 

© William Sickner, "Joe Palooka In The 
Return Bout,” with Joe Kirkwood, Leon Errol, 
Elyse Knox and Sheila Ryan. Reginald LeBorg, 
director. 

a Harry Neumann, "Mark Of The Whip,” 
with Whip Wilson, Andy Clyde, and Reno 
Brown. Ray Taylor, director. 

o William Sickner, "Leave It To Henry,” 
with Raymond Walburn, May Stuart, Gary 
Gray. Jean Yarborough, director. 

Paramount' 

• Daniel Fapp, "Red, Hot and Blue,” with 
Betty Hutton, Victor Mature, June Havoc and 
William Demarest. John Farrow, director. 

• Charles Lang, "Rope Of Sand,” ( Hal 
Wallis Prodn.) with Burt Lancaster, Paul 

(Continued on Page 147) 


118 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 























Improved manufacturing methods, to meet the ever-increasing demand 
for the Mitchell '’16” Professional Camera, have made this important 
announcement possible. Without changing its design or eliminating any 
of its famous time-proven features, the camera is now priced within the 
reach of every commercial motion picture producer. 


The Mitchell "16” is the first professional camera to bring truly profes¬ 
sional quality to the 16mm screen. Behind it lie 30 years of experience 
in building motion picture cameras to the most exacting requirements. 
Endorsements from leading commercial producers prove our claim — that 
the Mitchell "16” Professional is the world’s finest 16mm camera. 



Motion 


... A New PRICE LIST contains 
complete listing of all Mitchell 
16 mm equip¬ 


ment to make 
your ordering 
more conven¬ 
ient. Write or 
call for your 
copy today. 


CORPORATION 

666 WEST HARVARD STREET* DEPT. FW- 8 • GLENDALE 4, CALIFORNIA • CABLE ADDRESS: "MITCAMCO” 

EASTERN REPRESENTATIVE: THEODORE ALTMAN* 521 FIFTH AVENUE • NEW YORK CITY 17 • MURRAY HILL 2-7038 

85% of the motion pictures shown in theatres throughout the world are filmed with a Mitchell 


Now the Mitchell Camera Corporation offers this great camera to the 
16mm industry at a new low price to enable more producers to meet 
effectively the demand for photographic perfection in today’s commercial 
productions. 


• * 










National’ Carbon Arcs are a definite requirement 
for creating dramatic interpretation in 


black and white or color motion picture 
photography. ” TA /Z 



WHEN YOU BUY 
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BLACK AND WHITE—Screen star Robert Ryan (right) 
presents William Daniels, A.S.C., with “Oscar” awarded 
him for achievement in black and white photography in 
the Mark Hellinger production, “Naked City.” 


COLOR—Robert Ryan also presented “Oscars” to (L to R) Joseph Valentine, A.S.C., 
William Skall, A.S.C., and Winton Hoch, A.S.C., who collaborated on the Techniclor 
photography of the Sierra-RKO production, “Joan of Arc,” starring Ingrid Bergman. 
“Oscars” are first won by each man, although all three have been contenders before. 


1948 

ACADEMY 

AWARDS... 

for (inematography 

By ARTHUR GAVIN 



SPECIAL EFFECTS—Paul Eagler, A.S.C. (center), and Clarence 
Slifer (left) and Russell Sherman were presented “Oscars” for 
outstanding special effects photography in the Selznick produc¬ 
tion, “Portrait of Jennie.” Eagler also has been a contender before. 


T HE RESULT of the voting on 1948 
technical and achievement awards by 
some 2000 members of the Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences put 
gleaming gold Oscar statuettes in the 
hands of five members of the American 
Society of Cinematographers the night 
of March 24th, when the Academy staged 
its 21st annual Awards Presentation Cere¬ 
monies in Beverly Hills. It was the first 
time that so many A.S.C. members were 
thus honored in a single presentation. 


William Daniels, A.S.C. received this 
year’s award for best black and white 
cinematography in recognition of his ex¬ 
cellent photographic work on the Mark 
Hellinger production, "Naked City.” 

Joseph Valentine, A.S.C., William Skall, 
A.S.C., and Winton Hoch, A.S.C. who 
collaborated on the Technicolor photo¬ 
graphy of "Joan Of Arc,” each received 
an Oscar in recognition of their individ¬ 
ual contributions. 

Paul Eagler, A.S.C., received an Oscar 


award for best achievement in special 
effects, along with Clarence Slifer and 
Russell Sherman with whom he collab¬ 
orated in the special effects photography 
for "Portrait Of Jennie.” 

It is the first time that any of these 
A.S.C. members have received an Acad¬ 
emy Award, although all have had pic¬ 
tures nominated for the award in the 
past or have been associated with former 
award winners before the Academy be- 
(Continued on Page 136) 


April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


121 




























Technicolor Photography Under Water 


By JAMES HOUSLER 



TO CAPTURE unusual underwater shots tor the aqua ballet sequence 
of MCM’s “Neptune’s Daughter,” Charles Rosher (in colored trunks) 
mounted his Technicolor camera within a steel tank. The elevator, on 
which he and his assistants stand, was then lowered about 18 inches 
into the pool to bring the camera lens below water level. 


Charles Rosher, A.S.C., used unique 
camera tank in shooting underwater 
scenes for MCM’s latest water ballet. 


T HERE are some unique underwater shots in MGM’s forth¬ 
coming Technicolor production, "Neptune’s Daughter,” that 
were photographed by Charles Rosher, A.S.C., and his camera 
crew clad in bathing trunks. Rosher and his assistants never 
once got wet above the knees. The camera was submerged, 
but it was well protected by a water-tight steel tank while 
Rosher controlled its operation from above. 

The water ballet, featuring the aquatic prowess of star Esther 
Williams and a corps of 50 pulchritudinous aquaballerinas, un¬ 
derwent long and careful preparation. All the while Rosher 
was shooting interiors and exteriors for the rest of the picture, 
MGM dance director Jack Donohue was rehearsing the bevy 
of bathing beauties—all expert swimmers and divers—in the 
tropical setting of the luxurious pool on stage 30. When Rosher 
had all the other scenes for the picture out of the way, he moved 
his Technicolor camera to stage 30 where Donohue was ready 
to put his water ballet numbers before the camera in a session 
that required ten days of intensified filming. 

Marking the water spectacle sequences are unusual under¬ 
water shots of the girls as they execute new and colorful rou¬ 
tines created especially for the picture by Donohue. On the 
screen the camera shows the ballet from pool-side camera 
positions, then reveals the colorful routines from a fish-eye 
view underwater. 

To execute these remarkable underwater shots in Techni¬ 
color, Rosher employed two unique pieces of equipment de¬ 
veloped by MGM’s camera department under the guidance 
of John Arnold, A.S.C. The first is a gigantic combination 
camera crane and elevator which affords unparalleled vertical 
travel shots, mid-air dolly shots and use of the camera from 
practically any position between floor and ceiling without need 

(Continued on Page 149) 



ROSHER (right foreground) and his assistants make the Technicolor cam- JOE RUTTENBERC, A.S.C. (right), listens to Charlie Rosher explain prin- 

era fast within the tank preparatory to shooting the underwater scenes. ciple of his fish bowl gimmick for obtaining underwater light readings. 






122 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 







“DOWN To The Sea In Ships” has many dramatic moments, but none MacDONALD’S simple but effective lighting style is well demonstrated 

more exciting than when a whale upsets one of the boats, throwing its in this scene—typical of the lighting throughout the picture. His light- 

occupants into the angry sea. Joe MacDonald’s lighting here is dramatic ing treatment of every interior affords a worthwhile study of modern, 

and authentic. forceful sef illumination. 


Sound Stage Seafarer 


Joe MacDonald, A.S.C., shooting most of “Down To The Sea 
in Ships" indoors and on the lot, has captured in unparal¬ 
leled photography all the realism of authentic sea action. 


44HOWN TO THE SEA IN SHIPS'’ 

U is a film full of salt and sea-spray. 
There’s a nautical air to it and a blow-the- 
man-down quality that gives it a com¬ 
pletely authentic atmosphere. To the aver¬ 
age filmgoer it will surely seem that this 
picture could only have been made by 
sending a full cast and crew out on the 
briny. Yet, except for a very few bridging 
long shots, the entire picture was filmed 
inside the sound stages of Twentieth Cen¬ 
tury-Fox. 

To be even more exact, it would be 
right to say that the bulk of the action 
was shot on a single sound stage that 
housed a full-sized replica of the whaling 
ship, Pride of Bedford. One hundred 
twenty-five feet long and weighing 45 
tons, the ship was built on a cradle geared 
to hydraulic lifts, so that it could be made 
to roll and sway in realistic duplication of 
the movement of the waves. 

A completely masculine story of life 
and raw emotion aboard a whaler, "Down 
to the Sea in Ships draws its sweeping 
visual scope mainly from the perfectly 
keyed photography of cinematographer 
Joe MacDonald, A. S. C. If ever camera¬ 
work could be said to have the tang of the 
sea clinging to it, the expression certainly 


By HERB A. LIGHTMAN 

fits the photography in this film. It por¬ 
trays the various and changing moods of 
the sea itself—the harshly brilliant quality 
of sunlight reflected from a calm surf, the 
flat, raw feel of a squally day at sea, and 
the unworldly ghostlike mood of suspense 
that goes with an ocean full of fog and 
icebergs. 


When the visual treatment of the film 
was being planned, it was thought that it 
would be necessary to divide the ship rep¬ 
lica into six separate segments, which 
would afford greater camera mobility and 
the photographing of scenes from differ¬ 
ent angles in front of the huge 35-foot 
process screen, against which was project¬ 
ed backgrounds of sea and sky. Director 
of photography MacDonld did not favor 
this alternative because he knew that it 
would prevent him from showing long 
shots embracing the full deck of the ship 
—and he knew also that without such 
scenes the film would lack the realism of 
life aboard ship and would instead smack 
of the sound stage. 

The problem was mainly one of time, 
a costly commodity in terms of current 
budgets. The ship could be placed on a 
movable base easily enough, thus permit¬ 
ting it to be swung around to achieve 
any angle desired by the cinematographer. 
However, the time involved in executing 
this maneuver after every scene or two 
would soon add up to costly delay. Mac¬ 
Donald went into a pow-wow with di¬ 
rector Henry Hathaway and the two of 
them worked out the shooting schedule 
(Continued on Page 142) 



JOE MacDONALD, A.S.C. (in dark cap), 
claims no magic formulas in his photogra¬ 
phy. He likes simplicity on the screen and 
aims for clean quality in his camerawork. 




April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


123 





m 


eviAion 


PLto 


ataoltu 


I O N 


SCHEMATIC OF TV PICTURE BROADCASTS 

LIVE ACTION 

+ 

FILM TRANSCRIPTION 

+ 

ABOVE diagram shows how the image on a TV receiver is result of function of several inter¬ 
dependent variables common to both live action and film transcription telecasts. The director of 
photography represents the single humanistic variable common to both. 

Directors Of Photography 
Report OnTelevision Research 

Improved photographic quality of television 
films aim of A. S. C. research committee. 

By JOHN 


RAW 

FILM 

MFR. 




DIR. 

+ 

T.V. 


RADIATED 

PHOTOG. 

TRANSIT 


PICTURE 


T. V. 
CAMERA 


R ENDERING its first report, since the 
group was organized last February, 
the Television Research Committee of the 
American Society of Cinematographers 
at its last monthly meeting outlined a pro¬ 
gram looking toward the quantative evalu¬ 
ation of television photographic standards 
and urged its membership to accept re¬ 
sponsibility for the direction of such a 
program. 

As a preliminary to the defining of 
this program," said Victor Milner, A.S.C., 
who rendered the report, "it is recom¬ 
mended that representatives of the Mo- 


FORBES 

tion Picture Research Council, the 
S.M.P.E., the Institute of Radio Engineers 
and the Academy of Television Arts and 
.Sciences be invited to cooperate with the 
A.S.C. in laying the basic framework for 
this program. 

The committee, which has had several 
conferences with television representa¬ 
tives, including producers, production 
managers and engineers, and whose mem¬ 
bers have made a detailed study of tele¬ 
vision shows both in Hollywood and 
New York, have drawn the following 
basic conclusions: 


Live-action shows for direct telecasting 
present the greatest challenge to the di¬ 
rector of photography because of the 
conditions under which he must work in 
the television studio. 

Film transcriptions allow the director 
of photography the same general free¬ 
dom he would have in photographing mo¬ 
tion pictures. 

Photographing television shows should 
present no serious problem to any mem¬ 
ber of the A. S. C., as the findings of the 
Committee indicates that if a final pho¬ 
tographic image is obtained on film which 
is comparable in quality to that required 
for theatre projection of motion pictures, 
the telecast will have optimum quality. 

Reference to the diagram reproduced 
here, and which was displayed greatly en¬ 
larged in conjunction with Mr. Milner’s 
address, indicates that the final radiated 
picture is a function of several inter-de¬ 
pendent variables. It is important to note 
that the director of photography and the 
television transmitters are the only vari¬ 
ables common to both expressions. The 
director of photography represents the 
single humanistic variable common to 
both. 

Sidney Solow, A.S.C., who also is a 
member of the Academy of Television 
Arts and Sciences, spoke on the subject 
of film quality as it affects the quality 
of television film transcriptions. He point¬ 
ed out the television monitor—the man 
who twists the dials that regulate image 
contrast and density—is a serious factor 
affecting the telecast of films at present. 
Too often, he said, the cameramen have 
blamed the laboratory for a poor develop¬ 
ing and printing job, when actually un¬ 
bridled monitor control has seriously af¬ 
fected the picture quality. Today, Solow 
observed, TV monitors seem to suffer 
from "mixers itch.” So everything the 
cameraman can do to thwart the monitor 
and his itchy fingers will enhance the 
quality of televised films. 

"This can be done,” Solow said, "by 
avoiding large expanses of black areas, 
avoiding very bright highlights and above 
all, by avoiding plain expanses of noth¬ 
ing in the scene. It is those plain ex¬ 
panses or areas in the TV picture that 
make the monitors feel the need to ad¬ 
just and correct them as the picture goes 
out over the air. The television screen is 
incapable of maintaining the same den¬ 
sity—a uniform density—over the com¬ 
plete picture area.” 

(Continued on Page 146) 




124 


American Cinematographer 


• April, 1949 























THE monitor’s job is to control the quality of the picture as it is being 
sent out over the air. When there are inconsistencies and extremes in 
the video film, the monitor endeavors to smooth it out tor best possible 
reception. Sometimes image quality is beyond his ability to correct. 


TELEVISION’S need today, with respect to video films, is for labora- 
tories to supply prints, say of up to 1200 feet in length, in one continu¬ 
ous strip, free from splices. Splices, in addition to ever-present danger 
of separating, cause annoying jump as they go through TV projector. 

Films For Television 

Motion pictures for TV demand exacting photography, 
special lighting and careful processing by the laboratory, 
according to Robert Fraser, NBC engineer. 

By NORMAN KEANE 


T WO QUESTIONS asked most fre¬ 
quently by those outside the television 
industry are, "What is the future for films 
in television?” and "Will films eventually 
replace live shows on television?” An¬ 
swering the last question first, Robert 
Fraser, NBC’s technical development en¬ 
gineer, firmly believes that films are not 
likely to replace live shows entirely for 
two reasons: First, there is an intimacy 
about live shows that appeals to the pub¬ 
lic. Second, the resolution of live show 
telecasts is superior to that of most films. 
Therefore live shows will appeal most 
to those video viewers who are fussy about 
quality reception—which takes in just 
about every television set owner after the 
novelty of video wears off and he settles 
down to selecting his television entertain¬ 
ment according to quality. 

As to the future of films for television, 
Fraser, who recently was sent out to Holly¬ 
wood from New York to put station 
KNBH’s kinescope recording equipment 
into operation, is well qualified to an¬ 
swer. While aiding in the development 
of kinescope recording at NBC, Fraser 
gained considerable experience in the use 
of television films, particularly with re¬ 
spect to re-transmission. 

In Fraser’s opinion, the future of films 
for television lies in their technical qual¬ 
ity—or rather in the improvement of 
their technical quality. "Most of the 
films being made today for television,” 
he says, " are not a criterion of the video 
films of tomorrow. Films for television 
not only require a technique in their pro¬ 


duction different from that used in mak¬ 
ing theatrical films, but more careful 
handling in the laboratory.” 

Today, television is being supplied with 
three types of films: (1) reduction prints 
in 16mm. of theatrical feature films (the 
"Hopalong Cassidy” and similar re¬ 
leases); (2) short dramatic and comedy 
films made especially for television; and 
(3), the commercial announcement or 
advertising film, also made especially for 
television. 

The inherent fault with the first, Fraser 
points out, is that, in addition to the fact 
they were never photographed and edited 
with the limited screen of the television 
receiver in mind, such films in most cases 
are 2nd and 3rd generation prints with 
the attendant increase in contrast and loss 
of resolution which makes for poor pic¬ 
ture quality on the television screen. 

In the second group—the films made 
for television—are many that adhere to 


none of the established rules for accept¬ 
able television quality. Not only are 
many of these films shy in technical qual¬ 
ity, according to Fraser, but they have not 
been given the laboratory attention that 
good television films require. 

The third group of films—the televis¬ 
ion commercials—are marked in many in¬ 
stances by all the shortcomings of the 
second, plus the added faults that result 
from inexperience of the producers. Some 
television commercials, Fraser observes, 
are being produced at quality levels little 
above those of amateur movies. 

"To produce satisfactory films for tele¬ 
vision,” Fraser says, "it is necessary first 
to know something about the technical 
side of the medium and possess a knowl¬ 
edge of its limitations. For example, 
scenes lit in low key or scenes having 
predominantly black areas will not tele¬ 
vise with fidelity.” Fraser pointed out 
(Continued on Page 138) 


April, 1949 


o 


American Cinematographer 


125 










OJe 


eviiion /-^holography 



There s A Future 
In Television Films.. 

for the studio cinematographer, says 
“Connie” O’Connell, A.S.C., who has ex¬ 
plored the field and found it promising. 


By FREDERICK FOSTER 

T HE SLUMP in Hollywood picture production proved no eco¬ 
nomic calamity for Lew Connie’ O’Connell, A.S.C. Rather, it 
offered this resourceful cinematographer the opportunity to ex¬ 
plore another promising field for his talents. O’Connell, with 
more than thirty feature films to his credit at Columbia and a 
lesser number at such lots as Warner Brothers, Monogram and 
Eagle Lion, found the hiatus provided the long-cherished oppor¬ 
tunity to explore television and what it holds for the future of 
the motion picture cameraman. 

Today, with a total of nine television films carrying his pho¬ 
tographic credit line, O'Connell is quite firmly established as a 
television film producer in his own right, specializing in low- 
cost one-minute spot announcements, otherwise known as 
television commercials.’’ Where television’s present audience 
is not large enough to justify many big national advertisers 
undertaking large-scale TV programs, there are, according to 
O’Connell, quite a number of local business firms quite will¬ 
ing if not eager to advertise their products on television, 
providing it can be done reasonably. It is in this field that 
O’Connell has found his most promising prospects. 

(Continued on Page 144) 


of studio pho- 



. C 0/V/v/r„ _ " 4 * m 

° r f /he ' n A s C, 

favor ing 8 * of econom S f °??el t08r 
' an, "*n,£*y “shting^. 


126 


Amfrican Cinematographer 


April, 1949 













With television maturing so rapidly, it is becoming generally recog¬ 
nized that films cannot just be “adapted,” but should be made 
specifically for television release — and of the finest quality con¬ 
sistent with allowable costs. 


Maurer 16-mm Professional 
Motion Picture Camera — 

unapproached in the 16-mm field 
for accuracy — for versatility. 


The producer, with a restricted budget, can meet both requirements 
most easily with Maurer equipment. 

A copy of the new catalogue of Maurer post-war equipment will 
be mailed on request. 


Maurer 16-mm Film Phonograph — 

a high-fidelity reproducer for re¬ 
recording, that provides a flat 
characteristic ± 1 db to 10,000 cps. 




maurer. 


J. A. MAURER, INC. 

37-07 31st Street, Long Island City 1, N. Y. 


Professional Motion Picture Cameras and 
Recording Equipment for the Production of 
Industrial, Educational and Training Films 


Maurer 16-mm Recorder 

provides sound tracks of 
the highest quality and 
fidelity, covering the full 
frequency range that 
standard projectors and 
television receivers are 
equipped to reproduce. 
A flat frequency range 
of 30 to 10,000 cycles is 
available. 















Give Your Vacation 
Movies A 'Break' 

Sequence shooting will enliven their 
interest for greater screen appeal. 

By ALFRED L. Cl LKS, A.S.C. 


S UPPOSE Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios asked you to bring 
back a movie record of this year’s vacation trip which they 
could use for a short subject? The chances are you’d spend a 
lot of time first in planning the film, then use extreme care in 
shooting it. But why not take the same pains with it anyhow? 
Invariably you will be showing the film to your friends and 
there’s always always a tendency for people to compare the 
quality of home movies with the professional pictures they see 
on theatre screens. 

A lot of cine camerists who make movies of their annual 
vacations follow the same pattern year after year: start with 
scenes of the family car being packed for the trip, the car leav¬ 
ing the driveway, and then follow with random snapshot 
scenes made along the way. The notable thing about these 
movies is that they clearly show the spontaneity of the filmer— 



RESIST the impulse to grab your camera and make “snapshot” movie 
scenes without some plan for integrating them into a story-telling 
continuity. Plan before you shoot, and watch your movies take on 
new interest on the screen! 



WHEN photographing interesting action, follow fhe impulse for your 
eye to move in close for a befter view, and do fhe same with your 
camera. A sequence of two or three interrelated shots tell your story 
better than a single shot. 


a spontaneity to grab the camera, sight it on an object or scene 
with little thought to composition or continuity, and press the 
button. 

Let’s do it differently this year. Let’s get a little of the profes¬ 
sional style into the presentation. This means starting at the 
time of shooting the pictures, carefully planning each shot so it 
will dovetail into a sequence of shots that tell a story. On the 
studio lots, as you know, every shot is carefully planned and 
described in the script, and the cameraman lights and photo¬ 
graphs it accordingly. But even the professional cinematogra¬ 
phers who film the newsreels and the documentary films for 
theatre release follow a plan, shoot for sequence editing, thus 
insuring story value in their footage. 

Your vacation film needn’t begin at your doorway. You can 
save film and begin your picture when the real, interesting ac¬ 
tion or pictorial interest begins. You can indicate your picture is 
a document of your vacation in the opening titles, then open 
it at the locale of your vacation sojourn. In this way, you avoid 
all the ’’boring details” that usually start so many home movie 
vacation films. You get to the meat of the subject at once: you 
and what you did or saw on your trip. 

If you haven’t yet developed a knack for shooting your pic¬ 
tures in interesting, story-telling sequences, here is the place to 
begin. And by this we mean that instead of making a random 
catch-as-can shot here and there, you reserve your shooting 
until you have an interesting subject to record; then intro¬ 
duce it with a medium or long shot, move in for a closeup, and 
then end it with other close shots at different angles that reveal 
a new view or some storytelling fact. Keep this procedure in 
mind for all your movie making. 

Let’s say you’re vacationing in Arizona or New Mexico. Inevi¬ 
tably you'll visit Indian reservations and, after obtaining the 
necessary permission, photograph some of the Indians working 
at their crafts or in tribal dances. A long shot will introduce your 

(Continued on Page 141) 




128 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 










Projectors 


Quality—quality of construction ... of screen image ... of tonal 
output —has been and still is the keynote of these two outstand¬ 
ing 16mm. sound projectors: The famous “FS-10-N,” for ideal 
screenings, ideal sound, in home or auditorium . . . the super¬ 
powerful “FB-40,” in “blimp” case, for maximum undistorted 
volume in large auditoriums. Both available with your choice 
of precision, Lumenized projection lenses and powerful lamps 
to flood the size screen you like, at the distance you desire to 
use it, with crisp and detailed images that are s-h-a-r-p from 
corner to corner. Both incorporate the unique Fidelity Con¬ 
trol that assures the finest sound results from all types of 16mm. 
film—originals, contact prints, or reductions from 3 5mm. And 
both now available at new low prices that make headline news 
of the value these prices represent. 

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 


with single speaker 

$ 345 

with twin speakers 

*395 

Everything you need for top sound or si¬ 
lent projection in home or hall—packed in 
two sturdy cases. Simple, finger-tip-ready 
controls; microphone-phonograph pickup; 
single- or twin-speaker units. Supplied, 
complete, with //1.6 Lumenized lens, 7 50- 
watt lamp, and incidental accessories. 


Sound Kodascope 
FS-10-N Projector 


40-watt output 
... twin speakers 


$ 585 


Sound Kodascope FB-40 Projector 

Unequalled sound output from a portable, tungsten-lamp, sound 
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which permit mixing music, voice com¬ 
mentary, or both, with sound or 
silent films. 


Prices 

subject to change 
without notice 


"Kodak” is a trade-mark 
































/6mm. and 8mm . (^inematofyraphtf 

SECTION 


Directing The Commercial Film 


Here, in the second of the series of articles dealing 
with 16 mm. business film production, the author 
emphasizes importance of versatility in the director. 


By CHARLES LORI NG 



WHEN faced with the necessity of drawing upon his client’s personnel for his cast, the director 
should carefully select players who appear most at ease, have a natural, self-confident look, and 
who are, to a reasonable degree, photogenic. 


HE DIRECTORS of a commercial mo¬ 
tion picture must, in a sense, be a 
jack-at-all-trades. He must be a com¬ 
bination of writer, cameraman, set de¬ 
signer, electrician, film cutter and diplo¬ 
mat. Unlike the director of the enter¬ 
tainment film, he is not called upon solely 
to interpret a series of dramatic or comic 
situations calculated to amuse an audience. 
On the contrary, he has an idea to sell— 
an idea which embodies the sales message 
of the client. It is his job to put that 
idea across in a manner that will hold 
the audience’s interest. 

The director of the commercial film is 
not as specialized as the photoplay direc¬ 
tor, whose sole responsibility is the stag¬ 
ing of the action. The commercial di¬ 
rector must know every phase of pro¬ 
duction and be able to co-ordinate each 


separate element to produce a unified 
result. His job begins even before the 
script is written. When the idea is still 
in the embryo stage, he and the writer 
meet with the client for a number of 
story conferences, during which they de¬ 
cide the basic cinematic treatment to be 
used in presenting the client’s message. 
The director’s opinion in these sessions 
is most important, for only he can ac¬ 
curately estimate the amount of time and 
effort that will be necessary for each effect. 
He knows what is feasible from the tech- 
nicial standpoint, and just how much pro¬ 
duction value can be had within the limits 
of the budget. 

The director works closely with the 
writer while the script is being developed. 
He will invariably have certain ideas of 
action or staging which he will want in¬ 


corporated into the script. Also, he will 
check constantly to see that each sequence 
as written is actually practical from the 
standpoint of time, budget and the avail¬ 
ability of actors or locations. It is far 
better to have these questions settled be¬ 
fore the script is written than to have to 
do extensive re-writing at a later date. 

Once the script is written and approved, 
the director and his assistant break it 
down into a shooting schedule for most 
efficient filming. In this planning stage, 
the scenes are grouped according to locale, 
camera set-ups or the availability of per¬ 
sonnel — so that several scenes can be 
photographed together no matter how 
widely they may be scattered in the script. 
It is the job of the director’s assistant 
to see that all sets, props and actors are 
arranged for in advance so that there 
will be no delay on the set when a par¬ 
ticular scene is scheduled for filming. 

It is not necessary that the director also 
be a cameraman, but he should certainly 
have a wide knowledge of camera tech¬ 
nique. The commercial film relies more 
heavily on visual presentation than does 
the photoplay, which is primarily a com¬ 
bination of dialogue and dramatic action. 
Therefore, the commercial director must 
think in visual terms—-but more than that, 
he must be able to understand the tech¬ 
nical requirements of filming this or that 
bit of action. 

The director should know composition 
and lighting so that he can convey to the 
cameraman the ideas he has for visually 
dramatizing a scene or sequence. He must 
know how to use light to achieve the 
kind of mood which he feels is right for 
a certain segment of the script. He must 
know the mechanics of camera movement 
so that he will not stage action that is im¬ 
possible for the cameraman to follow 
He must, in a sense, be able to think 
through a view-finder. 

In many ways the commercial film is 
a challenge to the director. Now and 
again he is fortunate enough to be as¬ 
signed a subject that is dramatic and 
visually exciting—but more often than 
not the basic subject, if not actually dull, 
is difficult to present in a manner that 
will hold an audience’s attention over a 
period of viewing time. With this thought 
in mind he should approach each film 
with a fresh viewpoint, as if he had never 
heard of the subject before. He should 
explore that subject thoroughly, analyz- 
(Continued on Page 140) 


130 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 









We Proudly Congratulate... 


WILLIAM DANIELS, A. S.C. 

Director of Photography 

FOR OUTSTANDING PHOTOGRAPHIC ACHIEVEMENT 

in Black and White 

“THE NAKED CITY” 

A MARK HELLINGER PRODUCTION 
U niversal-lnter national 

FOR OUTSTANDING PHOTOGRAPHIC ACHIEVEMENT 

in Color 

JOSEPH VALENTINE, A S.C. 

WM. V. SKALL, A S.C. WINTON HOCH, AS.C. 

Directors of Photography 

“JOAN OF ARC" 

SIERRA PICTURES PRODUCTION 
R.K.O.-Radio 

and 

PAUL EAGLER 

for the 

SPECIAL VISUAL EFFECTS 

in 

“PORTRAIT OF JENNIE” 

a Selznick Production 

EASTMAN FILMS 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 

Distributors 

FORT LEE CHICAGO HOLLYWOOD 


Dke WemLn of. . . 

The AMERICAN SOCIETY 
nf CINEMATOGRAPHERS 


Extend Con cj ra la fa tlonS to . . . 

WILLIAM DANIELS, A. S. C. 
JOSEPH VALENTINE, A. S. E. 
WILLIAM SHALL, A. S. E. 
W I N T D N H 0 E H, A. S. E. 
PALL E A G L E fl, A. S. E. 


j^or til eir outstandi 


incf acmeue- 


k 


merits in cinematoijrajiliij during 

1948 which accorded th 


s$cademy ^dhward 


recocj 


e m 
nition . 






Congratulations 

to 

JOSEPH VALENTINE, a.s.c. 
WILLIAM V. SHALL, a.s.c. 
WINTON HOCH, a.s.c. 

Winners of the 1948 Academy Award 

for Color Cinematography 

“Joan of Arc” 

Color by TECHNICOLOR 

(Sierra - RKO! 


TECHNICOLOR 

IS THE TRADE MARK OF 

TECHNICOLOR MOTION PICTURE CORPORATION 

HERBERT T. KALMUS, President and General Manager 



















CLOSE-UP DIAPHRAGM CALCULATOR 

3 INCH LENS 

DISTANCE OF LENS TO OBJECT ^ 


LIGHT 


20 in. 

10 in. 

7 in. 

6 in. 

5 in. 

4M in. 

4 in. 

3 H in. 

3^$ in. 

3H in. 






EFFECTIVE 

APERTURE 



F. 

2 

Becomes 

F. 

2.3 

F. 

2.8 

F. 

3.2 

F. 

4 

F. 

4.5 

F. 

5.6 

F. 

8 

F. 

11 

F. 

12 

F. 

16 

2.8 

Becomes 

3.2 

4 

4.5 

5.6 

6.3 

8 

11 

16 

18 

22 

4 

Becomes 

4.5 

5.6 

6.3 

8 

9.1 

n 

16 

22 

25 

32 

5.6 

Becomes 

6.3 

8 

9.1 

11 

12 

16 

22 

32 

36 

45 

8 

Becomes 

91 

11 

12 

16 

18 

22 

32 

45 



11 

Becomes 31^^— 

12 

16 

18 

22 

25 

32 

45 




16 

Becomes 

18 

22 

25 

32 

36 

45 





22 

Becomes. 

25 

32 

36 

45 












DISTANCE OF 

LENS TO FILM 






3X in. 

4H in. 

5 in. 

6 in. 

8 in. 

9 in. 

12 in. 

16 in. 

20 in. 

24 in. 


no apparent change in the F 
the object, but as the camera 
the F. value, since less light 


values when the camera is at least ten times the local length of the lens away from 
distances to the object decreases and the camera extension increases, it greatly affects 
reaches the film. 


WHEN depth of focus data is conveniently assembled as in the chart at top, the cine photogra¬ 
pher is able to readily determine the lens stop to use to achieve a particular compositional effect. 
The lower chart is an important guide to correct exposure when photographing ultra-closups of 
objects. There is a perceptible decrease in the amount of light admitted by a lens as its exten¬ 
sion is increased for short focus. 


Lens Facts 

Data and charts to aid you make better movies. 

By JACKSON ROSE, A.S.C. 


H OW WOULD you compensate for the 
light loss when shooting at 64 f.p.s. 
instead of 16? What is the depth of focus 
of a \ 2 V 2 mm. lens on an 8mm. camera 
set at f/3.5? Do you know the field of 
view of your camera lens at a distance of 
ten feet from subject? Do you know 
where to set your lens when required to 
open up one full stop from f/4.5? From 
f/1.5? 

Unless you are using your movie cam¬ 
era regularly, the chances are you cannot 
immediately answer all of these ques¬ 
tions; and when you encounter any one 

134 • 


of them, there is the possibility that you 
will avoid undertaking the shot unless 
you have the immediate answer in your 
mind; as when you want to make slow 
motion movies of a diver and your ex¬ 
posure meter indicates a lens stop of f/8 
as normal for 16 f.p.s. Or, wishing to 
shorten the depth of focus in order to 
obscure an unfavorable background, you 
do not know what stop to use. 

It’s understandable that movie ama¬ 
teurs who do not use their cameras re¬ 
gularly just don’t have such pertinent in¬ 
formation at hand or memorized. You 


acquire such knowledge only when you 
are working constantly with your camera, 
as do the professionals. But if you want 
to make movies with professional class, 
with innovations that distinguish your 
photography from the ordinary, you must 
be prepared to use the full scope of your 
camera and its lens or lenses, and this 
means having always handy a quick 
means of reference to necessary technical 
information. 

One way, of course, is to soak up this 
knowledge by memorizing it—one phase 
at a time. Take fast and slow speed pho¬ 
tography. No matter what your subject, 
you can always find use for the variable 
shutter speeds of your camera. One meth¬ 
od is to purposely photograph a roll of 
film in your camera, using the full range 
of speeds, and studying the result on the 
screen. Eight frames per second speed is 
one half the speed of normal sixteen. At 
this speed your camera shutter is admit¬ 
ting twice as much light as at normal 16 
f.p.s. speed, so, you close your lens one full 
stop. Now you may not know just what 
constitutes a full stop on your lens, because 
not all cine camera lenses are graduated 
in full stops. Here, then, you must have 
some dependable source of reference; 
but once it’s acquired, you can memorize 
the stops and thereafter know where to 
set your lens diaphragm when instructions 
say 'open up one stop’ or "close lens 
two stops,” etc. 

Good movies depend upon accurate ex¬ 
posure and sharp focus—in short, 99% 
of your movie success depends upon the 
camera lens. So if you lack knowledge of 
lenses and particularly if you would rather 


DIAPHRAGM COMPENSATOR 


Lens Stop Conversion 



For Various Camera Speeds 

16 

mm. 

AND 

8 mm. CAMERAS 

8 

Pictures 

per 

Second 

12 

Pictures 

per 

Second 

16 

Pictures 
„ per 
Second 

24 

Pictures 
_ P cr 
Second 

32 

Pictures 
o per 
Second 

48 

Pictures 

per 

Second 

64 

Pictures 

per 

Second 

LENS STOPS COMPENSATED 

FOR SPEEDS ABOVE 

F. Value 

F. Value 

F. Value 

F. Value 

F. Value 

F. Value 

F. Value 

2.8 

2.3 

2. 

1.8 

1.4 



3.2 

2.8 

2.3 

2. 

1.8 

1.4 


4. 

3.2 

2.8 

2.3 

2. 

1.8 

1.4 

4.5 

4. 

3.2 

2.8 

2.3 

2. 

1.8 

5.6 

4.5 

4. 

3.2 

2.8 

2.3 

2. 

6.3 

5.6 

4.5 

4. 

3.2 

2.8 

2.3 

8. 

6.3 

5.6 

4.5 

4. 

3.2 

2.8 

9.1 

8. 

6.3 

5.6 

4.5 

4 

3.2 

11.3 

9.1 

8. 

6.3 

5.6 

4.5 

4. 

12.5 

11.3 

9.1 

8. 

6.3 

5.6 

4.5 

16. 

12.5 

11.3 

9.1 

8. 

6.3 

5.6 

18. 

16. 

12.5 

11.3 

9.1 

8. 

6.3 

22. 

18. 

16. 

12.5 

11.3 

9.1 

8. 

25. 

22. 

18. 

16. 

12.5 

11.3 

9.1 

32. 

25. 

22. 

18. 

16. 

12.5 

11.3 

36. 

32. 

25. 

22. 

18. 

16. 

12.5 

45. 

36. 

32. 

25. 

22. 

18. 

16. 

64. 

45. 

36. 

32. 

25. 

22. 

18. 

EXAMPLE: With a light value of F.8 at 16 pictures per second 
which is normal to shoot at a speed of 32 pictures per second, 
lens is opened to F.5.6; to shoot at a speed of 8 pictures per second, 

' lens is closed to F.11.3 SHUTTER OPENING IS CONSTANT. 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 


































































































just skip a shot rather than make a 
"guess” at setting exposure or focus, 
you’re going to miss a lot of opportuni¬ 
ties that lead to movies with professional 
class. And it’s possible for every movie 
amateur, 8mm. or 16mm., to achieve 
professional class in his picture making. 
You needn't have an expensive camera, a 
camera full of gadgets, but you do need 
the "knowhow" about lenses. 

I don’t mean to infer that every movie 
amateur must memorize all the important 
facts pertaining to movie lens use. But he 
should know where to find such facts when 
he needs them. Better still, he should 
have them close at hand whenever he’s 
using his camera. Reproduced here, from 
pages of the American Cinematographer 
Handbook . are three charts important to 
every movie amateur. The first shows the 
depth of focus of a 12V2mm. lens for 
8mm. cameras. By referring to this chart, 
it is possible to determine in an instant 
if the background will be in sharp focus 
when subject is 10 feet from camera and 
the lens stop is f/2.5. The chart is par¬ 
ticularly useful as a guide in shooting 
miniature sets or ultra closeups of small 
objects, where artificial light is used for 
illumination and therefore can be con¬ 
trolled in order to gain use of the right 
lens stop to achieve limited or unlimited 
depth of focus. 

The Closeup Diaphragm Calculator 
chart for the 3 inch lens shows a quick 
method of determining the changes in 
effective aperture from the measured light 
value, when photographing small objects 
at close range. Normally there is no appar¬ 
ent change in lens f/values when the cam¬ 
era is at least ten times the focal length 
from subject; but as the camera distance 
to subject decreases, as in ultra-closeup 
photography, the lens extension increases 
which greatly affects the f/value, since less 
light reaches the film. This chart makes 
it possible to compensate exposure for 
such light loss. 

The Diaphragm Compensator chart is 
one which the movie amateur will fre¬ 
quently refer to. It indicates the correct 
lens stop conversion when camera is used 
at various speeds. You may have occasion 
sometime to make commercial films, if 
yours is a 16mm. camera. If so, it will 
be 'necessary to shoot at 24 f.p.s.—the 
standard sound speed. It will be neces¬ 
sary for you to know how much to open 
up your lens from the setting normally 
established for 16 f.p.s.—or better, to 
know exactly what stop to use. This 
chart gives it to you at a glance. 

Cut these charts out and paste them in 
a notebook for handy reference when 
making movies. Let this be the start of 
an important technical reference guide 
for your movie making. The American 
Cinematographer Handbook, of course, 
contains scores more of such timely and 
all-important data charts. 



Congratulations 

WILLIAM DANIELS, A.S.C. 

WINNER OF ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST BLACK AND WHITE 

PHOTOGRAPHY 


Universal-International Pictures Production 

“THE NAKED CITY” 


“The MITCHELL Studio BNC Camera, equipped with 
Baltar lenses, was an important contribution to the pho¬ 
tographic perfection of this great picture.” 


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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


135 

















1948 ACADEMY AWARDS 


2 IMPORTANT 
BOOKS 


For Every Movie Maker, 
Amateur Or Professional 



Source of QUICK ANSWERS to such ques¬ 
tions as: “What is the angle of view of my 
25mm. lens?” “What’s the depth of focus of 
my 50mm. lens at 12 feet?” “How much 
film will a 30 second take consume at 24 
f.p.s.?” “What’s the Weston daylight rating 
of Ansco Ultra-Pan negative?” “What stop 
shall I use to shoot at 8 f.p.s. if exposure at 
16 f.p.s. is f/4.5?” And thousands more! 
A handbook that’s a must for every motion 
picture cameraman, professional or amateur. 

Price $5.00 Postpaid 



Rare! Published in 1930, limited number of 
original editions availabe! Written by top 
technicians in the motion picture industry, 
book includes chapters on timely subjects 
ranging from Optical science of cinemato¬ 
graphy to color photography, lighting, sound 
recording, etc. Printed on fine coated paper; 
hundreds of illustrations; bound in blue 
leatherette. 

Special price $3.50 Postpaid 

American Society Of Cinematographers 

1782 No. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


(Continued from Page 121) 


gan awarding trophies to collaborating 
directors of photography. 

William Daniels’ award for best black 
and white photography also marks for 
him a triumph of determination. Win¬ 
ning it proved that he could pursue a 
new format in motion picture photogra¬ 
phy successfully. Having spent 30 years 
at MGM, where he was rated the top 
"glamour” cameraman in the industry, 
Daniels determined to get away from 
what he believed was a rut. Ageing stars 
and changing times, he foresaw, de¬ 
manded a change not only of scenery 
but of pace if he were to preserve his 
artistic and technical perspective. He 
went to Universal and it wasn’t long— 
less than two years—before the oppor¬ 
tunity he sought came along. It was the 
late Mark Hellinger’s "Naked City,” and 
Daniels tackled it with a zest unparalleled 
in his career. Daniels proved that he 
could photograph realistic subject matter 
with all the imagination and artistry he 
formerly imparted to "glamour” pictures. 

It was immediately recognized, of 
course, that Daniels’ virile documentary 
photographic treatment gave the story 
power and force, that he had brought 
stark realism to the screen in a manner 
never before attempted. 

While this is Daniels’ first Academy 
Award, he has been a contender on two 
other occasions when in 1931 "Anna 
Christie” was nominated for a photo¬ 
graphic award, and again in 1939, when 
"Marie Antoinette” was nominated for 
photography. Both pictures were nosed 
out in the final balloting. 

Joseph Valentine is probably the first 
director of photography ever to receive 
an academy award for his first Techni¬ 
color picture. The success of Joan Of 
Arc” and the Academy Award which 
subsequently was bestowed on Valentine 
for his camera artistry is a personal tri¬ 
umph which he shares with William 
Skall and Winton Hoch, who were as¬ 
sociate directors of photography on the 
picture. 

Valentine confounded Technicolor ex¬ 
perts by purposely underlighting many 
of the scenes in Joan Of Arc” and hav¬ 
ing them come out O.K. Thus, he prob¬ 
ably added something in the way of 
new and hitherto untried procedures for 
this color medium. 

The fact that Valentine was, on four 
previous occasions, a contender for Acad¬ 
emy photographic awards proves that 
such ability sooner or later demands and 
receives just rewards. He holds Academy 
nomination certificates for "100 Men 
And a Girl” (1937), "Wings Over 

• 


Honolulu,” (1938), "Spring Parade,” 
(1940), and "It’s A Date,” (1940). 

Valentine has been a cinematographer 
since 1922 and was probably the first to 
acquire the title, "Director Of Photog¬ 
raphy.” He was with Fox 12 years, 
Universal 12 years, spent a year at MGM, 
and was attached to the U. S. Air Force 
photographic corps during the war. 

Although it is the first year that Wil¬ 
liam Skall has received an Academy 
Award, it is not the first time that this 
quiet, unassuming director of photog¬ 
raphy, has been a contender. He has 
received nomination certificates from the 
Academy for "The Mikado,” (1939) 
and "Northwest Passage,” (1940); also 
for "Billie The Kid,” which he photo¬ 
graphed in association with the late Len 
Smith. He became a triple-threat man in 
1942 when three pictures on which he 
collaborated photographically were nom¬ 
inated for photographic awards. These 
were: "Arabian Knights,” in collabora¬ 
tion with Milton Krasner, A.S.C., and 
Wm. H. Greene, A.S.C.; "Reap The Wild 
Wind,” in association with Harry Jack- 
son, A.S.C., and Victor Milner, A.S.C.; 
and "To The Shores Of Tripoli,” with 
Edward Cronjager, A.S.C., and Harry 
Jackson, A.S.C. Still another nomination 
certificate was added to his collection 
when in 1947 Life With Father was 
nominated for a color photography award 
but was eliminated in the final voting. 
Skall collaborated with Peverell Marley, 
A.S.C., on this one. 

A World War I ace, Skall also served 
in the photographic division of the Air 
Corps in World War II. He considers 
"Joan of Arc” one of his most challeng¬ 
ing assignments. This was followed by 
Alfred Hitchcock’s "Rope” on which he 
again collaborated with Joseph Valentine. 

Winton Hoch (name rhymes with 
"coke ”) is the third of the triumvirate 
awarded Oscars for the photography of 
"Joan Of Arc.” His artistry and com¬ 
petent handling of the Technicolor cam¬ 
era is evident in the majority of the baftle 
scenes in the picture which he photo¬ 
graphed. Hoch is a director of photog¬ 
raphy under contract to Technicolor 
Corporation. One of the first important 
features filmed by him was Dr. Cyclops,” 
which first revealed his talents for effect 
photography and had every Hollywood 
studio bidding for his services. There¬ 
after he did aerial photography for Dive 
Bomber and "Captain Of The Clouds,” 
and the live action photography for Walt 
Disney’s Reluctant Dragon” and Fan¬ 
tasia.” Fox kept him working a full 
year in their special effects department 


136 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 











doing trick photography, then the war 
intervened and Hoch went into the Navy’s 
photographic service. 

As one of Technicolor’s top camera¬ 
men, Hoch has continually worked in an 
atmosphere of Academy Award winners 
or nominees. He assisted with the photog¬ 
raphy of The Black Swan,” which won 
an award in 1942 for photographic 
achievement, also on "Crash Dive,’’ 
which won a special visual effects achieve¬ 
ment award in 1943. Hoch photographed 
the live action for Walt Disney’s "So 
Dear To My Heart and subsequently 
shared photographic credit on Walter 
Wanger’s "Tap Roots.” More recently 
he has photographed John Ford’s "Three 
Godfathers,’’ currently showing, also 
'"Tulsa” and "She Wore A Yellow Rib¬ 
bon.” 

The fifth Oscar awarded in the photo¬ 
graphic division to an A.S.C. man was 
received by Paul Eagler, for achievement 
in special visual effects in the Selznick 
picture, "Portrait of Jennie.” Eagler, in 
association with Russell Sherman and 
Clarence Slifer, as already stated, photo¬ 
graphed the special effects for this pic¬ 
ture under the direction of J. M. John¬ 
son. Eagler, probably one of the oldest 
active special effects cameramen in point 
of service, made his first process shot in 
1923. Since then he has contributed spe¬ 
cial effects photography to hundreds of 
Hollywood feature films, many of them 



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Congratulates 

ALL ACADEMY AWARD WINNERS 

And Salutes For Outstanding Cinematographic Achievement 

WILLIAM DANIELS, A.S.C. 

Best Black and White Photography-—“The Naked City’’ 


jOSEPH VALENTINE, A.S.C. 

WILLIAM SKALL, A.S.C. WINTON HOCH, A.S.C. 

Best Color Photography—“Joan Of Arc’’ 


Again Mole-Richardson “Molinkies” and “Molarcs” have played a great role in the 
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Photographic Lighting Equipment Since 1927 




April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


O 


137 

















A QUICK METHOD FOR cleaning film is 
to wear a white canvas glove that has been 
turned inside out and hold film between 
thumb and forefinger as it travels between 
reels during rewinding. Place a few drops 
of carbon-tetrachloride on the glove fin¬ 
gers and alter path of moving film fre¬ 
quently. 

TO PROLONG LIFE OF Photoflood lamps 
that have been used, store them in in¬ 
dividual cans with wad of cotton on bot¬ 
tom as a cushion. 

• 

THE NEW '‘MAGIC SLATES” being sold 
at toy counters make an excellent device 
for providing temporary titles or identify¬ 
ing data while shooting on "location.” 
Simply write text on plastic surface of 
slate, photograph, and "erase” text by 
lifting the plastic panel from the wax 
base. Dime stores have them, too. 

• 

WHEN FILMINC IN TROPICS or hot 

climates, keep all camera accessories away 
from direct sun rays and other excessive 
heat. This is especially important of len¬ 
ses and filters, which can be ruined by 
heat or strong, direct sunlight. A white 
cloth draped over the camera will reduce 
the heat absorbed and prevent film buckle. 

KEEP CAMERA LENSES COVERED at all 

times when camera is not in use, to pre¬ 
vent damage to lens surfaces from ex¬ 
cessive heat, humidity and dampness. Use 
metal lens caps which protect lenses from 
dust as well as danger of abrasions. 

• 

WHEN A PHOTOFLOOD lamp burns out 
during a shooting session, removing the 
hot bulb can be facilitated by slipping 
over it the corrugated protector sheath¬ 
ing the new bulb that is to replace it 

• 

GIVE ADDED PICTORIAL emphasis to your 
color movies of flowers in closeups by 
shooting the blossoms on an indoor stage, 
and giving variety to the lighting by slow¬ 
ly moving the illuminating lamps ( pho¬ 
tofloods) from side to side, up and down, 
etc., as the flower blossom is being pho¬ 
tographed. 

FOR AN EFFECTIVE DOLLY 0 r zoom shot 
of limited scope, mount your cine camera 
on a roller skate and move it toward or 
away from subject as it is being photo¬ 
graphed. Gives splendid results on close- 
ups of small objects, flowers, inserts of 
letters, newspaper items, etc. 


Academy Award winners. The Oscar he 
received this year is his first, but he has 
previously received nomination certificates 
for outstanding special effects work on 
"The Hurricane” (1937) and Foreign 
Correspondent” (1940). 

While the Academy Awards serve for 
the moment to underscore the achieve¬ 
ments of these men, it goes without say¬ 
ing that all their work is, and has been, 
of the same high caliber as that in the 
pictures which the Academy evaluated 
and found worthy of special recognition 


the peculiar tendency of the iconoscope 
tube to flare on dark areas, and stressed 
that in picture composition for television, 
large solid black areas, particularly at 
either side or bottom of the picture 
frame, should be avoided, otherwise an¬ 
noying flare will be created in these areas 
when the picture is televised. 

The conclusion is that "arty” lighting 
in motion pictures for television must be 
restrained in keeping with the medium’s 
limitations. On the other hand, excessive 
bright areas create a problem, too. High¬ 
light details in the image projected on 
the iconoscope tube tend to wash out” 
because of the compression or saturation 
of whites on the tube. 

A more even lighting than is normally 
used in standard motion picture practice 
will render better results for television 
films—that is, by keeping the shadows 
fairly light and the overall contrast more 
level. A subject contrast between l-to-20 
and l-to-30 nets best results, where lab¬ 
oratory work is of maximum quality. 

The subject of lighting comes in for 
special attention in the Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers’ recent booklet, "Films 
In Television,” which states: "The limi¬ 
ted range of picture tube brightness re¬ 
quires that subject contrast be controlled 
wherever possible . . . even lighting is 
essential particularly over large picture 
areas. That is, large picture areas must 
have about the same average illumination 
. . . The general intensity of illumination 
from scene to scene should be kept re¬ 
latively constant so that the level of the 
television signal does not change marked¬ 
ly. For this reason night scenes should be 
avoided.” 

Television films require more attention 
to compositional details than do theatrical 
films. Medium shots become the "long 
shots” of TV photography while the con¬ 
ventional long shot of the feature film 
should be avoided because it rarely adds 
anything of value to a video film produc¬ 
tion and frequently causes the viewer 
to lose the trend of continuity. Because 

• 


this year. The awards, in most cases, will 
infuse new interest and enthusiasm in the 
recipients and this, after all, is the purpose 
of the Academy’s annual awards presen¬ 
tation. As Jean Hersholt, Academy presi¬ 
dent, stated in his talk which opened the 
presentation ceremonies, "The Academy 
has devoted itself to honoring efforts 
which, whether or not they resulted in 
financial success, were admirable pieces 
of work, artistically important and en¬ 
riching the culture from which they were 
developed.” 


viewing screens of home television re¬ 
ceivers are small and the field of action 
limited, closeups give the most satisfac¬ 
tory reproduction and therefore should 
make up the bulk of the television film. 

This brings us to the subject of fram¬ 
ing. Because there are two and some¬ 
times three steps in the process of trans¬ 
mitting the video film image to the home 
receiver that affect the overall size of the 
picture, there is a marked reduction in 
the area that is finally seen by the tele¬ 
vision set owner. First the scanned area 
of the film is slightly reduced, when picked 
up by the iconoscope, to insure a safe 
margin all around the picture; then there 
is the additional loss of border area 
caused by the framing around the screen 
of many home receivers. Because of this, 
it is important that closeups be not played 
tight or full frame, otherwise some im¬ 
portant detail is bound to be chopped off 
in the picture seen on the screen. "The 
action should be kept centered, but there 
should be a generous allowance of space 
at top and bottom and at the sides of the 
picture frame, as seen in the camera 
viewfinder,” Fraser said. The S.M.P.E. 
recommands that subject material be kept 
within a central area having 8Jd>% top 
and bottom margins and 13% side mar¬ 
gins. 

Makeup is another important factor 
in the production of television films and 
something that has received too little at¬ 
tention thus far among many producers 
of films for video. Faces of players are 
always the center of interest on the tele¬ 
vision screen, of course, and it is im¬ 
portant that facial details register clearly 
at all times and above all never be washed 
out. A face too light will tend to wash 
out where the picture is not carefully 
watched by the monitor as it is being 
sent out over the air. A safety factor is 
to keep faces slightly darker than one 
might ordinarily for feature films. Ex¬ 
perienced TV film producers who have 
worked to perfect this factor of TV film 


FILMS FOR TELEVISION 

[Continued, from Page 123) 


138 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 












quality recommend makeup two shades 
darker than that commonly used for the¬ 
atrical films. 

The handling and processing of tele¬ 
vision films by the laboratory is one of the 
most important steps in their production, 
according to Fraser. One may light and 
photograph a picture with extreme care, 
follow all the established production rules, 
yet the film may televise poorly because 
of careless or improper developing or 
printing. There has been a tendency for 
some film laboratories, Fraser said, to 
treat 16 mm. film strictly as an amateur 
medium with the result that its full po¬ 
tentials never have been fully developed. 

Film laboratories, he said, need to im¬ 
prove sensitometric control of both pic¬ 
ture and sound track printing of 16mm. 
television films. Also there is a great deal 
of printer slippage evident in many cur¬ 
rent films which greatly impairs their 
quality when televised. Best results fol¬ 
low, Fraser said, where prints are made 
with a step printer of good quality. 

Grain is an inherent problem in all 
16mm. television films because there is 
grain or, as it is commonly called, "noise,’’ 
in television, too; and any film grain nat¬ 
urally adds to this to lower the overall 
quality of the televised picture. 

Fraser pointed out another laboratory 
problem faced by television, and that is 


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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


139 






















• Kenneth MscLean’s wife presented 
him with a baby daughter, subsequently 
named Jean. 

• John Boyle was keeping the com¬ 
muniques rolling from Rome where he 
was preparing to shoot Goldwyn’s super¬ 
production, "Ben Hur. ’ 

• John Sietz, winding up shooting for 
Rex Ingram’s "The Arab in Tunis, was 
preparing to move on with the company 
for location shots in Paris. 

• Mitchell Camera Company called 
attention, via a full page announcement 
in "American Cinematographer," that 
every one of the feature films shown in 
the six major theatres in downtown Los 
Angeles in one week (those were the 
days of single features,) were photo¬ 
graphed with a Mitchell camera. 

• Bert Glennon. Ernest Haller, and 
Louis Tolhurst were admitted to member¬ 
ship in the A.S.C. Glennon had recently 
finished Cecil B. DeMille s Ten Com¬ 
mandments.” Haller had just completed 
five pictures in a row for Paramount 
starring Thomas Meighan. Tolhurst, an 
expert on microscopic cinematography, 
was cameraman for Principal Pictures 
Corp. 

• John Arnold, who had photographed 
every picture in which Viola Dana ap¬ 
peared since she became a star, was pho¬ 
tographing "Along Came Ruth," latest 
Metro production starring Miss Dana. 
Eddie Cline was the director. 

• Dan Clark was establishing some¬ 
thing of a record for cameramen, starting 
the filming of his twentieth production 
since 1922 starring Tom Mix. Clark’s 
unit was one of the busiest in the in¬ 
dustry, having the entire west for its 
shooting grounds. 

• Al Gilks, suffered loss of a few front 
teeth and a badly lacerated face in a golf 
links accident, when a fellow player’s 
driver slipped from his perspiring hands 
and struck Al as he stood by watching the 
drive. 

• David Abel was shooting Beau Brum- 
mel" for Warners Brothers. 

• George Benoit, who had just com¬ 
pleted shooting the Belasco production, 
"Welcome Stranger,” starring Florence 
Vidor and Robert Edeson, suffered loss 
of a valuable French camera when thieves 
broke into his home during his absence. 
Oddly enough, they passed up other pho¬ 
tographic equipment, all of which was 
fully insured. 

• Homer Scott and Fred Jackman 
were vacationing in Mexico on weekends, 
flying there by private plane. 

140 • American Cinematographer 


the inability of many labs at present 
to furnish a continuous 1200 foot 16mm. 
print without splices. Film splices, in 
addition to the ever present danger of 
parting during projection, cause an an¬ 
noying jump on the screen as they pass 
the projector gate. TV projectors have 
a very rapid pull down movement, com¬ 
pared to ordinary 16mm. projectors, that 
exerts strong pull on the film. Some east 
coast laboratories are now equipped to 
render continuous prints up to 1200 feet 
in length, and it is expected that other 
laboratories in the country will soon fol¬ 
low suit. 

The subject of films for television is 
coming in for more and more clinical 
study as their importance becomes more 
evident with the growth of the television 
industry. They will come in for special 
study at the forthcoming semi-annual con¬ 
vention of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers in New York City this month. 
The Society’s recently published book, 
"Films For Television,” mentioned ear¬ 
lier, is available at small cost through 
S.M.P.E. offices. It reports the latest find¬ 
ings in the study of films for video in¬ 
cluding photography, lighting, processing 
and kinescoping. It is recommended read¬ 
ing for all who are interested in the pro¬ 
duction of films for television, whether 
in 16 millimeter or 35. 


DIRECTING THE 
COMMERCIAL FILM 

(Continued from Page 130) 

ing it for elements that can be dramatized 
in picture and sound. 

In filming the commercial picture, the 
director will work with objects and with 
people. The objects include products, 
machinery and buildings—all of which 
(since they have no movement of their 
own) rely mainly upon lighting and 
camera angle for dramatization. The peo¬ 
ple, on the other hand, are strictly the 
responsibility of the director. They talk 
and move according to his directions, 
and their performances in the finished 
print should reflect his approach to the 
subject. 

It is in his handling of players within 
the scene that a director proves whether 
he is worthy of the name or not. If he 
is fortunate (and is given a sufficient 
budget) he will be able to procure pro 
fessional actors who are experienced in 
creating an illusion of reality. If this is 
the case, his problems of staging action 
are considerably simplified. Usually, how¬ 
ever, he will not have a professional cast 
and will be forced to rely upon amateur 
actors and non-actors who are actually 
working in the locales to be filmed. 

If, as is very often the case, he has 
to make actors out of the people working 
in the locale, he will have to cope with 

• April, 1949 


different problems. 

Almost anyone who has had no acting 
experience or who has never appeared 
before a movie camera will tend to be 
self-conscious and somewhat awkward at 
first, especially when asked to "act” be¬ 
fore his fellow employees and under the 
direction of a stranger. 

Faced with the necessity of using these 
untrained players for his cast, the direc¬ 
tor should first study his client’s personnel 
and mentally select the most promising 
—those who appear most at ease, have 
a natural self-confident air about them 
and who are, to a reasonable degree, 
photogenic. 

Once the director spots likely talent 
among his client’s personnel, he should 
first obtain permission from the client, 
or his subordinate, to use them in the pic¬ 
ture before he approaches the employees 
themselves. While most clients cooper¬ 
ate very well in lending their employees 
to take part in a film sponsored by them, 
it sometimes happens that certain em¬ 
ployees cannot be interrupted in their 
work without seriously affecting plant 
production. 

In staging a scene with inexperienced 
players, patience and understanding will 
net the most satisfactory performances. 
You will find that as the player repeats 
his performance in rehearsals, it tends 
to come easier to him. So count on plenty 
of time for rehearsals. 

In directing an inexperienced actor 
keep your action patterns simple and in 
key with the person’s own background 
in his line of work. This is type cast¬ 
ing” perhaps, but it is the quickest and 
simplest way to get a convincing per¬ 
formance from one who is new to screen 
acting. The director will find that it pays 
to take time to explain carefully to his 
cast the full gist of the script or at least 
the particular sequence then in work. 

The success of the commercial film 
depends primarily upon the director’s 
ability to co-ordinate the situation in the 
script with those he encounters in the 
actual locale. What sounds like simple 
action in the script may become some¬ 
what complex when you have to stage 
it using novice actors and while working 
around a plant or office schedule. The 
director’s patience is often sorely tried 
by apparently unnecessary delays, but in 
commercial filming he cannot allow him¬ 
self the luxury of temperament. On the 
contrary, he must constantly be tactful 
and diplomatic. He should bend over 
backwards to be pleasant and consider¬ 
ate of the people who are working on 
his picture, both cast and crew—since 
pleasant relationship invariably result in 
better pictures. 

Each director has his own individual 
working technique on the set. Some pre¬ 
fer to paint a word picture of the scene 
at hand and thus "talk” their players into 


























giving the right performance. Others 
prefer to act out the role and have the 
actor imitate the performance. The happy 
medium involves a bit of both styles. 
Discuss the scene with the players and 
then walk through the action for them, 
outlining the general pattern of action 
and suggesting with inflection or gesture 
the effect desired. 

As a general rule it is wise to avoid 
direct dialogue sequences unless you have 
competent professional or semi-profes¬ 
sional actors available to play the parts. 
Amateurs who are not used to speaking 
lines rarely give convincing performances. 
There are, of course, exceptions—but it 
is far better to assign dialogue to ex¬ 
perienced people than to take a chance 
on impairing the result. 

One of the worst fates that can befall 
the director of the commercial film is 
to have technical inaccuracies show up 
in his final print. In order to avoid such 
deadly boners, the director should at¬ 
tend all story conferences with both writer 
and client. He should also request that 
the client assign a well-oriented indi¬ 
vidual of his own staff or personnel to 
work closely with the filming crew dur¬ 
ing production. 

The commercial director has a two¬ 
fold responsibility: to present the client’s 
message clearly and forcefully—and to 
make the cinematic result something an 
audience will want to sit through. To 
meet the challenge, he must present fac¬ 
tual material in an absorbing manner, 
for originality is the keynote of success 
in the commercial film fiield. 


GIVE YOUR VACATION 
MOVIES A BREAK’ 

(Continued from Page 128) 

subject, and show the locale; then you can 
move in for close shots of your subject 
at work, closing the sequence with an ul- 
tra-closeup of the work—perhaps a piece 
of pottery, a blanket in course of weav¬ 
ing, or a native meal in preparation. You 
can reverse the order, too, with equally 
good effect: open the sequence with 
a closeup of your subject, pull back to a 
medium shot to show the surroundings, 
then move back in—and nearer this time 
—to show at close range the object of 
your subject’s handicraft. 

Each of these shots need only be a few 
seconds in duration. The sum total of the 
whole—a series of two or three shots, each 
at a different distance or angle—will tell 
your story and need not exceed the total 
footage that you might otherwise devote 
to a single shot of the subject. By break¬ 
ing up the sequence into a series of short 
shots, you create more interest in the sub¬ 
ject and your picture takes on real profes¬ 
sional style on the screen. 



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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


141 













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to make shots of members of your family 
here, and again ' sequence shooting’’ is 
recommended for best screen results. In 
the accompanying picture, mother, teach¬ 
ing Junior to swim, is being photo¬ 
graphed close up from edge of the pool. 
Properly preceding this shot, of course, 
would be a long shot introducing the lo¬ 
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The nice thing about this sequence 
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here and there, shots that have no story 
value on your home movie screen. At 
best, such movie making is just a series 
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made just as easily, although with less 
fun, with a snapshot camera. 

Sequence filming of the sort described 
here doesn’t call for preparation of a 
shooting script. Instead, you plan each 
shot in sequence order before starting 
your camera. Old Faithful Geyser? Get it 
in three short takes: (1) long shot; (2) 
medium shot, showing spectators eagerly 
awaiting its eruption; and finally (3) a 
long shot of the geyser in majestic erup¬ 
tion. Uncle Amos farm? You can shoot 
a whole roll of film here. But let’s take 
just one of the many possible subjects: 
the new colt romping in the corral. Begin 
with a long shot showing mother and colt 


idling across the corral by the fence; then 
move in for a closer shot, and finally one 
or two shots closeup—perhaps one show¬ 
ing Junior petting the colt. 

The instances cited should give you the 
idea. You can apply the technique to any 
subject, and to scenery, too. Suppose you 
plan to shoot Bridal Veil Falls in Yosem- 
ite. Naturally you can’t shoot such a sub¬ 
ject in closeup. But you can get variety 
and increased interest in a sequence of 
shots by varying your camera angle each 
time. Shoot the falls from a distance; then 
from a nearer distance at another angle 
(from another location within the park), 
then from a point below the falls, looking 
up. Of course, you won’t shoot this se¬ 
quence in 1, 2, 3, continuity, because it 
will mean travelling a considerable dis¬ 
tance between camera setups. You may 
even have to make the shots on different 
days. If so, make sure sunlight conditions 
are approximately the same for each shot. 

A "sequence” may consist of as little 
as two and as many as four or five shots. 
Experience will show you how many 
takes are necessary to tell your story in 
detail. Don’t "repeat” your takes, how¬ 
ever, any more than once having panned 
on a scene, from left to right, you’d pan 
back again. It isn’t good cinematic tech¬ 
nique. One way to start is to make it a 
point to shoot each subject of interest 
in at least three takes—a long or medium 
shot to introduce locale; a medium close- 
up; and finally a screen-filling closeup of 
the subject or action detail. 

Make it a point this summer to try this 
recommended plan, and note the livelier 
response of your home movie audience to 
those films given the resultant "new look.” 


SOUND STAGE SEAFARER 

(Continued from Page 123) 


in such a way that the scenes could be 
grouped for each angle. This meant that 
the ship had to be turned only once or 
twice during the day’s shooting, and usu¬ 
ally during the cast’s lunch hour or after 
filming had stopped for the day. 

A second device used to bypass delays 
in swinging the ship around was the 
placement of process screens at oblique 
angles for front projection. For one night 
sequence the background was projected 
from a 45 degree angle onto a huge mus¬ 
lin screen and the action was played in 
front of it, with the camera squarely 
facing the screen. One of the greatest 
problems, seemingly, was finding space in 
which to throw the huge image needed 
to fill the 35 foot background screen, since 
the ship itself took up most of the space 
on the sound stage. This was solved by 
placing the projector on another stage 
and shooting it through a tunnel connect¬ 
ing the two stages. 


Except for scenes actually showing the 
lowering of boats into the water and tar¬ 
get practice on dummy whales, the bulk 
of the water action was shot in the studio 
tank. Especially effective is the sequence 
in which one whaling crew is lost in the 
night fog and the other crew goes search¬ 
ing through the murk with flaming 
torches. 

The two climactic highpoints of the 
film, the whaling sequence and the ice¬ 
berg sequence, both owe their visual ef¬ 
fectiveness to superb applications of spe¬ 
cial effects and the use of miniatures. Joe 
MacDonald is loud in praise of special 
effects expert Ray Kellogg, who executed 
the mechanics of these effects. 

The whale which blows its spray of 
water so realistically as it plows through 
the water is a cleverly devised miniature 
—even in the scenes in which it rams the 
boat. Process plates were made of this 






142 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 


















action and blown up as a background for 
the players. Needless to say, the light 
balance between background and fore¬ 
ground is so perfect that even the trained 
eye is unaware of any obvious trickery. 

The iceberg sequence is a masterpiece 
of staging. Miniatures of the ship and 
the icebergs were used in the long shots 
and corresponding "life size’" segments 
of both in the closer shots. One of the 
most effective scenes is that in which the 
ship is groping its way through the fog 
in an effort to avoid striking an iceberg. 
As the watchers peer anxiously into the 
pea-soup atmosphere, the fog suddenly 
lifts to show a huge iceberg rearing up. 
Then the ship breaks through into sun- 
light. 

Staging this bit of business called for 
precise timing and the use of an unusual 
mechanical set-up. First the miniature 
icebergs were filmed with and without a 
fog filter. Then two projectors were set 
up and trained on the same rear projec¬ 
tion screen. Into one projector was thread¬ 
ed the iceberg footage. The other projec¬ 
tor was threaded with footage of swirling 
fog shot at sea. For the beginning of the 
sequence these two images were superim¬ 
posed on the screen. When the fog was 
due to lift, the fog was faded out to reveal 
a ghostly image of the iceberg. Then, 
when the sun broke forth, there was a dis¬ 
solve to the unfiltered shot of the iceberg. 
At the same moment the lights were 
brought up on the foreground subjects to 
simulate sunlight. The result is a very 
striking bit of realism. 

Joe MacDonald’s style in filming 
"Down To The Sea In Ships’’ is a careful 
blending of sharply highlighted low-key 
lighting, extreme depth of field, and force¬ 
ful camera composition. The night scenes 
on deck are graphic patterns of black and 
white. Some of the daylight scenes are 
purposely very fiat to simulate the raw 
quality of overcast. The camera angles 
are frequently low and framed with fore¬ 
ground objects for added depth. In shoot¬ 
ing these depth-of-field scenes, extremely 
high light levels were used so that the 
lens could be stopped down to insure 
sharp focus in both planes. 

MacDonald, who has been a cinema¬ 
tographer at Twentieth Century-Fox since 
1929, is a camera artist who would hoot 
at the idea of being called arty. He works 
with the sure instinct born of many years 
of experience, and leans more on his 
know-how than on any combination of 
gadgets and technical data. 

MacDonald lays claim to no magic 
formulas in photography. "I like simplici¬ 
ty on the screen,” he explains. "For years 
I’ve been studying the works of the great 
painters, and I’ve found that the best 
paintings were done using a simple, un¬ 
cluttered approach. For this reason, I've 
always tried to get a clean quality into my 



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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 




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camerawork. I never use formless shadow 
patterns to break up a bare expanse of 
wall, because I feel that they detract from 
the force of the composition. I believe 
that the role of the camera is to tell a 
story and not to call attention to itself. 

MacDonald’s long roster of films in¬ 
cludes John Ford’s "My Darling Clemen¬ 
tine,’’ "Call Northside 777,” "Street With 
No Name,” and the beautifully photo¬ 
graphed super-western "Yellow Sky.” The 
latter film is a masterpiece of outdoor 
photography—drawing its force from a 
combination of low wide-angle composi¬ 
tions and heavily filtered landscapes. It is 
also notable for its extensive use of infra¬ 
red film for night shots, a technique which 
is by no means new but which has rarely 
been applied with such visual force and 
beauty. 

Joe MacDonald lays no claim to any 
particular "style.” But the objective ob¬ 
server will find in his photography a clean, 
modern approach—a forceful means of 
telling a screen story. That, in itself, is 
the finest kind of style. 


THERE’S A FUTURE 
IN TELEVISION FILMS 


(Continued from Page 126) 


He cites a small Los Angeles packer 
presently marketing its dog food product 
exclusively in Southern California. The 
company, according to O’Connell, is mak¬ 
ing plans to compete in the national mar¬ 
ket and believes one of the best means of 
expanding its sales is via television. It is 
for this company that O’Connell has pro¬ 
duced a series of one-minute spot an¬ 
nouncements and has others on the plan¬ 
ning board. 

O’Connell’s reputation as a camera¬ 
man who knows how to gear his cinema¬ 
tography to the economy of modest-budg¬ 
et feature films attracted the attention of 
William Cameron Menzies, famed Holly¬ 
wood art director who also is avidly inter¬ 
ested in television film production. Men¬ 
zies, together with Rudy Mate, A.S.C., had 
developed an idea for a couple of televi¬ 
sion films based on Edgar Allen Poe’s 
"Tell Tale Heart” and "The Case Of The 
Strange Bed.” They engaged O’Connell 
to do the photography and the pictures 
were made at the Hal Roach studios in 
Culver City. 

Later, with Bob Longnecker, O’Connell 
made a 27 minute "open end” television 
feature, "Your Witness,” on speculation 
which, although not yet marketed, has 
been subjected to vigorous bidding by 
several national advertisers. 

And thus was O’Connell introduced to 
photography for television. There was 
more to it, of course, than merely setting 




144 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 

































up camera and lights and shooting scenes 
according to the producer’s directions. 
His initial assignment with Mate and 
Menzies found him frequenting the tele¬ 
vision stations and nightly studying the 
reception of televised films. One of the 
first things he learned was that at present 
there is a dearth of advertisers willing to 
back up sponsored film production with 
substantial budgets. O’Connell forsees that 
for a long time to come, television films 
will have to be made economically and 
"down to a price;’’ and that the produc¬ 
tion spending so familiar in the studios 
is something television producers will 
have to struggle along without for some 
time to come. Eventually, O Connell be¬ 
lieves, when television becomes firmly es¬ 
tablished and sponsors strive to out-do 
each other in the class of entertainment 
offered television audiences, as they do in 
radio today, production of TV films and 
programs may approach the extravagant 
levels of motion picture production in the 
lush years. 

But in the meantime, he says, economy 
is the dominant factor in producing TV 
films. You cannot readily market a tele¬ 
vision film at prices ranging upwards of 
$5000. Some, with even more experience 
in the field than O’Connell, say that a 
price of $2.00 a foot is about tops being 
paid today for TV feature films. 

To crack the market today, you’ve got 
to turn out a film with the photographic 
quality of a class A studio feature and 
sell it at poverty row prices. To do this 
it must be produced with expenses cut 
to the bone. O’Connell, schooled in budg¬ 
et film production, is well qualified to fit 
the role of today’s TV film producer. He 
wrote, photographed, edited and super¬ 
vised the sound recording of the series 
of dog food films. Renting camera equip¬ 
ment from Armitage in Hollywood, 
O’Connell staged his scenes at the Cine- 
sound Studios on Santa Monica Boule¬ 
vard. He cut his lighting bills to the bone 
using Color-Tran lighting units for all 
interior shots. All too frequently the stu¬ 
dio cinematographer is considered a "sin¬ 
gle track’’ operator with no talent for 
other departments of film making. O’Con¬ 
nell’s achievements disprove this theory. 

"Hollywood’s directors of photogra¬ 
phy, ’ O’Connell says, "are best qalified 
to photograph television films because of 
their extensive training in lighting, which 
is so essential to TV film production, and 
because of their long association with 
the production of theatrical films.” 

As to the camera and lighting tech¬ 
niques best suited for TV films, O’Connell 
cites the necessity for avoiding cluttered 
backgrounds, keeping depth of focus 
sharp, and eliminating all distracting ob¬ 
jects within the scene. He says that it is 
quite possible to ignore the pet theories 
advanced by many television men regard¬ 
ing the dangers of solid black areas, low 



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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


145 










off the 

KINESCOPE 

tube... 


DuPONT’S PHOTO PRODUCTS department 
has introduced a new low-contrast type 
16mm. print stock, which provides lower 
gradation prints for television reproduc¬ 
tion in comparison to the former stand¬ 
ard 16mm. print quality. New film, desig¬ 
nated as 628-A, requires standard labora¬ 
tory processing. 

• 

JOSEPH A. MORAN, vice-president of 
Young & Rubicam ad agency, speaking 
before SMPE members at convention in 
New York early this month on subject 
of Advertising and Sales Impact of Tele¬ 
vision” said, "To satisfy the sponsor and 
the advertising agency, a commercial film 
of 15 to 90 seconds duration on a tele¬ 
vision program must be of the best pho¬ 
tographic quality and carry a potent ad¬ 
vertising and sales impact.” The talk was 
augmented by screening 15 to 90 second 
commercial spot announcement films. 

• 

RCA WILL DEMONSTRATE its new kine- 
photo system designed to record tele¬ 
vision images on film, at the Natl. As¬ 
sociation of Broadcasters’ convention 
April 6 to 13. 

0 

JOE HERNANDEZ, famous horse race com¬ 
mentator, is dickering to put Agua Cali- 
ente and Tanforan races on television. 
Hernandez will photograph races in 
16mm., give films quick processing, and 
put them on air same day—or evening. 

0 

IN LAYINC PLANS FOR theatre television, 
a spokesman for 20th Century-Fox has 
stated: "We are being guided by one 
principle in this big-screen development 
work—namely to provide an 18 by 24 
foot television picture of sufficient quality 
to warrant theatre operators charging ad¬ 
mission to see it and to satisfy the the¬ 
atre patrons that they are getting their 
money’s worth.” 

0 

HOLLYWOOD can make TV films just as 
economically as New York, says Harold 
Roach, adding that with proper coopera¬ 
tive working arrangements, Hollywood 
film makers can turn out video films to 
suit any of the N.Y. agencies "presently 
tending to discount our product.” 

0 

KFI-TV, which went on daytime video 
March 1st, is aiming its programming to 
include 15-minute strip shows which can 
be presented without need for camera 
rehearsal. 


0 


key lighting, etc., and come up with a 
picture that televises satisfactorily. "If the 
monitoring engineers will just leave the 
controls alone, once they are set for a 
film,” he says, "televised film results will 
prove acceptable in most instances.” 

Despite the part his ability as a success¬ 
ful motion picture cameraman played in 
introducing him to TV film production, 
O Connell readily admits that luck played 
a part in gaining recognition for his first 
video film effort. His initial film for the 
dog food maker chanced to be on the desk 
of a television program director last 
Christmas day, when a switch in the sta¬ 
tion’s plans left them without material to 
fill a cancelled spot announcement. The 
dog food commercial was quickly substi¬ 
tuted and so impressive was the reaction 
that the sponsor, who had considered the 
initial film as a speculation project, com¬ 
missioned O’Connell to proceed with a 
series c f them. 


TELEVISION RESEARCH 
REPORT 


(Continued from Page 124) 

"If you will avoid having on film those 
large expanses that invite the monitor to 
twist the dials and thereby introduce un¬ 
wanted black shadows,” Solow contin¬ 
ued, "you are going to preserve the in¬ 
tegrity of your photography. And specifi¬ 
cally that means having the background 
broken up, not too busy necessarily, but 
with enough of its own subject contrast 
to avoid the spurious effects from the 
electrons; to avoid very bright highlights, 
and to keep the tonal range within the 
range of the television screen itself.” 

Concerning print quality in television 
films, Solow said, "It’s silly to talk of 
making a print one printer-light point 
darker or one point lighter or just a little 
bit less contrasty than normal, because 
one point, two points or even five points 
one way or the other is hardly noticeable 
in the television process, and because what 
we would call a print five points above 
normal is very simply adjusted at the 
television station provided it isn’t so 
light that all the highlights have lost 
whatever density they should have. 

"That’s the thing to avoid,” Solow con¬ 
cluded, "making prints so light that noth¬ 
ing of the detail is left in the highlight 
areas.” 

Neil Nunan, A.S.C., associated with 
Ansco in Hollywood, then spoke to the 
assembly. "It is a good thing,” he said, 
"when technical groups within the mo¬ 
tion picture industry and the television 
industry get together to decide what the 
standards are to be for films for tele¬ 
vision.” 

"All of us who have been watching 
the development of television during the 
past few years,” he continued, "have 


been impressed or depressed, as the case 
may be, by some of the quality of TV film 
transcriptions we have seen, and also by 
the quality of some live action pickups. 
Now it seems as though this can be pretty 
well related to a straight-forward engi¬ 
neering problem, and that the sooner 
various standards are tied down the sooner 
we are going to get fine quality on tele¬ 
vision screens. And one of the first places 
where quality is going to come is in tying 
down those standards which have to do 
with the TV transmitter. In other words 
we are looking forward to the day from 
the film manufacturing standpoint, and 
from the photography and the film proc¬ 
essing standpoints, where the transmitter 
will look in a given direction towards the 
film or the image being received and 
always put the image on the air with the 
same fidelity and quality—totally erasing 
any interference of any technician who 
may be in the way.” 

"Members of the A. S. C.,” Nunan con¬ 
tinued, "have been responsible for safe¬ 
guarding the quality of the most priceless 
asset the motion picture industry has, 
which is the star. Today we don’t see 
important stars on the television screen 
for a very good reason, and that is because 
producers do not care to risk the prestige 
of their players in a medium the quality 
of which is not yet proven. Technically 
the medium is here. There isn’t any doubt 
of that; but artistically it hasn’t arrived. 
And it won’t arrive until you directors of 
photography, with the help of the S.M.P.E. 
and the I.R.E., tie this thing together and 
put a truly artistic medium on the air.” 

Hal Mohr, A.S.C., also a member of the 
Society’s Television Research Committee, 
spoke briefly on the cinematographer’s 
place in the realm of television. "I see 
no problem that television has to present,” 
said Mohr, "that cannot be met in a sen¬ 
sible, economical, sane artistic way. I 
don’t think we have to sacrifice anything 
insofar as the use of our particular me¬ 
dium is concerned. I believe that the di¬ 
rector of photography can do for the stars 
in TV what they have done for stars in 
motion pictures.” 

Sounding an optimistic note for the 
cinematographer, Mohr concluded, "I per- 


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TURN TO PACE 150 


146 


American Cinematographer 


© 


April, 1949 








sonally believe that television is the 
greatest thing that’s ever happened to 
the motion picture industry and for its 
cameramen, because the pictures that 
will be made henceforth will be aimed to 
compete with television and they are go¬ 
ing to be so good that people will want to 
go to theatres to see them. As far as any 
loss in theatre business is concerned—if, 
indeed there is to be any such loss—this 
will be more than compensated for in the 
vast amount of pictures that the industry 
will be producing for television. I be¬ 
lieve that 90% of the program material 
for television in the future will be pro¬ 
duced on film. It will be made with the 
same class and quality as theatrical films, 
which should mean plenty of work for 
directors of photography.” 


CURRENT 

ASSIGNMENTS 


(Continued from Page 118) 


Henreid, Claude Rains. W. Dieterle, di¬ 
rector. 

R. K. O. 

• Harry Wild, The Big Steal,” with 
Robert Mitchum, Jane Greer, William 
Bendix, Patric Knowles, Ramon Nav¬ 
arro and Robert Qualen. Don Siegel, di¬ 
rector. 

• Joseph Valentine, "Love Is Big Busi¬ 
ness,” with Claudette Colbert, Robert 
Young, George Brent and Max Baer. Wil¬ 
liam D. Russell, director. 

20th Century-Fox 

• Harry Jackson, "Oh You Beautiful 
Doll,” (Technicolor) with Mark Stevens, 
June Haver, Gale Robbins, S. Z. Sakall 
and Charlotte Greenwood. John Stahl, 
director. 


• Joseph LaShelle, Everybody Does 
It,” with Linda Darnell, Celeste Holm, 
Paul Douglas and Charles Coburn. Ed- 
mound Goulding, director. 

• Joe MacDonald, Pinky, with Jeanne 
Crain, William Lundigan, Ethel Waters 
and Basil Ruysdael. John Ford, director. 

• Lloyd Ahern, "Father Was A Full¬ 
back,” (Technicolor) with Fred Mac- 
Murray, Maureen O’Hara, Betty Lynn, 
Rudy Vallee, Themla Ritter and Natalie 
Wood. Elliot Nugent, director. 

• Harry Jackson, Bandwagon,’’ 
(Technicolor) with William Powell, 
Mark Stevens, Betsy Drake, Jean Hersholt. 
Irving Reis, director. 

United Artists 

• Robert DeGrasse, "Home Of The 
Brave,” (Screen Plays) with James Ed¬ 
wards, Lloyd Bridges, Jeff Corey, Frank 
Lovejoy and Douglas Dick. Mark Robson, 
director. 

• Lionel Lindon, "Quicksand,” with 
Mickey Rooney, Jeanne Cagney, Peter 


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TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY is reguia rly covered in some phase in every 
issue of AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. If you are interested in television 
photography or cinematography for films for television, don’t miss a single issue 
of the AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Subscribe today, using postage-paid 
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April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


o 


147 





























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Lorre and Patsy O’Connor. Irving Pichel, 
director. 

Universal-International 

• William Daniels, "The Western 
Story,” with Yvonne DeCarlo, Charles 
Coburn, Scott Brady, et al. Frederick de 
Cordova, director. 

• Russell Metty, "Curtain Call at 
Cactus Creek,” (Technicolor) with Don¬ 
ald O’Connor, Eve Arden, Vincent Price, 
Gale Storm and Walter Brennan. Charles 
Lamont, director. 

• Irving Glassberg, "Sword In The 
Desert,” with Marta Toren, Dana An¬ 
drews, Stephen McNally, Hugh French, 
Jeff Chandler. George Sherman, director. 

• Frank Planer, "Come Be My Love,” 


(Neptune Films) with Robert Mont¬ 
gomery, Ann Blythe and Jane Cowl. 
Michael Gordon, director. 

• Maury Gertsman, "Partners In 
Crime,” with Howard Duff, Dan Duryea, 
Shelly Winters, Gar Moore and John Mc- 
Intire. William Castle, director. 

Warner Brothers 

• Ted McCord "The Octopus And Miss 
Smith,” with Jane Wyman, Dennis Mor¬ 
gan, Zachary Scott, Eve Arden, Fred 
Clark, Ray Montgomery and Janis Paige. 
Michael Curtiz, director. 

Miscellaneous 

• Robert Pittack, Apex Films. 

• Fred Mandl, Princeton Film Center. 

• Ira Morgan, Katzman Productions. 

• Jack Greenhalgh, television films. 


HOLLYWOOD BULLETIN BOARD 

(Continued from Page 116) 


VICTOR MILNER, A.S.C., will visit his son 
in Berlin next month and while there 
may produce a series of documentary films 
based on contemporary life in post-war 
Germany. His son is attached to the U. S. 
Airforce there. 

• 

RUSSELL METTY, A.S.C., attached a bicycle 
speedometer to the camera carriage while 
shooting scenes for Universal-Internation¬ 
al’s "The Lady Gambles,” and discovered 
that the camera was traveling more than 
a mile per day. The director, Michael 
Gordon, Metty explained, likes a "rest¬ 
less” camera—one that moves constantly 
in keeping with plot and character orien¬ 
tation. 

• 

LEON SHAMROY, A.S.C., for the past ten 
years a director of photography at Twen¬ 
tieth Century-Fox, has been re-signed by 
that company for another three years. 
Vincent Farrar, A.S.C., also had his con¬ 
tract renewed at Columbia Pictures, where 
he has been one of that company’s lead¬ 
ing directors of photography. 

CAMERAMEN are enthusiastic about Altec- 


Lansing Corporation’s new "dime-size” 
microphone recently unveiled in Holly¬ 
wood and demonstrated in actual use at 
the Academy Awards presentation cere¬ 
monies. The miniature mike, which is 
about the size of a stack of six dimes, is 
noted for its extreme range and fidelity. 
The cameramen favor it because it por¬ 
tends the end of present cumbersome 
mikes that throw shadows, and unwieldy 
mike booms. It’s priced at approximately 
$ 190 . 00 . 

ANSCOCOLOR is introducing a negative¬ 
positive type color film for feature film 
production. Company will make between 
30 and 50 million feet of the new film 
available to Hollywood studios this year, 
promising a capacity of 100 million feet 
annually thereafter. New film differs from 
the Anscocolor reversible type recently 
used on "The Man On The Eiffel Tower.” 
Use of new neg-pos color stock offers sub¬ 
stantial savings in production costs, ac¬ 
cording to Ansco which states that labora¬ 
tory processing charges for prints will be 
only a little more than current black-and- 
white costs. 


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148 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 



















SOUND FOR THE Roy Del Ruth produc¬ 
tion, "Red Light,” shooting at Nassour 
Studios is being recorded on the new 
Western Electric synchronous magnetic 
film sound recorder. Medium used is a 
perforated film coated with a magnetic- 
sensitized material. 

• 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. will have test rolls 
of new Eastman neg-pos color film in 
hands of Hollywood studio camera depart¬ 
ment heads May 1st, for purpose of mak¬ 
ing tests. Company will not proceed with 
volume production plans until studio tests 
have been completed and any suggested 
improvements carefully evaluated and fit¬ 
ted into manufacturing plans. It will 
probably be a year before stock is avail¬ 
able in quantity for feature production 
purposes, according to the company. 

• 

RECENT HOLLYWOOD visitor was Jack 
Draper, leading cinematographer of Mex¬ 
ico City, whose latest picture "Rancho 
Grande” is drawing rave notices in Latin 
America for the fine Cinecolor photog¬ 
raphy. Draper, who is about to under¬ 
take an independent production in 16mm. 
color, which he will photograph in Mex¬ 
ico with his Mitchell 16mm. professional 
camera, came to Hollywood to have tests 
developed and printed by the Eastman 
laboratories there. 

TOM HUNT, head of Color-Tran Converter 
Company, has probably supplied the key 
to the big economy problem bedevil¬ 
ing Hollywood studios—the increasing 
cost of lighting indoor sets. Since Hunt’s 
lighting equipment, which operates off 
ordinary 110-volt house current, proved 
its merit on Hollywood sound stages and 
television studios, more and more motion 
picture studios are conducting tests, some 
actually filming entire productions using 
Color-Tran lights. This has led to new 
explorations in lamp design by manufac¬ 
turers which probably will lead to ulti¬ 
mate production of a new incandescent 
lamp for studio use working on same 
principle as present photofloods, but 
more durable and powerful. 


TECHNICOLOR PHOTOG¬ 
RAPHY UNDER WATER 


(Continued from Page 122) 


for parallels, crane or dolly. Besides, it 
enables working the camera in such broad 
movements without need for cumbersome 
tracks laid on the stage floor. 

The elevator shaft is suspended from 
crane tracks that run the full length of 
the stage ceiling. The shaft may be moved 
the full length of the stage and its ele¬ 
vator may be raised or lowered to permit 
use of camera from ceiling height to a 
point three feet below floor-level of the 


stage. This equipment enabled Rosher to 
suspend his camera below the water line 
of the swimming pool in shooting some 
of the water ballet numbers. 

To do this, he mounted the camera 
within a specially built underwater cam¬ 
era tank—a steel box approximately 40" 
by 18" by 30", open at the top and fitted 
with a panel of optical glass in the front 
which provided a port for the camera 
lens. The tank was then mounted on the 
platform, moved out over the pool, and 
then lowered half way beneath surface 
of the water to record movements of the 
swimmers. Sometimes the camera would 
rise above the water level to catch Esther 
Williams and her water ballerinas as they 
executed the colorful routines, then sub¬ 
merge to show contrasting movement of 
the swimmers from a new and different 
angle. 

In addition to the usual lights arranged 
about the set—there were some 200 
massive spots hung from the catwalks 
alone—more than 100 high power flood¬ 
lights were placed in recesses along the 
walls of the pool below water level to 
furnish unique lighting for the water 
ballet routines. 

Determining the correct exposure to 
use when the Technicolor camera was 
underwater naturally posed a problem, 
but one easily overcome by the resource¬ 
ful and versatile Rosher. He had a large 
globular fish bowl set into a square panel 
of wood which he floated on the surface 
of the lighted pool. Lowering his Nor¬ 
wood exposure meter into the partially 
submerged fish bowl, Rosher was thus 
able to read his light values directly, ob¬ 
taining an accurate reading from actual 
underwater position. This expediency 
saved much time that might otherwise 
have been consumed in shooting tests and 
waiting for them to be developed—a tedi¬ 
ous matter where color photography is 
employed. 

The set—the largest for the picture and 
one of the largest ever constructed on an 
indoor stage—represented the pool of an 
exclusive country club in the tropics. 
The stage even had a tropical air about 
it—the temperature being maintained in 
the eighties day and night for the comfort 
of the swimmers who were in and out 
of the water constantly. 

MGM maintained laundry equipment 
on the stage to provide dry bathing suits 
and costumes for the girls. After each 
rehearsal or take the girls would remove 
and turn in their wet costumes in ex¬ 
change for dry ones. Wet costumes were 
quickly dried and made available for 
use again. 

Rosher and his assistants never had 
to make use of these facilities, thanks 
to the unique equipment that enabled 
them to photograph the entire water 
ballet sequence without getting more than 
their bare feet wet. 


AKELEY CAMERA, Inc. 

175 Varick Street 
New York 14, New York 

—Established 1914— 

Designers and manufacturers of silent 
and sound motion picture cameras 
with 225° shutter opening, (288° 
shutter opening for television use)-, 
gyro tripods and precision instruments. 

Complete engineering and machine 
shop facilities for experimental work, 
model and production runs. 

Inquiries Invited 


RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE 

Rents .. Sells .. Exchanges 

Everything You Need for the 

PRODUCTION & PROJECTION 

of Motion Pictures Provided 
by a Veteran Organization 
of Specialists 

35 mm.16 mm. 

Television 


IN BUSINESS SINCE 1910 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Cable Address: RUBYCAM 


r/ii 


SOW* 

TO YOUR 

SILENT FILMS 

( Music * Narration * Special Effects) 
LET us convert your 16 mm picture to a sound film 
of the highest quality. Skilled technical staff, and 
finest sound recording equipment and studio fa¬ 
cilities to serve industrial, amateur and educational 
film producers. Write TELEFILM, Inc., Dept. A-l, 
6039 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

I for prices and literature. 

OUR SERVICE IS USE0 BY: J* 

AiResearch Mfg, Co. • Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 

Douglas Aircraft Co. • Food Machinery Corp. 

U. S. Naval Photo Services Dept. • Santa Fe Railroad ^^7 


• Standard Oil Co. of Calif. 


m 


TELEFILM 

HOLLYWOOD 


MO'/IF AND SLIDE TITLES 
STILL AT SAME LOW PRICES! 

Same titles formerly distributed by Bell & Howell 
—now sold direct. Large variety backgrounds 
available. No charge for tinting film Amber! 
WRITE FOR . . . 

free illustrated literature and samples 

TITLE-CRAFT, 1024 Argyle St., Chicago 40, III. 


April, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


149 



















Classified Advertising 

p ATCC , Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per agate line (12 agate lines per inch). 

J. n 0 discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE 


BASS SAYS: 

Since 1910 we have been in this happy 
business of trading and selling cameras 
and photo apparatus with complete satis¬ 
faction to all concerned. A few swell 
buys . . . 

New 1" Eymax F:4 in Eyemo C mount....$32.50 
100mm. Cooke Deep Field Panchro coated F:2.5 
in foe. Eyemo C mt. List $487.50....Net..$255.00 

Used 6" Cooke Tele-Kinic F:4.5, foe. C Eyemo 
mt.$137.50 

Used 16.5 cm. Zeiss Tessar F:4.5 foe. C Eyemo 
mt....$87.50 

Used 4" Cinemat F:2.9 foe. C Eyemo Mt ..$65.00 
Eyemo Model A-4A, fitted with 1" F:4 5, 2" 
F:2.8, 6" F:4.5, 10" F:4.5, optical variable finder 

and case.$575.00 

Akeley, complete with Akeley Gyro tripod, 5 
mags., matched pair of F:3.5 lenses and 6" 

Telephoto . $425.00 

Eyemo, single lens, 3 speeds including 24, 

F:2.5 lens, Case.$225.00 

DeVry Automatic 35mm. with p :3.5 lens and 
case .$87.50 

WRITE BASS FIRST 

BASS CAMERA CO., 170 W. MADISON ST., 
CHICAGO 2, ILL. 


SPECIAL EYEMO CAMERAS—Rebuilt factory in¬ 
spected magazine and motor adaptation. 

EYEMO ACCESSORIES AND PROFESSIONAL CINE 
EQUIPMENT, Eyemo Magazines, developing out¬ 
fits, printers. 

CINE LENSES—-The world’s largest selection of 
fine cine lenses (Zeiss, Cooke, Astro, Bausch & 
Lomb, Goerz and many others) available on 15 
day trial—High Speed, Wide Angle, Telephoto— 
In focusing mounts coated to fit—Eyemo, Bell 
& Howell, Professional, Mitchell 35 and 16, 
Maurer 

FREE CATALOG: Full description and prices. 
Send this ad to 

BURKE Cr JAMES, Inc. 

321 So. Wabash Ave. 

Chicago, III., U.S.A. 

ATTN: A. Caldwell 


NOW—HALF PRICE 

35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
-—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers. Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm. EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910. 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera & Film Exchange, 68 West 48th Street, 
New York 19, N. Y. 


COMPLETE LINE of amafeur and professional cine 
equipment and lenses. Write for free bulletin. 
CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 N. Cahunega, 
Hollywood 28. HEmpstead 7373. 


FOR SALE 


M.G.M CAMERA ROLAMBULATOR DOLLY, Pre¬ 
cision, Ball Bearing, Pan Tilt Controls, Weight 
700 lbs. Cost $6,000.00. Barain $1,500.00 

H-C-E 1 6 M M . SPECIAL EFFECTS OPTICAL 
PRINTER, Features: Bell & Howell Projector, 
Model A Eastman Camera, 42" Lathe Bed, 500- 
Ohm Dimmer, Foot Switch, Motor, Microscope, 
Cost $5,000.00. A Gift at $1,500.00. 

35MM. BELL & HOWELL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND 
CAMERA. Four Quality Speed Lenses, Two 1000- 
ft. Magazines, Freehead, Tripod, Ready-to-oper- 
ate, Price $3,750.00. 

LIKE-NEW 16MM. AURICON SOUND CAMERA, 
SINGLE AND DOUBLE SYSTEM RECORDINGS. 
Outfit complete, New Guarantee, Price 
$2,313.60. 

ANIMATION STAND, SUITABLE FOR EITHER 
35MM. OR 16MM. Heavy Steel Construction, 
Precision Machine, Weight 1500 pounds. Price 
$2,350.00. 

35MM. EYEMOS, ARRIFLEX AND OTHER TYPES 
OF CAMERAS, MOTION PICTURES LENSES, 
MOUNTED AND UNMOUNTED, AT REDUCED 
PRICES. 

HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANCE 

1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood 

THRILLING Documentary films, “Tank Patrol” 
2 reels, “Vis Persia” 1 reel 16 SOF $6.25 per 
reel new. Film equipment, bought, sold, traded. 
Lists free. MOGULL’S, 68 W. 48th Street, N Y. 

BELL & HOWELL Model 5205-D printer with five 
ring masks, completely reconditioned, in original 
box from Bell & Howell. Price $2,500.00 F.O.B. 
San Francisco. C. R. SKINNER MFC. CO., 292- 
294 Turk Street, San Francisco. 

CINE SPECIAL EXTENSION tube outfit, instruc¬ 
tions: Eastman 3" and B & H wide angle pro¬ 
jection lenses. DAVIS, 5329 Holmes, Kansas 
City, Missouri. 

EYEMO MODEL 71 Q-sound model-like new; 6-12 
volt motor; magazine adaption; lenses: 25mm. 
F2—50mm. FI.8; 8-48 speeds; visual focuser; 
$800,000 or trade for Cine Kodak Special. ROY 
R. SMITH, 647 Holibaugh Avenue, Akron 10, 
Ohio. 


CHAIRS FOR THEATRES, Cafes, Restaurants. New. 
$10.00 each. Bovilsky, 1061 Lara Street, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 


PROCESS your Ansco Color Movies: Complete 
equipment, chemicals, instructions, $99.00. 
Laboratory lists free. MOGULL’S, 68 W. 48th 
St., N. Y. 


PHOTOGRAPHERS 


SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Mitchell 16mm. Professional camera equipped with 
1200 foot film magazines for continuous film¬ 
ing, available for rent with operator to 16mm. 
producers. Write for rates. 

Walter Porep 
Sportsreel Productions 
1114 Carleton St. 

Berkeley, California 


CAMERAMEN WANTED 


We need a 16mm. cameraman experienced in film¬ 
ing news and sports events to represent us in 
your locality. 

Send us your qualifications, together with sam¬ 
ples of your work. 

For complete information, contact: 

NEWS REEL LABORATORY 
1733 Sansom Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ri.-6-3892 


HELP WANTED 


WANTED FOR SAFARI— 

Experienced sound man capable operating, re¬ 
pairing and maintaining Hallen and Magnecord 
recorders to be used for sound-moving pictures 
of bird and animal life in Kenya, Congo and Su¬ 
dan, January through March, 1950. In applica¬ 
tion state education, religion, full personal his¬ 
tory, experience, references, salary required, and 
enclose photograph. 

Box 1056 

American Cinematographer 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


1949 CATALOG Film Production Equipment Ready 
—everything for studio, laboratory and cutting 
room—get yours! New 16mm. Sound and Pic¬ 
ture Printers, $585.00; 35mm. Tape Recorders, 
$1500.00; Composite Sound Moviola type 35mm., 
$495.00; Belhowell 16mm. combination Sound 
Editor, $312.50; Schustek 35/16mm. Reduction 
Printer, $1250.00; Arriflex Newsreel Camera, 4 
lenses, complete, $795.00; 18' Microphone Boom 
$300.00; Stop Watch Film Timer, $24.75; Cine- 
phone 35mm. Recorder, $495.00; Neumade 
combination 16/35mm. Automatic Film Cleaner, 
$350.00 value, $194.50; Giant Spotlite Tripods 
8' high, $9.95; Bardwell 5000W floodlites, 
$111.75; 1/12HP Synchronous Motors, $57.50; 
Sound Moviolas, lowest in years. Dept, f— 

S.O.S. CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORATION, 602 
W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


ROGER CAMERA TIMER 

for automatic operation of (any) camera and 
lighf for TIME-LAPSE CINEMATOGRAPHY and 
ANIMATION as used by many organizations 
since 1 5 years. 

SETTINGS: 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Exp. per Hour 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 Exp. per Hour 
and faster, also single frame push 
butfon. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook, Connecticut 


EQUIP. WANTED 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 


WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B & H, EYEMO, DEBRIE, AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


USED, must be in good condition. 2000W and 
5000W, Mole Richardson or Bardwell McAllister 
Spots. Please quote prices and where located. 
Box 1055. The American Cinematographer. 


LABORATORY SERVICES 


BLACK-AND-WHITE DUPLICATES 16mm. sound 
—.06c foot; 16mm. silent—.05c foot; 8mm.— 
.06c foot. Workprints — special duplicating — 
processing — sound and silent titles — Work 
Guaranteed—5 day service. Send for samples. 
J.J.J. PHOTO LAB., 1852 Burling Street Chicago 
14, Illinois. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


150 


American Cinematographer 


April, 1949 















































Thanks to the newsreel editor .. . 

the world passes in review 


ACROSS his “front pages,” before 
the eyes of movie-goers on Main 
Streets everywhere, the world passes 
in review. There, North meets South, 
East meets West through the special¬ 
ized efforts of the newsreel editor. 

He sifts the facts and foibles of the 
world . . . presents in one short reel 
the significant, the human, and the 
odd—news that helps the world to 
know itself better. 


To his objectivity . . . his sense of 
the newsworthy . . . his feeling for 
concise and graphic storytelling . . . 
the newsreel owes its unique place 
in American journalism. 

Yet the newsreel editor would be 
the first to give due credit to his staff 
of cameramen ... and to the family of 
Eastman motion picture films which 
help them cover the news—and help 
him present it so effectively. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
FORT LEE • CHICAGO • 


HOLLYWOOD 

























MATCHING FILMO 
AUTO MASTER 
16mm CAMERA 


Only 16mm magazine¬ 
loading camera with tur¬ 
ret head that automati¬ 
cally matches viewfinder 
to lens in use. Five 
speeds, single-frame re¬ 
lease. Film-movement 
mechanism matches that 
of Filmosound exactly. 
With F 2.5 Filmocoted 
lens only ... $261.50 plus 
tax. 


HOWELL 


NEW ONE-CASE FILMOSOUND 

Always a wonderful buy, this new, improved Filmo¬ 
sound is better than ever before! Outstanding ad¬ 
vances include a new aluminum sound head that 
reduces noise radiation . . . new pre-aligned exciter 
lamp, matching in precision performance the fa¬ 
mous B&H pre-aligned projection lamp . . . im¬ 
proved ventilation through new-type louvres . . . 
new reel arms that are attached or detached in a 
jiffy . . . new lightness in weight. Case is new, 
streamlined, smaller in every dimension. Higher 
undistorted sound output than any other light¬ 
weight sound projector. Six-inch speaker may be 
used in the projector or removed and placed near 
screen. For larger halls, larger speakers are avail¬ 
able. With 6-inch speaker, an outstanding value at 
only $449! 


NOW 





All the outstanding design improvements 
of the new One-Case Filmosound (above) 
but designed to accommodate larger audi¬ 
ences with separate speaker ... 8", 12", or 
power speaker, as required. With 8" sepa¬ 
rate speaker, this improved new Filmo¬ 
sound provides double the sound output 
of any other make of lightweight projector 
. . . sells for only $495! 


MATCHING FILMO 70-DA 16mm CAMERA 

A really complete camera for advanced 
workers, amateur and professional. Three- 
lens turret, seven operating speeds. Loads 
withlOO-foot spools.Film movementmech- 
anism of the 70-DA matches that of the 
Filmosound precisely. With Filmocoted 
F 1.9 lens only . . . $295 plus tax. 


FILMOSOUNDS 


IMPROVED 


WAYS 


6V2 lbs. lighter 


New slip-in reel arms 
Even finer tonal quality 
New quietness 


HERE’S CONCLUSIVE PROOF 
OF FILMOSOUND SUPERIORITY 

Now laboratory tests prove conclusively that 
the precision-built B&H Filmosound out¬ 
performs, outlasts competitive models six to 
one! Amazing margins of Filmosound superi¬ 
ority in film handling, mechanical perfection, 
screen picture steadiness, and quietness of 
operation are a matter of scientific record! 
For full details on this dramatic test between 
Filmosound and six leading competitive 
models, write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 
McCormick Road, Chicago 45. 


1 


ALL FILMOS ARE 

GUARANTEED FOR LIFE 

During life of product, any defects 
in workmanship or material will be 
remedied free (except transporta¬ 
tion). 




Precision- 




I 


1 


Bell £ Howell 








Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 
^^^ 














$3.00 YEARLY IN U. S 


MAY 

1949 
































mmm 



IDEAL for high or low key lighting, even under adverse lighting condi¬ 
tions. Du Pont "Superior” 2 Motion Picture Film combines ample speed 
with extremely wide latitude. This popular, all-purpose negative stock wins 
the approval of leading cinematographers in the best-known studios. 
E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), Photo Products Department, 
Wilmington 98. Delaware. New York—Los Angeles—Chicago. 


DU PONT MOTION PICTURE FILM 


mm 


U. 5. PA.7 Oft 


BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 


THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



Tune in Du Pont “CAVALCADE OF AMERICA” 
Monday nights—NBC Coast to Coast 
























The Widely-Preferred 


COOKE SPEED PANCHRO LENSES 


Calibrated in 




Think what this means! Lenses 
accurately calibrated by scientific 
measurement of light actually 
transmitted! Consistent negative 
densities regardless of which lens 
is used! All that,p/us these great 
previous advantages of Cooke 
Speed Panchro Lenses: 

1. The greatest aperture in a com¬ 
plete series of matched lenses. 


2. Chromatically corrected specif¬ 
ically for today’s emulsions, color 
and monochrome. 

3. Needle-sharp definition. 

4. Superior contrast. 

5. Elimination of distortion. 

6. Cleanable hard coating on all 
lens surfaces. 



A Complete Series 
of Matched Lenses 

25mm T2.3 (F2) 

28mm T2.3 (F2) 

32mm T2.3 (F2) 

35mm T2.3 (F2) 

40mm T2.3 (F2) 

50mm T2.3 (F2) 

75mm T2.3 (F2) 
100mm T3.0 (F2.5) 

Also QVi, 1 V/i , and 20" 
Cooke Telekinics 


Cooke Speed Panchro Lenses now in use can be re-calibrated 
in T Stops at the B&H factory. Write for details. 


A Matched Set of T Stop Lenses 
for 16mm Cameras, Too 


Carrying forward its program of pioneering 
the T Stop system, Bell & Howell now 
offers a group of popular 16mm camera 
lenses scientifically calibrated in T Stops. 
They are: 0.7" T2.7 (F2.5) B&H Super 
Comat, 1" T2.1 (FI.9) B&H Lumax, 2" 
T1.6 (FI.4) TH Ivotal, 3" T4.6 (F4) TH 
Telekinic, and 4" T5.1 (F4.5) TH Tele- 
kinic. In better photo shops now, or write 
for details. 



Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick 
Road, Chicago 45. Branches in New York, 
Hollywood, and Washington, D. C. 




Precision-Made by 


■PM! 

Ill 


Bell & Howell 

Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 












We have often 
been asked... 



why the Auricon-Pro is the only 16mm 
camera made, regardless of price, which oper¬ 
ates so silently it can be used within 10 inches 
of any sound recording microphone. We have 
been asked how it is possible to build a 16mm 
professional camera with synchronous electric - 
motor drive, lens mount made to .0001" 
accuracy, film pull-down mechanism of hard¬ 
ened steel for rock-steady pictures, geared 
Veeder-Root footage counter, stainless-steel 
ball-bearing film gate for dependable in-focus 
pictures, solid aluminum machined camera 
body, and still sell this Auricon-Pro at $644.50 
for the "Double-System" Camera (silent) 
Model CM-71S! 


The answer is found in precision production 
plus years of experience building 16mm equip¬ 
ment, and world-wide sales made possible by 
the low price. Auricon Owners and Dealers 
call it "The best camera value on the market 
today!" 



SEND FOR 
YOUR 

FREE COPY 
OF THIS 
AURICON 
CATALOG 


42 SS 


BERNDT-BACH.Inc. 

7381 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles 36 r Calif. 


MANUFACTURERS OF S0UND-0N-FILM 
RECORDING EQUIPMENT SINCE 1931 



Columbia 

• Charles Lawton, "Miss Grant Takes 
Richmond,’’ with Lucille Ball, William 
Holden, Janis Carter and James Gleason. 
Lloyd Bacon, director. 

• Burnett Guffey, "The Blank Wall,” 
(Walter Wanger Prodn.) with James 
Mason, Joan Bennett and Geraldine 
Brooks. Max Opuls, director. 

• Charles Lawton, "Lawless,” with 
Randolph Scott, Dorothy Malone, Jeff 
Corey, Forest Tucker and Frank Faylen. 
Gordon Douglas, director. 

• Ray Cory, "Lawless, "2nd unit. 

• Ira Morgan/’ The Adventures Of Sir 
Galahad,” (Esskay) with George Reeves, 
Nelson Leigh, Pat Barton and Hugh 
Prosser. Spencer Bennet and Derwin 
Abrahams, directors. 

• Lester White, "The Adventures of Sir 
Galahad,” 2nd Unit. 

• Vincent Farrar, "Blondie’s Hero,” 
with Penny Singlton, Arthur Lake, Larry 
Simms, Marjorie Kent and Jerome Cowan. 
Edward Bernds, director. 

• Joseph Walker, "My Next Husband,” 
with Rosalind Russell, Robert Cummings, 
Gig Young, Marie McDonald and Harry 
Davenport. Norman Foster, director. 

Independent 

• Joe Biroc, "Mrs. Mike,” (Sam Bischoff 
Prodn.) with Dick Powell and Evelyn 
Keyes. Louis King, director. 

M-G-M 

® Charles Rosher, "The Red Danube,” 
with Walter Pidgeon, Peter Lawford, 
Janet Leigh, Ethel Barrymore and Angela 
Lansbury. George Sidney director. 


• Robert Surtees, "Intruder In The 
Dust,” with Claude Jarman, Jr., David 
Brian, Juan Hernandez, and Charles Kem¬ 
per. Clarence Brown, director. 

• Harold Rosson, "On The Town,” 
(Technicolor) with Frank Sinatra, Gene 
Kelly, Vera Ellen, Ann Miller and Betty 
Garret. Gene Kelly, director. 

® Paul Vogel, Battleground,” with 
Van Johnson, John Hodiak, Ricardo 
Montalban, George Murphy, Marshall 
Thompson, Tommy Breen, Jim Mitchell, 
Bruce Cowling and Denise D’Arcele. Wil¬ 
liam Wellman, director. 

® Harry Stradling, "Annie Get Your 
Gun,” (Technicolor) with Judy Garland, 
Howard Keel, Keenan Wynn, Frank Mor¬ 
gan, Edward J. Arnold, J. Carroll Naish 
and Clinton Sunberg. Busby Berkeley, di¬ 
rector. 

• Ray June, Death In The Doll House,” 
with Ann Sothern, Zachary Scott, Gigi 
Perreau, Nancy Davis, Kristine Miller and 
Tom Heilman. Pat Jackson, director. 

• Joe Ruttenberg, "Side Street," 
(shooting in New York) with James 
Craig, Farley Grainger, Paul Kelly and 
Cathy O’Donnell. Anthony Mann, director. 

Monogram 

• William Sickner, "Safety Pins,” with 
Leo Gorcy and Annabelle Shaw. Reginald 
LeBorg, director. 

® Harry Neumann, "The Kid Came 
West,” with Johnny Mack Brown, Max 
Terhune and Reno Browne. Ray Taylor, 
director. 

(Continued on Page 183) 


| SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS | 

EE - 35 mm. • 16 mm.- = 

| C AMER AS»MO VIOL AS*DOLL YS | 

=E Complete Line of Equipment for Production Available for Rental == 

EE Mitchell: Standard - Hi-Speed - NC - BNC - 16 mm. = 
= Bell & Howell: Standard - Shiftover - Eyemos =S 

= Maurer: 16 mm. Cameras EE 

= Moviola: Editing Machines - Synchronizers = 

EE SPECIALISTS IN ALL TYPES OF CAMERA REPAIR WORK. LENSES MOUNTED = 



156 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 



















AMERICAN 




AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOCRAPHERS 

FOUNDED January 8, 1919, The American 
Society of Cinematographers is composed of 
the leading directors of photography in the 
Hollywood motion picture studios. Its mem¬ 
bership also includes non-resident cinematog¬ 
raphers and cinematographers in foreign lands. 
Membership is by invitation only. 

The Society meets regularly once a month 
at its clubhouse at 1782 North Orange Drive, 
in the heart of Hollywood. On November 1, 
1920, the Society established its monthly pub¬ 
lication "American Cinematographer” which it 
continues to sponsor and which is now circu¬ 
lated in 61 countries throughout the world. 

Dominant aims of the Society are to bring 
into close confederation and cooperation all 
leaders in the cinematographic art and science 
and to strive for pre-eminence in artistic per¬ 
fection and scientific knowledge of the art. 


Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

Technical Editor, Emery Huse Glenn R. Kershner Art Editor 

Circulation, MARGUERITE DEURR 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 MAY • 1949 NO. 5 

CONTENTS 


ARTICLES 

Documentary Style— By Herb A. Lightman .161 

Production Methods Compared— By Alfred Hitchcock . . . . 162 

Calibration of Photographic Lens Markings .163 

High Speed Cineradiography — By Harold M. Grooms . . . 164 


OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 

Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
George J. Folsey, Jr., Second-Vice-Pres. 
WILLIAM V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray Rennahan, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
Victor Milner 
Sol Polito 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 


ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

John Arnold 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 




TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY 

Television Film Center— By John Forbes .165 

Tomorrow’s Television — By J. M. Brady .166 

16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Photographing The Commercial Film— By Charles Coring . . 168 

Animation Adds Interest To Movie Titles—B y Leigh Allen . . 170 
Endurance Test —By /. G. Roark .172 


FEATURES 

Current Assignments of A.S.C. Members . 156 

Hollywood Bulletin Board: A.S.C. Elects New Officers . 158 

Cine Kinks .174 

25 Years Ago With A.S.C. And Members .176 

What’s New In Equipment, Accessories and Service . . 184 


COVER PHOTO 

RUSSELL METTY, A.S.C., (striped Shirt) gives Donald O’Connor and 
Walter Brennan some pointers in lining up a shot with the Technicolor 
camera. "Gosh, even the viewfinder image is in Technicolor!” exclaimed 
O’Connor who has just completed one of the best roles of his career in 
Universal-International’s "Curtain Call At Cactus Creek,” in which Brennan 
also appears.—Photo by Sherman Clark. 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency. Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill's, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 







Hollywood 

Bulletin Board 


Charles Clarke Re-elected ASC. President 


Jackman, Edeson, Skall, Rennahan and Boyle also returned 
to office for 1949-50. Folsey new vice-president. 



Charles C. Clarke, A.S.C. 

T HE AMERICAN Society of Cinema- 
graphers, last month, re-elected Charles 
G. Clarke to a second term as its presi¬ 
dent. Also re-elected for the 1949-50 
term were Fred W. Jackman, executive 
vice-president and treasurer; Arthur Ede¬ 
son, 1st vice-president; William V. Skall, 
3rd vice-president; Ray Rennahan, secre¬ 
tary; and John Boyle, sergeant-at-arms. 
George Folsey, previously on the Board 
of Governors, was elected 2nd vice-presi¬ 
dent. Victor Milner was elected a mem¬ 
ber of the Board of Governors. 

Complete Board of Governors for the 
coming year—in addition to the officers 
named above — will include Sol Polito, 
Alfred Gilks, Charles Rosher, Lee Garmes, 
John Seitz, Leon Shamroy, Joseph Walker, 
and Victor Milner. Alternate Board mem¬ 
bers, elected to serve for a period of one 
year, and who will function when vari¬ 
ous regular Board members are absent, 
are John Arnold, Sol Halprin, Arthur 
Miller, Hal Mohr and Joseph Ruttenberg. 

The re-election of virtually the entire 
A.S.C. Board of Governors and its officers 
was the result of the Board’s excellent 
work during the past year, which saw 
monthly meetings greatly improved, both 
in quality of entertainment and technical 


value, and the completion of the A.S.C.s 
projection facilities which now will add 
the luxury of motion pictures, both 16mm. 
and 35mm., to the list of privileges af¬ 
forded members. Special credit is due 
president Clarke and executive vice-presi¬ 
dent Fred Jackman for the success of the 
latter project, for it was they who, once 
mandated by the membership, gave un- 
stintingly of their time, worked diligently 
on plans for the new projection booth 
and the necessary auditorium alterations, 
and supervised the project to early com¬ 
pletion. 

President Clarke is recognized as one 
of the ablest of Hollywood’s directors of 
photography. Under contract to Twen¬ 
tieth Century-Fox studios for many years, 
he will be remembered for his excellent 
Technicolor photography on such pic¬ 
tures as "Captain From Castile,” "Green 
Grass of Wyoming,” and the current Fox 
hit, "Sand.” He is currently scheduling 
the photography on another Fox epic and 
only recently returned from Borneo where 
he filmed background material for the 
picture. 

Clarke became a member of the A.S.C. 
in 1925 and shortly thereafter was elected 
a member of the Board of Governors. 
With the exception of a few years, he has 
been on the Board continuously and has 
served as an officer most of the time. He 
has been a tireless worker in the interests 
of the Society and much of the A.S.C.’s 
progress in recent years is due to his con¬ 
scientious and ceaseless efforts. 

Clarke firmly believes that continued 
progress of the American Society of Cine¬ 
matographers depends upon the whole¬ 
hearted support and cooperation of the 
entire membership, with the counsel and 
guidance of the Board of Governors. 

In accepting his re-election, President 
Clarke stated: I am greatly honored that 
the A.S.C. has selected me as its president 
for a second term and I am happy in the 
thought that I shall be able to continue 

• 


working with the same men who have 
worked so harmoniously together during 
the past year in furthering the progress 
of the Society. I feel sure that greater 
progress and more accomplishments lie 
ahead for us, and I look confidentally to¬ 
ward this goal in accepting the high 
office again entrusted to me.” 

In unanimously re-electing Fred Jack- 
man executive vice-president and treasurer 
for the sixth consecutive year, the Board 
of Governors expressed in deed its sincere 
appreciation for his enthusiastic and cap¬ 
able direction of the Society’s affairs which 
has been greatly responsible for the pro¬ 
gress of the organization. Although Fred 
Jackman’s background is substantially that 
of his colleagues, his experience as an 
executive began years ago and his talents 
for directing business affairs gained him 
recognition when at Warner Brothers 
studio he set up that company’s special 
effects department, planning and later 
building much of its equipment. 

• 

LLOYD KNECHTEL, A.S.C., who did spec¬ 
ial effects photography on the as yet un-re- 
leased Alice in Wonderland,” filmed in 
Ansco Color in Europe, has joined forces 
with A1 Schmidt to operate a special ef¬ 
fects and optical printing enterprise for 
independent producers. Headquarters will 
be at Samuel Goldwyn studio. 

FRANK PLANER, A.S.C., having completed 
photography on Universal-International's 
Come Be My Love,” is preparing to em¬ 
bark for an extended holiday in Europe. 


THE S.M.P.E.’s 66TH semi-annual conven¬ 
tion will be held at the Hollywood Roose¬ 
velt Hotel in Hollywood, October 10 to 
14 of this year. 

CONSOLIDATED FILM Laboratories, after 
making satisfactory tests with DuPont’s 
new color print stock, is re-tooling to 
handle processing of the new DuPont 
stock in both its Hollywood and Fort 
Lee plants. 

• 

PAUL MANTZ i s piloting camera plane 
for the air sequences being shot in Flor¬ 
ida for Darryl Zanuck’s "Twelve O Clock 
High.” 


158 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 










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Documentary Style 




Maury Gertsman, A.S.C., finds that 
shooting pictures in actual locales 
affords the cinematographer refresh¬ 
ing new fields for camera artistry. 

By HERB A. LIGHTMAN 



TYPICAL of the actual locales in which Maury Gertsman photo¬ 
graphed scenes for “City Across the River” is this Brooklyn, N. Y., 
rooftop. Sunlight reflectors replaced the booster lights that ordinarily 
would be used on a similar studio lot exterior. 



M. Certsman, A.S.C. 


T 


THE AWARD of an Academy 
Oscar” to William Daniels, 
A.S.C., for his black and white pho- 
tography of Mark Hellinger’s "The 
„jp Jflj Naked City” is a most welcome nod 

TAN style of photography that has char- 

' i Ulffl acterized some of Hollywood s out¬ 

standing photoplays during the past 
two years. Besides being perfectly 
tailored to the newsdrama type of 
screen story, this realistic photo¬ 
graphic style proves that Hollywood s 
cinematographers are not dependent upon the sound stages 
and studio back lots, but are capable of producing high 
quality photography in actual far-flung locales while using 


the barest necessities of equipment. 

The latest film to use this scene-of-the-crime lens 
technique is "City Across the River,” Universal-Interna¬ 
tional’s absorbing story of juvenile delinquency. Photo¬ 
graphed with realistic force by Maury Gertsman, A.S.C., it 
is a tautly paced drama of juvenile violence and crime set 
against a background of tenements and teeming streets. 

In order that the backgrounds might be absolutely au¬ 
thentic, the cast and crew junketed to New York and spent 
eight days in Brooklyn shooting all of the exteriors and 
process shots and some of the interiors as well. The company 
traveled light. A skeleton crew of technicians from Holly¬ 
wood formed a nucleus for the operating staff. Only the 
barest necessities of equipment were transported across 
country, the lighting units being rented in the locale itself. 

The action of the story takes place in a good-sized segment 
of Brooklyn. The locations included tenements on South 
Third Street, crowded blocks on busy Havemeyer Street, 
the Marine Parkway Bridge, Prospect Park and Boys High 
School. For director of photography Gertsman the assignment 
proved a challenge in several ways. 

The foremost problem was not a technical one, but rather 
a dilemma resulting from natural human curiosity. Wherever 
the U-I camera crew set up, the area immediately began to 
teem with curious onlookers. I don’t know where they all 
came from,” Gertsman recollects. "They came piling out 
of houses and tenements, ganging up in front of the camera 
despite the efforts of police to hold them back. Some of them 
weren’t very polite either. One gang of kids kept throwing 


(Continued on Page 174) 



GERTSMAN’S big problem was not a technical one, but rather a 
dilemma resulting from natural curiosity. Wherever he set up his 
camera, the sight attracted onlookers. One gang of kids kepf throw¬ 
ing prune pits in the dolly tracks. 



THERE ARE many night scenes in the picture and these were shot 
using conventional floods. Special lights were set up in store windows 
to further enhance the realism of sidewalk scenes after dark—a 
realism that Certsman achieved with remarkable accuracy. 


May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


o 


161 






ALFRED HITCHCOCK (foreground) believes in thorough planning of a picture before putting it 
before the cameras. He is shown here with lack Cardiff, A.S.C., and two associates planning 
camera angles for a sequence in “Under Capicorn,” produced in England. Scale models of prin¬ 
cipal interior sets afforded pre-shooting visualization of action and camera placement. 


Production Methods Compared 

The motion picture is not an arena for a display of 
techniques, says Alfred Hitchcock, adding that tech¬ 
niques often must be sacrificed or compromised when 
they interfere with the story itself. 

Condensation of a paper presented at a recent meeting of British cine technicians by 

AFRED HITCHCOCK 


T HE FILMING of each picture is a prob¬ 
lem in itself. The solution to such a 
problem is an individual thing, not the 
application of a mass solution to all prob¬ 
lems. 

Something I do today makes me feel 
that the methods I used yesterday are out 
of date, and yet tomorrow I may be faced 
with a problem which I can best solve by 
using yesterday’s methods. That is why I 
try to make my first rule of direction— 
flexibility. 

Next, I try to make it a rule that noth¬ 
ing should be permitted to interfere with 
the story. The making of a picture is 
nothing but the telling of a story, and 


the story—it goes without saying—must 
be a good one. I don't try to put onto the 
screen what is called a slice of life’ 
because people can get all the slices of 
life they want out on the pavement in 
front of the cinemas and they don t have 
to pay for them. 

On the other hand, total fantasy is no 
good either—I’m speaking only for my¬ 
self remember—because people want to 
connect themselves with what they see on 
the screen. 

Those are all the restrictions I would 
place on the story. It must be believable, 
and yet not ordinary. It must be dramatic, 
and yet lifelike. Drama, someone once 


said, is life with the dull spots removed. 

Now, having got our story—what next? 
Obviously we must develop our char¬ 
acters and develop the plot. All right, let’s 
say that’s been done. It may be putting 
a year’s work in a few words, but let’s 
say it. Are we ready to go on the floor? 
No, because our picture is going to need 
editing and cutting, and the time for this 
work is right now. The cuts should be 
made in the script itself, before a camera 
turns, and not in the film after the cam¬ 
eras have stopped turning. 

More important, if we shoot each scene 
as a separate entity out of sequence, the 
director is forced to concentrate on each 
scene as a scene. There is then a danger 
that one such scene may be given too great 
a prominence in direction and acting, and 
its relation with the remaining scenes is 
out of balance, or, again, that it hasn’t 
been given sufficient value and when the 
scene becomes a part of the whole, the 
film is lacking in something. 

You are all familiar with the "extra 
shots’ that have to be made after the 
regular schedule is completed. That is be¬ 
cause, in the shooting of the scenes, story 
points were missed. The extra, expository 
shots are generally identified by an audi¬ 
ence for what they are—artificial devices 
to cover what had been overlooked in the 
preparation of the film. 

Now, how can this be avoided? I think 
it can best be avoided if a shooting script 
is edited before shooting starts. In this 
way, nothing extra is shot, and, most im¬ 
portant, story points will be made natural¬ 
ly, within the action itself. 

Let me give an example of what I 
mean. Let’s suppose that our story calls 
for two scenes in a certain street, one a 
view of a parade going by, and the other 
—several days later in our plot—being an 
intimate conversation between two peo¬ 
ple walking along the pavement. We 
shoot the scenes on different days, the pa¬ 
rade a long shot, and the conversation a 
close-up. Now, after we’ve finished our 
scenes, we discover that the locale of the 
conversation is not quite clear to the au¬ 
dience. We must now shoot another long 
shot of that street which we will tack 
onto the front of the conversation merely 
to identify the street. 

That identifying long shot,’ in this 
case, is an unnecessary one. Because it’s 
not really needed, it’s awkward. If we’d 
seen to it that the script had been given 
expert editing before the film went on the 
floor, we would have found some way to 
identify the street within the structure of 
the conversation itself. Or, better still, 
since the parade scene is a long shot, we 
could have tried, at least, to combine the 
two. In this way, the parade would serve 
a dual purpose, its plot purpose, and its 
expository one. 

Another example: if we do not edit be¬ 
fore we shoot, we may be faced, in the 




162 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 












cutting room, with one of the nastiest of 
all editorial problems—the unexplained 
lapse of time. Our characters speak on 
Monday, and then speak again on the fol¬ 
lowing Monday. That a week has gone by 
may be essential to our plot, but we may 
have failed to make it clear in the se¬ 
quences we have shot. There was a time— 
long since past—when we would simply 
have photographed the words One Week 
Later in transparency and caused them to 
appear on the screen in mid-air during 
the second scene. 

The lapse of time can easily be indi¬ 
cated by the simple method of shooting 
one scene as a day scene and the next as 
a night scene, or one scene with leaves 
on the trees and the next one with snow 
on the ground. These are obvious exam¬ 
ples, but they serve to illustrate what I 
mean by editing before production com¬ 
mences. 

I try never to go to the floor until I 
have a complete shooting script, and I 
have no doubt everyone else tries to do the 
same thing. But, for one reason or an¬ 
other, we often have to start with what 
is really an incomplete script. 

The most glaring omission in the con¬ 
ventional script, I believe, is Camera 
Movement. Jane embraces Henry,” the 
script may read. But where is the camera 
while the two have their fun? This omis¬ 
sion is of very great importance. Of 
course, the director may decide how he is 
going to film the embrace "when the time 
comes,” as the story conference idiom 
has it. But I think the time is before 
shooting. And here we come face to face 
once again with the fact that the ten¬ 
dency today is to shoot scenes and se¬ 
quences and not to shoot pictures. The 
embrace can be shot from the front, from 
either side, or from above. If we are really 
going to be arty about the thing, it can 
be filmed from behind. But when we 
make that concession we are speaking only 
of the embrace by itself, and not as part 
of a sequence which is, itself, part of a 
picture which ought to be a dramatic 
whole. The angle from which that em¬ 
brace is to be shot ought to flow logically 
from the preceding shot, and it ought to 
be so designed that it will fit smoothly 
into whatever follows it, and so on. Ac¬ 
tually, if all the shooting is planned and 
incorporated into the script, we will never 
think about shooting the embrace, but 
merely about shooting a picture of which 
the embrace is a part. 

I’ve taken a long time to get around 
to telling you that I favor shooting pic¬ 
tures in sequence. After all, the film is 
seen in sequence by an audience and, of 
course, the nearer a director gets to an 
audience’s point of view, the more easily 
he will be able to satisfy an audience. 

A picture maker need not try to please 
everyone, of course. It is important to me, 
(Continued on Page 182) 


Calibration Of 
Photographic Lens Markings 

National Bureau Of Standards announces convenient 
graphic method for converting lens speed markings 
to corresponding “effective f/ markings.’’ 


I N THE COURSE of an experimental 
study of errors in the speed markings 
of photographic lenses, Dr. F. E. Washer 
of the National Bureau of Standards has 
devised a convenient graphic method 1 for 
converting each of these markings for a 
given lens to the corresponding "effective 
f/ number”—an f/ number corrected for 
light losses within the lens. In this way it 
is possible to calibrate a lens so that losses 
of light from absorption, reflection, and 
scattering within the lens are taken into 
account, and a more accurate control of 
the amount of light admitted to the ex¬ 
posed film is obtained. 

In recent years, photographic tech¬ 
nology has largely developed from an em¬ 
pirical art to an exact science, making it 
possible for both the professional and 
the skilled amateur to control their re¬ 
sults in a more scientific manner. With 
this progress, a demand has arisen for 
greater precision in the speed marking 
of lenses. The method now in general 
use is based entirely on the ratio of the 
equivalent focal length of the lens to the 
diameter of the aperture. This ratio— 



FIC. 1—Craphic method devised by N.B.S. 
for conversion of lens speed markings to 
“effective f/ numbers” is illustrated for a 
typical lens. In curve 1, scale deflections 
of a light meter are plotted against corre¬ 
sponding f/ numbers of a series of standard 
diaphragms. Curve 2 is plot of meter read¬ 
ings against marked f/ numbers of lens. 



GEOMETRIC F-NUMBER 


FIC. 2—Logarithmic paper is used so that 
intervals between successive stop openings 
may be equal. Circles indicate marked f/ 
number; crosses indicate calibrated f/ num¬ 
bers or “transmission” numbers. 


known as the f/ number—gives no con¬ 
sideration to the great differences in the 
useful light transmitted by various lenses. 

To correct the situation, several new 
methods of marking lens diaphragms have 
been proposed which give weight to the 
variations in the loss of light for different 
lenses. Not long ago, Dr. I. C. Gardner of 
the National Bureau of Standards devel¬ 
oped a method 2,3 of testing the marked 
diaphragm openings so that values which 
entirely compensate for differences in 
transmission can be obtained and applied 
to the scale of f/ numbers on a photo¬ 
graphic lens. In this system the markings, 
known as effective f/ numbers or t/ num¬ 
bers, are obtained by means of a photo¬ 
electric cell and a relatively simple pho¬ 
tometric procedure, in which the dia¬ 
phragm of the lens to be calibrated is ad¬ 
justed to transmit the same amount of 
light as as similarly placed opening of 
standard size. The standard opening cor¬ 
responds to an ideal lens on a given aper¬ 
ture ratio, in which incident light is 
wholly transmitted. A complete calibra¬ 
tion is obtained by the use of a series of 
openings of graduated size corresponding 
to various aperture ration values. 

(Continued on Page 111) 




May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


• 163 






























































FIC. 1—Setting up preparatory to the taking of high-speed X-ray 
movies in the Westinghouse Lamp Division research laboratory. The 
high-speed oscillograph-type camera may be seen immediately above 
technician, at far left. 


FIC. 2—Exposures of ten-millionths of a second were made at rate 
of 100 per second to photograph the melting phenomenon occuring 
when a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum is ignited. 



High-speed Cineradiography 

Development of super-speed X-ray motion pictures 
opening fascinating new visual worlds to science. 


By HAROLD 

A NEW PROCEDURE that brings to 
X-ray analysis the same advantages 
that slow-motion movies bring to sports 
events is the result of recently perfected 
super-speed X-ray motion pictures. De¬ 
veloped in the Westinghouse Lamp Re¬ 
search Laboratories in Bloomfield, New 
Jersey, super-speed X-ray movies team 
up X-ray exposures of 10 millionths of a 
second and a shutterless camera shooting 
movies at 100 frames a second. 

Dr. Charles M. Slack, director of re¬ 
search for Westinghouse’s lamp division, 
said, "This X-ray eye’ can analyze the 
internal structure of rapidly moving ob¬ 
jects and human organs. With exposures 
of such rapidity—200 times faster than 
a person blinks—we are able for the first 
time to make X-ray movies of speeding 
objects without blur.’’ 

The X-ray exposures, repeated at one- 
hundredth of a second intervals, are re¬ 
corded on a continuously moving strip of 
35mm. movie film. To illustrate the new 
technique, Dr. Slack recently showed a 
group of physicists the "shortest short 
ever photographed, a 15-second X-ray 
movie sequence made by members of his 


M. GROOMS 

staff. Their subject was a violent chemical 
reaction which took place in a crucible the 
size of a demi-tasse cup. The reaction 
pictured actually took one second, but the 
high speed camera and use of ultra-rapid 
X-ray exposures enabled the action to be 
so photographed it could be slowed down 
when presented on the screen. With this 
technique, Dr. Slack pointed out, rapid 
action, which would be impossible to 
analyze at its normal speed, can appear 
on the screen in comfortably-observed 
slow motion just as in an ordinary movie. 

The reaction shown occured when a 
mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, 
ingredients of wartime incendiaries, was 
ignited. The X-rays, penetrating metal 
crucible walls lined with refractory mate¬ 
rial, revealed the actual melting phenom¬ 
enon inside the crucible as well as the 
subsequent bursting of the molten metal 
through a steel plate underneath. A regu¬ 
lar movie of the reaction photographed 
in visible light, by contrast, showed 
merely a shower of sparks and molten 
metal gushing out the bottom of the 
crucible. 

Although the test movie shown was 



FIC. 3—This is the high-speed shutterless 
camera used to photograph the ultra-rapid 
X-ray analysis described above. Camera 
takes 100 ft. rolls of 35mm. film. Focusing 
is done directly through film or ground 
glass in the film gate by sighting through 
apertures in the large central driving 
sprocket. 

made at 100 frames a second, Dr. Slack 
said that 150 frames a second have been 
attained and possibilities of a much 
higher rate—perhaps up to 2,000 frames 
a second—are being investigated. X-rays 
have been recorded on movie film previ¬ 
ously but the movie subjects were con¬ 
fined to relatively slow action because the 
(Continued on Page 178) 




164 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 















CLIFF STINE, A.S.C., (white shirt, center, back to camera) lines up action on “Don’t Be A 
Sucker,” one of three series of TV films being produced by Hal Roach, Jr. at Hal Roach studio 
in Culver City, which is now west coast center of video film production. 


Television Film Center 

Picked crew, permanent sets and fixed basic lighting 
effect marked economies in Hal Roach TV film making. 

By JOHN FORBES 


W HILE SOME television circles may 
deny Hollywood’s claim that it’s now 
the television center of the world, there 
can be no disputing that the Hal Roach 
Studio in nearby Culver City has become 
the center of television film production. 
This famous studio, which once turned 
out most of the industry’s film comedies, 
has converted its entire facilities to pro¬ 
duction of television films. Independent 
TV film producers, who now lease space 
there, claim video films can be produced 
more economically on the Roach lot be¬ 
cause of the efficiency that follows use of 
standard motion picture lighting, equip¬ 
ment and procedures. 

One of the studio’s most active pro¬ 
ducers of TV films is Hal Roach, Jr., son 
of the studio’s founder and head of Roach 
& Beaudette Enterprises. Roach currently 
is producing three series of television 
films. Through extensive pre-production 
planning on the series, Roach has devel¬ 
oped procedures tending greatly to reduce 
the cost of making films for television— 
a requisite in these pioneering days. 

First of all, Roach has organized a 
picked production crew comprising of 
cameraman and assistants, the director, 
gaffer and grip. The crew works together 
as a closely coordinated team on every 
Roach & Beaudette video film production. 
For his cameraman, Roach picked Clifford 
Stine, A.S.C., who has been a special 
effects cinematographer at RKO since 
1930, was the late Vern Walker’s assist¬ 
ant, and who will resume his post at 
RKO when that studio commences pro¬ 
duction again. 

Stine has photographed two of the in¬ 
itial productions in the three series of 
video films which comprise "Life With 
The Erwins,” featuring Stu Erwin and 
June Collyer in a series of domestic com¬ 
edies on the order of Blondie and Dag- 
wood; "Don’t Be A Sucker,” documen¬ 
tary type dramatization of modern day 
rackets, made with cooperation of the 
Bunco Squad of the Los Angeles Police 
Department and the Los Angeles Better 
Business Bureau; and "Myrt and Marge,” 
based on the popular radio series by the 
same name. Also planned is a fourth 
series, "Let’s Dance,” featuring Veloz and 
Yolanda. Films in this group will be 
educational as well as entertaining, and 
each will feature some famous comedian 
as the "pupil.” 

Roach Junior is using no amateur talent 
in his television films, giving all important 


roles to tried and tested screen favorites 
such as Franklyn Pangborn, Lyle Talbot, 
Stu Erwin, June Collyer and others. 

Economy in TV entertainment film 
production demands wide use of process 
backgrounds, Roach believes, which is sub¬ 
stantiated by his choice of Clifford Stine 
as his cameraman. Cline has brought to 
the Roach productions many of the short¬ 
cut procedures developed for feature films. 
Roach now maintains a series of standing 
sets on his sound stages, all with the basic 
lighting and scaffolding set. These never 
have to be moved or re-installed. The wall 


paper on the walls may have to be 
changed, or one flat may be switched with 
another to vary the appearance of the 
room or to alter position of a window, 
but basically the set lighting requirements 
remain unchanged, except for any special 
floor lights that might be needed. Not 
invariably the script is altered slightly to 
permit use of these standing sets. For 
the "Erwin Family” pictures, one group 
of sets remains intact so it can be used 
for subsequent pictures in the series. 

Hal Roach, Jr., is presently considering 
(Continued on Page 181) 


9 


May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


165 


















THEATRE television equipment was demonstrated at the S.M.P.E. con¬ 
vention that atfords images up to 15 by 20 feet. Picture shown in 
photo was projected from the television projector mounted mid-room 
on tubular steel supports, and was picked up by a regular TV camera 
from a live scene in an adjoining room. 


OTION PICTURE films are destined to play an increasingly 
important role in television programming, seven speakers 
at the Society of Motion Picture Engineers semiannual con¬ 
vention last month agreed. Opening the Society’s week-long 
technical sessions at Hotel Statler in New York, a forum on tele¬ 
vision motion pictures presented the views of authorities in 
several fields and was followed by a general discussion by both 
audience and speakers. 

It was stressed that present knowledge is sufficient to over¬ 
come many of the problems now existing, both in picture and 
sound quality. C. R. Keith of the Western Electric Company 
demonstrated horrible examples” in 16mm. recording, together 
with examples of good 16mm. technique. With 16mm. now in 
wide use in television operations, he pointed out that excessive 
flutter and high noise level, as well as other types of distortion 
can be improved to the standard now existing in 35mm. oper¬ 
ation. Most prominent among the sources of trouble are pro¬ 
cessing and projection, Mr. Keith added. Development of 16mm. 
film, he said, is inferior to present standards in 35mm., while 
present 16mm. printers often introduce distortion and flutter 
in prints. Most 16mm. projectors, he continued, do not provide 
the optimum results possible from the film. 

Pointing out that improvement is possible in both the pro¬ 
duction of films for television and kinescope recording, Dr. Al¬ 
fred N. Goldsmith, a consulting engineer of New York City, 
said that continuing research is necessary in both 35mm. and 
16mm. fields to secure the best possible results from film in 
television. 

The lighting of films for television came in for lengthy dis¬ 
cussion, and Richard Blount, of General Electric Company, 
described the types of distortion which enter into television 
reception by the improper use of lighting techniques. The sub¬ 
ject was further explored in a paper read by A. H. Brolly, which 
pointed out that "many principles of lighting for motion pic¬ 
ture photography and the stage also apply to television but 
important differences make separate consideration of techniques 
imperative. Required light intensity is determined by the sensi¬ 
tivity of the image orthicon, the amount of amplification used, 
and the lens aperture. Color requirements in television may be 
met by the use of present knowledge. 


TOMORROWS 
TEL E VISION 

Here, summarized, are highlights of 

discussions on television held at re¬ 
cent S.M.P.E. convention in N. Y. 

By J. M. BRADY 

Unbalanced color response results from faulty understand¬ 
ing of the use of Kelvin temperatures and filters. The proper 
means of illumination for television are incandescent and fluo¬ 
rescent lights, each of which has its own particular uses and 
limitations. 

The fixtures used for these lights must be adapted to the 
special purposes of television. About twenty units of lighting are 
normally required for a small studio and about fifty for a large 
studio. These fixtures must be both quiet and simple in oper¬ 
ation. The possibility of oscillation in fluorescent lamps may be 
minimized by their intelligent choice and installation. Present 
knowledge and means will suffice for solving the major problems 
of television studio lighting.’’ 

Mr. Brolly also described the use of a combination of fluo- 

(Continued on Page 176) 



SIMULTANEOUSLY, in Los Angeles, Pieter van den Berg (left), presi¬ 
dent of North American Philips, Co., Inc., demonstrated company’s 
new equipment which affords projected television on either 12 by 16 
inch or 36 by 48 inch screens. Dr. E. B. Doll, company engineer, holds 
cathode-ray tube which is integral part of equipment. 



e 


166 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 








NOW 

Is The Time 
To Start 
Thinking 
About Awards 

For 1949— 

FOR 

OUTSTANDING 

PHOTOGRAPHY- 

EASTMAN 

NEGATIVE FILMS 

For All Pictures 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 

Distributors 




IN PLANNINC the photographic approach to a commercial film subject, the cameraman has 
a two-told responsibility: he must suit his style to the subject, and he must at the same time 
make sure that he is presenting the client’s message, product or service in the most forceful 
pictorial manner. 

Photographing The 
16mm. Commercial Film 

The photographic planning of a commercial 
film should begin when the picture idea is in 
the earliest stages of scripting. 

By CHARLES LORINC 


T HE IMPORTANCE of good photog¬ 
raphy in the production of 16mm. 
commerical films cannot be over-rated, 
for there is no other type of motion 
picture which depends so strongly upon 
visual treatment for its total effect. This 
is not to imply that other phases of pro¬ 
duction such as writing, direction and 


editing are unimportant, or even less 
important—but since the commerical 
film always has an ax to grind, in a 
manner of speaking, the visual package 
in which it is presented can do much 
to win and hold audience attention. 

Time was, and not too long ago, when 
the commercial film was considered the 


illegitimate and somewhat ragged little 
brother of the entertainment film. It was 
a kind of unnecessary evil which certain 
misguided organizations used to promote 
ill-will between themselves and their cus¬ 
tomers or employees. Times have changed, 
of course—and now the well-produced 
commercial film is considered the most 
potent medium available for presenting 
an idea to an audience. 

With this coming-of-age there has risen 
a new responsibility. No longer can the 
commercial film afford to use shabby 
technique in telling its screen story. The 
great American audience has become 
accustomed to the very best photography 
in the photoplays that come from Holly¬ 
wood, and they have come to expect a 
similar quality of technical finish in any 
picture which is presented for their 
approval. For this reason, if for no other, 
it behooves the commerical producer to 
use the most original and professional 
type of photography to present his client’s 
ideas on the screen. 

The photography of a commercial pic¬ 
ture does, however, present a certain chal¬ 
lenge. The subject matter of the average 
commercial film is, by its very nature, 
usually less interesting than that of a film 
that is conceived solely to entertain an 
audience. Sometimes the subject is down¬ 
right dull—and in such cases the director 
of photography must use every trick in 
and out of the book to make the subject 
at least visually palatable. 

The planning of the photography for 
a commerical subject should begin when 
the idea is in the earliest stages of 
scripting. The cinematographer should be 
present at all story conferences and should 
be given free rein to suggest photographic 
treatment of the idea. The experienced 
cinematographer will know what is prac¬ 
tical and effective from the visual stand¬ 
point. Invariably he can suggest less- 
involved ways of staging a situation which 
will be more effective pictorially than 
those which the director or the writer 
may have in mind. If he is available 
during the early phases of script develop¬ 
ment, he certainly can prevent an over- 
enthusiastic writer creating situations 
which would be impractical to photo¬ 
graph within the budget allowed. 

In planning the photographic approach 
to a commercial subject, the director of 
photography has a twofold responsibility: 
he must suit his style to the subject and 
(Continued on Page 180) 




168 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 















oammt 





fitted with superb new Kodak Cine Ektar //1.4 Lens 


m . 

. B,mB : 


- < 
' v 1 ii ' > - 


Professional movie effects with amateur ease 

This is the one 16mm. movie camera with which you can 
create most of the unusual screen effects ordinarily produced 
by special and expensive laboratory treatment. The controls 
are built into the camera itself! 

Fades, dissolves, mask effects, double and multiple expo¬ 
sures, montages, animation, slow motion, and speeded motion 
—all can be achieved from the camera position. The reflex 
finder permits precise focusing and framing, requires no rack- 
over, eliminates parallax, does away with the need for titlers, 
allows really big close-ups. The wind-back shaft rules out the 
need for backing up film in a darkroom. The single-frame shaft 
even permits time exposures for dark scenes ordinarily beyond 
the reach of the fastest lens. 


Finest lens ever made for 16mm. motion 
picture cameras. The Kodak Cine Ektar 25- 
mm. f/ 1.4 Lens meets the highest stand¬ 
ards of definition and edge-to-edge sharp¬ 
ness. Aided by the unique optical qualities 
of Kodak rare-element glasses, Lumenized 
glass-air surfaces, blackened lens rims, 
beveled flanges, and a new precision 
mounting of all elements, it provides su¬ 
perb image quality, excellent contrast and 
color purity, and unmatched flatness of 
field in addition to its extreme speed. And 
with the complete line of accessory Kodak 
Cine Ektar Lenses in a wide range of focal 
lengths also now available, still further scope and variety can be given to 
your film shows. Ask your dealer for the free Kodak booklet, Kodak Cine 
Ektar Lenses, which describes them in full detail. 


Imagination — only—limits its range 

Name your effect. With the "Special II,” you can have it! 

Animated titles . . . maps . . . diagrams . . ."self-assembling” 
machines. Tremendously speeded action or time-lapse studies. 
All are easy with the "Special II.” 

Comedy situations, wherein big men vanish behind small 
trees . . . shiny new cars are transformed into battered flivvers 
. . . a screen character greets himself in mid-screen, is "beside 
himself” when and where you desire. The old and the new, 
the rich and the poor, the fast and the slow—all can be on the 
screen at the same time when the movie is made with the 
"Special II.” 

Title exposures against moving backgrounds . . . ghost ef¬ 
fects wherein the background shows through the subject . . . 
fades against an unchanged background. These effects, and 
scores more—all under perfect finger-tip control—are sim¬ 
plicity itself with this camera. 

Small wonder Cine-Kodak Special II Camera is the first, and 
last, choice of the serious worker . . . the advanced amateur. 
Good news that production is once again in step with demand. 
Your Kodak dealer will be glad to accept your order for a Cine- 
Kodak Special II Camera—now! 



“Kodak” is a trade-mark 


Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester 4, N. Y. 


The basic model of the Cine-Kodak Special II Camera is equipped with 
a 100-foot capacity film chamber and the 25mm. f/l.4 Kodak Cine 
Ektar Lens. It may be purchased with a 200-foot capacity film chamber 
and the same lens—shown at left—or with either chamber and a 
25mm. f/l.9 Kodak Cine Ektar Lens. In one of these four forms, this 
fine camera will meet your every film-making requirement. 














IMAGINATION and ingenuity, coupled with a desire to enhance the inter- of movable block letters moving magically across the title card to spell out 

est of a novelty 16mm. film, resulted in this animated title which consists the text. Title is one in a series made by Dr. Rich Johnston, Ogden, Utah. 


Animation 


Adds Interest To Movie Titles 


Single frame exposure technique affords novel 
animation effects in movie titles, stepping up 
interest in footage lacking in continuity. 

By LEIGH ALLEN 


T HE MOVIE amateur is frequently ad¬ 
monished to get continuity into his 
home movies—to shoot his scenes so that 
they link together to form a story. How¬ 
ever, not all home movie subjects lend 
themselves to story continuity as we ob¬ 
serve it in professional motion pictures. 
Take, for example, movies made of the 
kiddies and family around the home, or 
the scenes shot on a vacation trip. Despite 
the admitted need for continuity in such 
movies, it is seldom achieved and quite 
often impossible to attain from a photo¬ 
graphic standpoint 

Fortunately there are other means by 
which continuity can be woven into mov¬ 
ies, and titles — animated titles — are the 
most promising. Besides, almost any movie 
amateur can make animated titles himself. 


By animated titles, we mean those in 
which the letters forming the text are 
made to move about magically on the 
screen, finally forming words and sen¬ 
tences. Such titles intercut between movie 
scenes perk up interest and at the same 
time tie the whole together continuity- 
fashion to form an entertaining movie. 
At first it might be argued that such titles 
would, by their very novelty, detract from 
the picture, but as the pictures with which 
we suggest such titles be used are usually 
shy on continuity—cannot convey a com¬ 
plete story by themselves—they need the 
advantage of clever titles to tie the scenes 
together and thus create additional interest. 

For instance, Dr. Rich Johnston, an 
enterprising movie amateur of Ogden, 
Utah, employed animated titles to link 


together in story form a series of multiple 
exposures which he had conceived as a 
means of displaying the talents of his 
young daughter. Using a special masking 
device which he set up before his camera 
and which allowed him to expose l/9th 
of the area of a single frame of 16mm. 
film at a time, this cinefilmer produced 
and entertaining home movie that showed 
nine little girls in nine windows of a 
house, all enacting a different role. His 
daughter played each role. Each time, 
the film in the camera was wound back 
to the original starting point, the next 
segment of the 9-section mask was opened, 
and the next scene to be played lined up 
within this area. On the screen the shades 
of the various windows are raised one by 
one to reveal each of the ninetuplets”— 
to coin a word—enacting nine different 
roles. One was telephoning, another was 
studying her school lesson; still another 
was listening intently to a horror radio 
program, while in the adjoining window 
another little girl was playing nurse to 
her doll, and so on. 

To enhance the novelty of this pre¬ 
sentation, which, if presented without 

(Continued on Page 174) 



THE PICTURE, for which this title is one of many explanatory captions, letters in the words of the title were grouped together to form nine 

described the doings of nine little girls. Appropriately, the various little figures. These in turn unscrambled magically to form the title. 




170 


American Cinematographer 


o 


May, 1949 




What makes water look wet in movies ? 


That’s simple — it’s Ansco Hypan 
Film. 

And not only does this film make 
water look wet, but it makes people look 
real, makes grass look soft, makes 
thorns look prickly, makes sand look 
sandy. 

In short, Ansco Hypan Film makes 
your movie scenes look completely, 
wonderfully natural. It gives them what 
a lot of people have come to call that 
“theater look” of the professionals. 

For Ansco Hypan Film has a fine 


grain—a pleasing scale of tone values— 
a splendid panchromatic color balance. 


Many claim that Ansco Hypan Film 
has moved their home movies into the 
way-above-average class. Let it do the 
same for you. Ansco, Binghamton, 
N. Y. A Division of General Aniline & 
Film Corporation. “From Research to 
Reality”. 


TIPS ON TITLES 


_— If you’re taking 

pictures of kids, try this for your title 
run. Line up the kids, back to camera, 
with title signs on their backs. Train 


your camera on each sign for a few 
seconds, then have the kids turn around 
in a group. 


- ASK FOR- 

Ansco 

8 and 16mm 

HYPAN FILM 














ITS CONSTRUCTION and engineering proved in a gruelling endurance test, Bell & Howell’s new 
“One-Case” Filmosound represents a series of improvements over older models—improvements 
of such magnitude that the older line is being dropped entirely. 


Endurance Test 


Bell & Howell puts its new lightweight “One- 
Case” Filmosound through continuous 24-hour- 
a-day comparative endurance run. 

By J. C. ROARK 


I T’S NOT often that a manufacturer is 
willing to submit a sample of his prod¬ 
uct to a series of exhaustive and complete¬ 
ly honest comparative tests with similar 
sample products. Why not? Because of 
the ever-present possibility of embarras- 
ing results which, once determined, seem 
always to leak out. However, when such 
tests are conducted and the superiority 
of a product is indicated, a certain amount 
of flag waving” is certainly to be con¬ 
doned. Such is the case with Bell & 
Howell Company. 

The comparative tests conducted by 
Bell & Howell in their Chicago Plant 
featured a standard Filmosound taken 
directly from stock, and one each of six 
other sound projectors of prominent 
make. The other projectors were pur¬ 
chased from dealers to insure customer 
operating condition. No changes whatso¬ 


ever were made in any of the projectors. 
They were just as the customer buys them. 

The first results of these tests were pub¬ 
lished in advertisement form in the 
March issue of the American Cinema¬ 
tographer and also in other magazines. 
These results speak well for Filmosounds 
and their maker. According to Bell & 
Howell Company, these tests indicate 
that the new Filmosound gives less 
trouble, better performance, more eco¬ 
nomical performance, and most im¬ 
portant, provides for better film safety 
than any of the other machines which 
competed in the test. Also, the Filmo¬ 
sound suffered no break-downs or any 
other occasions for repair necessitating 
return to the factory or, as would be the 
case with a consumer, a return to a Service 
Station. Film protection, picture steadi¬ 
ness, and trouble-free performance—all 


factors of major importance to the cus¬ 
tomer—are points in which the Filmo¬ 
sound was shown to excel, according to 
Bell & Howell engineers. 

The new Filmosound represents a series 
of improvements over older models— 
improvements of such magnitude that the 
older line is being dropped completely 
in favor of the new. 

Smaller in all dimensions, lighter, and 
more compact, with no sacrifice of quality 
or performance, the new One-Case Filmo¬ 
sound is a portable sound projector that 
is actually light enough for the average 
person to carry easily. The 6-inch speaker 
is mounted on a door in the side of the 
case. The door is hung on split hinges 
permitting the speaker to be used en¬ 
closed in the case, at right angles to the 
case (a locating bracket maintains the 
speaker in a 90-degree fiixed position,) or 
removed from the case and placed near 
the screen. When the speaker is placed 
near the screen (a 40-foot cable is pro¬ 
vided for this purpose), the posts on 
which the speaker cord is wound act as 
supports to hold the speaker upright. 

No part of the film’s picture surface 
is touched at any time by a part of the 
projector. Safe-lock sprockets assure cor¬ 
rect threading. At both sound and silent 
speeds, the Filmosound is governor con¬ 
trolled. Metered lubrication assures ade¬ 
quate oil for moving parts at all times. 
Side tension springs in the film gate 
eliminate side sway in the film . . . con¬ 
stant tension take-up and film protecting 
snubbers guard against breakage. An 
automatic safety shutter and forced air 
cooling eliminate danger to film from 
excessive heat. 

In appearance, the smoother lines and 
rounded corners of the new die-cast 
aluminum soundhead are a considerable 
improvement. Most important, however, 
is the saving in weight, AVa pounds, and 
less radiation of noise. Ample ventilation 
is provided by louvres on the rounded 
upper edges of the soundhead. The exciter 
lamp assembly has been redesigned for 
improved performance and accessibility. 
The exciter lamp cover is removed easily 
by loosening only one hand-screw. The 
lamp itself is equipped with an automo¬ 
tive prefocused base, which means simply 
that the exciter lamp will now have the 
same pre-aligned precision for which 
the Bell & Howell optical system has so 
long been famous. A new type damping 
shield is used to reduce microphonics. 

New aluminum "slip-in” reel arms, 
fitted with slots in one end, have been 
designed to make attachment to the case 
a quick, slip-in-place operation. Cross 
bars in the case prevent the belts from 
falling into the case when the reel arms 
are removed. The projector case has been 
completely restyled for functional beauty 
with rounded top, external hardware in a 






172 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 








matched shade of brown, door hinges 
mounted on the inside, and a new quick- 
grip latch, satin-chrome finished, for the 
door. A new ventilation grill on the same 
side of the case as the speaker carries 
heat away from the operator. Incidentally, 
the door fastens securely in a wide open 
position to eliminate the banged-head 
routine when threading a tilted projector. 
The new amplifier allows substitution of 
any current B&H speaker when greater 
audience handling capacity is needed. 
This versatility provides a choice of four 
speakers for the One-Case Filmosound— 
the 6-inch speaker provided, the B&H 
8-inch or 12-inch auxiliary speaker, or 
the 15-inch power speaker. A 1000-watt 
projection lamp is provided as standard 
equipment on all Filmosounds. 

During the course of the past 42 years, 
Bell & Howell has developed a tremen¬ 
dous know-how in the associated sci¬ 
ences of Optics, Electronics, and Me¬ 
chanics. From this extensive experience 
has come the confidence in product that 
enables B&H to offer their lifetime guar¬ 
antee. The test marathon continues in full 



Rugged vibrator unit. Will withstand 
overloads without harm. No strings to 
break. 

High Fidelity frequency response. 

Requires only 300 milliwatts for full 
modulation. 

Can be biased for noise reduction. 


V Proven performance. 

\/ Prefocused exciter lamps. Can be 
changed in a few seconds. No adjust¬ 
ments required. 

Fine focus adjustment with one- 
sixteenth - inch range is built in. 



swing. Already the Filmosound has passed 
the 1200-hour mark without requiring a 
single factory repair. For the prospective 
buyer, this means that with a Filmosound, 
he may reasonably expect good, trouble- 
free performance without the annoyance 
of losing usable time while waiting for 
his projector to be repaired. The End 


y/ Compact and light weight. 

Mounts in any position. V bed and lock¬ 
ing gib permit track position adjustment. 


V Available for 16mm or 35mm tracks. 

\/ True square edge on Mounting Plate 
to check azimuth of optical image. 


V Price $450.00 

BERNDT-BACH, Inc •f 7365 Beverly Blvd., Hollywood 36, Calif. 


MANUFACTURERS OF SOUND-ON-FILM RECORDING EQUIPMENT SINCE 1931 


ACME 35 MM. OR 16 MM. CAMERA 

8 FOR PROCESS OR ANIMATION 
8 170° DISSOLVING SHUTTER 
0 FOOT AND FRAME COUNTER 
3 BUCKLE SWITCH FORWARD AND REVERSE 
° RETRACTABLE BUILT-IN SUCCESSIVE FRAME COLOR WHEEL 
0 POSITIVE PIN REGISTRATION MOVEMENT TAKES ONE, TWO, 
OR THREE FILMS WITHOUT ADJUSTMENT 

° REFLEX viewer with registration pins to coincide 

WITH REGISTRATION PINS IN MOVEMENT 
° LIGHT can be projected through film located on 
REGISTER PINS IN REFLEX VIEWER TO PROJECT IMAGES 
FOR PAINTING MATTES 

° PRICE WITHOUT LENS OR MAGAZINE. . $3000°° 

VARIABLE SPEED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 

° DELIVERS STEADY SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS AT 24, 16 12 6 
3, AND 1 1/2 F.P.S. 

3 TO CHANGE SPEEDS, SIMPLY TURN DIAL 
® FULL POWER AT ALL SPEEDS 

® FURNISHED WITH ADAPTER TO FIT BELL & HOWELL 
MITCHELL, OR ACME CAMERAS 

8 PRICE COMPLETE.... $425°° 

ACME STOP-MOTION MOTOR 

8 FORWARD, REVERSE, STOP-MOTION, OR CONTINUOUS 
® TAKES 1 OR 3 SUCCESSIVE FRAMES IN STOP-MOTION 
8 1/16, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, AND 4 SECOND EXPOSURES 
© TO CHANGE SPEEDS, SIMPLY TURN DIAL 
• FULL POWER AT ALL SPEEDS 

8 FURNISHED WITH ADAPTER TO FIT BELL & HOWELL, 
MITCHELL, OR ACME CAMERAS 
© PRICE COMPLETE... $750°° 


PRODUCERS 

2815 WEST OLIVE AVE. 


SERVICE 

STANLEY 7-3144 


COMPANY 

BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 




May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


o 


173 





















(r 


ANIMATION ADDS INTEREST TO TITLES 


(Continued from Page 170) 



IF YOU USE YOUR PROJECTOR to edit 
your pictures, employ a red grease pencil 
to mark your film for cuts as it is being 
projected. Red shows up clearly on either 
black and white or color film and may 
be quickly removed from film with lighter 
fluid or carbon-tetrachloride. 

TO PREVENT OXIDATION 0 f bright trim 
on your camera and lenses, after a day 
of shooting at the beach, wipe trim with 
small swab dipped in lighter fluid and 
polish with a clean soft cloth. 

CUEING WIRE RECORDED SOUND with 
your home movie films will be made 
easier if you place a cue mark on the 
celluloid leader of the recorded spool of 
wire to correspond with start mark on 
vour film. 

J 

© 

REFLECTORS are unnecessary if you use 
the new reflectorfloods and reflector- 
spots now manufactured by General Elec¬ 
tric Company. These photoflood lamps 
have their own built-in reflectors and all 
you need in order to use them are ap¬ 
propriate clamp-on sockets. 

© 

AN EXCELLENT three-piece service kit for 
servicing your movie projector consists 
of (1) small piece of chamois, for clean¬ 
ing film gate; (2) small rubber syringe— 
excellent for blowing particles of dust 
from projector gate and surface of lens, 
and (3) small pad of lens tissue. Keep 
all three in a small box in your projector 
case. 

o 

USE BITS OF QUARTER-INCH adhesive 
tape for patching film that breaks during 
projection. White tape is easy to see when 
rewinding film, enabling you to catch the 
break and splice it after the show is over. 
Keep several pieces, about Vz" in length, 
on the base of your projector ready for use. 

• 

GIVE YOUR CAMERA a coat of wax (fur¬ 
niture or shoe) before starting on an 
ocean cruise or a vacation at the beach. 
Polish well and wax will preserve finish 
against corosion and other atmospheric 
damage. 

• 

MOONLIGHT EFFECTS can be achieved 
with color film by using a blue filter over 
lens and reducing exposure Vz stop. 


titles, would have a much shorter period 
of interest on the screen, the filmer con¬ 
ceived the idea of adding animation to 
the titles that were to describe the picture, 
title of which was "Nine Little Sisters.” 
Subsequent descriptive titles went on to 
relate how on a certain street there was 
a house in which lived nine little sisters, 
that they were all the same age, all the 
same size, etc. 

Instead of flashing complete titles 
on the screen, only the first word or per¬ 
haps the first sentence of a title would 
appear. Then the rest of the words 
formed magically, as the various letters 
emerged from a scrambled pile of char¬ 
acters; or a complete line or sentence 
would appear, then parade around the 
title card, finally coming to rest properly 
arranged in its rightful place in the com¬ 
position. 

Two examples of this filmer’s titles are 
illustrated. They were composed of small 
white block letters on a soft black back¬ 
ground. Several of the descriptive titles 
began with the block letters arranged in 
nine separate groups, representing nine 
little figures, as seen in Fig. 2. One by one 
the figures would unscramble to form 
words, then complete sentences. 

A variation of the technique is shown 
in Fig. 1. Flere the letters forming part 
of a sentence, slightly scrambled, appear 
magically and parade in a serpentine line 
over the title board, finally coming to rest 
in correct order to form a line of the title. 

The animation, of course, was accom¬ 
plished by stop motion photography—that 
is, shooting one frame at a time. Most 
modern cine cameras provide for single 
frame photography, but for those cameras 
that do not, it is quite possible to make 
single frame exposures by allowing the 
camera motor to unwind almost com¬ 
pletely and just barely tapping the start¬ 
ing button to cause a single revolution of 
the shutter. Some cameras give better 
results with the speed set at 8 frames per 
second. In most cases, it is necessary to 
stop down the lens from a half to one 
full stop to compensate for the slower 
movement of the shutter, and consequent¬ 
ly additional exposure time. This is not 
necessary, however, where the camera pro¬ 
vides for single frame exposures. 

Naturally, making titles this way re¬ 
quires endless patience. Each letter must 
be moved perhaps 25 to fifty times to 
complete the full cycle of animation— 
which means making 25 to fifty single 
frame exposures as well. Imagination and 
ingenuity are required, too, as illustrated 
in the examples shown here. But it is all 
worth the while. First it gives movie 


amateurs a new field of movie making 
to explore and also, its an accomplishment 
that invariably wins the admiration of 
your friends when finally the completed 
picture is shown on your home movie 
screen. 

While we have described the use of 
such titles as captions for a novelty reel, 
animated titles will give a lift to your 
vacation movies, movies of travels, home 
town newsreels, and documentaries of 
local scenes. But except, perhaps, for a 
main title, do not use animation in titles 
describing movies which already have con¬ 
tinuity, which have been planned and shot 
from a carefully developed shooting script. 
To do so would seriously detract from the 
picture’s pictorial and story interest. Nor 
are animated titles recommended for 
lengthy pictures. The novelty would soon 
wear off, become boring, and do more 
harm than good. 

Any type of movable letters may be 
employed: plastic block letters, die-cut 
cardboard letters, felt letters, wooden block 
letters—all lend themselves easily to this 
form of animation. Try it soon and see 
for yourself. 


DOCUMENTARY STYLE 

(Continued from Page 161) 

prune pits in the dolly tracks.” 

In filming the daylight exteriors on 
location, reflectors were used instead of 
booster lights for fill-in illumination. A 
400-amp. generator was used to light the 
night exteriors and a 200-amp. generator 
supplied current for the interiors shot on 
the spot. One tenement hallway location 
was shot with a scant 70 amps, of illu¬ 
mination. 

In one of the sequences shot within the 
tenement houses, a group of people is 
shown crowded into a hallway. Far in the 
background was a small bathroom. None 
of the conventional lighting units were 
small enough to light this set, so Gertz- 
man used and ordinary 150 watt kitchen 
bulb as the sole source of illumination. 

The night street scenes were shot using 
conventional floods up to the generator’s 
limit of 400 amps., and lights were set 
up in store windows, etc., in order to 
produce a realistic atmosphere of activity. 

Working so far from our studio 
facilities, we had to make every light 
count,” Gertsman explains. "When we 
had lighted our street scenes up to the 
400-amp. limit, we had to stop lighting 
units and shoot with the current available. 




174 


9 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 












It's amazing what results you can get 
when you know you have to make do 
with the equipment at hand. It’s a chal¬ 
lenge to the ingenuity to have to impro¬ 
vise in this way, but the result is often 
more natural and realistic.’’ 

There is no apparent lack of produc¬ 
tion value in "City Across the River,” 
however. On the contrary, the photo¬ 
graphy has the professional finesse that 
is characteristic of the best Hollywood 
product, together with an unvarnished 
realism that exactly fits the mood of the 
story. 

Gertsman, now engaged in shooting 
Partners in Crime” at Universal-Inter¬ 
national notes a parallel between his 
experiences on the documentary assign¬ 
ment and future trends in professional 
cinematography. "Time was when if 
some little thing went wrong on location, 
or if the weather wasn’t quite right, the 
whole company would sit around and 
wait until things returned to normal, 
meanwhile adding quite a chunk on to 
the budget. Nowadays, with economy 
very much a factor in the production of 
films, we can no longer afford to do this. 
The cameraman has to take whatever con¬ 
ditions exist and work around them, often 
in newsreel fashion. Sometimes, he can 
take what appears to be a technical dis¬ 
advantage and turn it into a device favor¬ 
able to the story. On my current assign¬ 
ment, for example, we were on location 
in San Francisco when it started to rain. 
Since the sequence was a highly dramatic 
one we proceeded to photograph it in the 
rain. As it turned out, the rain heightened 
the dramatic mood, and gave the scene 
real punch.” 

The cast and crew of Partners in 
Crime” recently returned from a location 
jaunt to Nogales, Mexico, where lengthy 
outdoor sequences were shot. All of the 
night exteriors were photographed in day¬ 
light using infra-red film, and since this 
was Gertsman’s first experience in the 
wide-scale use of this unusual film stock, 
he encountered many interesting prob¬ 
lems. 

First, it is a common axiom that infra¬ 
red film records graduations of black and 
white, not in terms of the color of the 
subject, but rather according to the 
amount of infra-red rays emitted by the 
subject. In making some preliminary tests 
to see how colors would record, Gerts¬ 
man photographed a navy blue coat 
having accessories of the same identical 
color—at least to the eye. As seen by the 
infra-red film, the coat recorded dark 
gray, the belt black and the buttons white. 
Gertsman was further amazed to note how 
a single incandescent lamp will "burn 
through” even when bucking a blazing 
sun, thus making realistic night shots 
easily available. 

As a director of photography, Maury 
Gertsman, A.S.C., is an able and versatile 





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May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


175 























And Members 


® Arthur Edeson, having completed 
supervising the making of release prints 
of Douglas Fairbanks’ "Thief Of Bag¬ 
dad,' ’ began shooting Jack Pickford’s lat¬ 
est production. 

• Reggie Lyons wound up the camera 
work on J. Stuart Blackton’s Vitagraph 
production, "Between Friends," based on 
the Robert Chambers story. 

® John Dored was jailed in Russia for 
shooting burial of Lenin in Moscow. The 
complete story of his experience later 
appeared in the May, 1924 American 
Cinematographer. 

9 John Seitz returned from Europe 
where he had been filming "The Arab," 
for Rex Ingram 

® Gaetano Gaudio was elected presi¬ 
dent of the A.S.C. Also elected were Gil 
Warrenton, Karl Brown and Homer Scott, 
vice - presidents; Charles J. Van Enger, 
treasurer; and Victor Milner, secretary. 

® Louis Tolhurst, collaborating with Sol 
Lesser, was preparing to shoot a feature- 
length microscopic film study of insect 
life for theatrical release, but with the 
educational release possibilities also in 
mind. Tolhurst had become famous for 
his "Secrets Of Life" series, an earlier 
micro-movie series. 

• Bert Glennon was being praised by 
critics for his outstanding cinematographic 
artistry on Cecil B. DeMille’s production 

Triumph" which he photographed fol¬ 
lowing DeMille’s successful "Ten Com¬ 
mandments." 

® Victor Milner was again behind the 
camera for Fred Niblo, this time shooting 
The Red Lily.” 

° H. Lyman Broening started shooting 
Being Respectable at Warner Brothers 
studios. Former cinematographer Phil 
Rosen directed the picture which featured 
Marie Prevost, Irene Rich, Louise Fazenda, 
Monte Blue, Ted Von Eltz and Sidney 
Bracy. 

® Max DuPont returned from an ex¬ 
tended stay in Tahiti, robust and raving 
about South Seas sunsets. 

° Herford Tynes Cowling was in India 
shooting scenes for an untitled picture. 
In those pre-Constellation days. Cowling 
transported himself and photographic 
equipment via elephant in covering re¬ 
mote areas with his camera. 

° Robert Newhard, who was being 
lauded for his camera work on "The 
Hunchback of Notre Dame,” directed by 
Wallace Worsley, was now shooting for 
Nell Shipman productions. 


craftsman who believes that a cameraman 
must be flexible enough to adapt his 
lighting and camera style to any type of 
assignment. 

On this point it is interesting to note a 
comparison between two of Gertsman’s 
recent pictures. "City Across the River” 
as we have pointed out, follows a docu¬ 
mentary treatment, utilizing photography 
that is graphic and realistic in its sim¬ 
plicity. In direct contrast is "Rogue’s 
Regiment,” filmed months earlier, which 
is a story of intrigue in the Orient. This 
unusual action drama is ripe with visual 
mood. In it, Gertsman used shadow for 
emphasis instead of light. The lighting 
was mostly low-key, subdued and mellow, 
perfectly tuned to a plot that constantly 
shifted moods from the sinister to the 
romantic. Wide-angle shots framed with 
foreground objects were used through¬ 
out to give depth to the sets and planes 
of action. In short, every dramatic device 
of lighting and camera angle was used to 
make the mood of "Rogue’s Regiment” 
faithful to its exotic plot and locale. 

The casual observer viewing these two 
films would hardly suspect they were 
photographed by the same man, for they 
represent completely opposite extremes 
in photographic styles. Yet each treatment 
is directly keyed to the subject which it 
is called upon to present. 

In setting forth his ideas on the role 
of the camera in production, Gertsman 
observes: "I feel that the story is the most 
important basic unit of the motion pic¬ 
ture, and everything that happens on the 
set should be for the purpose of inter¬ 
preting that story faithfully on the screen. 
Therefore, the camera should not call 
attention to itself as a device but should 
subordinate itself to the telling of the 
story. Camera movement, for example, is 
a powerful cinematic device but it should 
never be obtrusive.” 


TOMORROW’S TELEVISION 


(Continued from Page 166) 


rescent and incandescent lights with simple 
camera lens filters to abtain improved 
color response with image-orthicon tele¬ 
vision camera tubes. Because of the char¬ 
acteristics of camera tubes, he said, the 
color as well as the intensity and directiv¬ 
ity of the light used is an important factor. 
A light that appears bright to the eye, he 
explained, may be less efficient in terms of 
transmittable signal than another of a 
dafferent color characteristic. 

Mr. Brolly also dwelt on the subject of 
makeup for television live shows. "Purple 
lipstick and yellow rouge as makeup are 
no longer needed by television perform¬ 
ers,” he said, adding "that application of 
known principles of illumination can 
make possible natural effects without 


exaggerated or false makeup.” He stated 
that, to this time, the proper use of light¬ 
ing has not kept pace with the advance 
in other types of equipment used in tele¬ 
vision. 

That theatre television is a step closer 
to realization was revealed in the intro¬ 
duction at the convention of commercial 
models of theatre television equipment, 
greatly reduced in size and providing 
greatly improved images up to 15x20 feet. 
Such units, it was stated, probably will 
be in general production by the end of 
1949. RCA expects to be in a position 
to manufacture theatre television equip¬ 
ment based on the system demonstrated 
at the convention, in pilot-run quantities, 
possibly by December, 1949. It is expected 
that the price for a single unit without 
stand-by facilities will be less than $25,- 
000 . 

Hollywood’s film industry long has 
speculated on the effect theatre television 
will have on film production, whether it 
will greatly increase the making of motion 
pictures or whether feature film produc¬ 
tion will be sharply diminished by the 
advent of theatre video. 

Theatre television programming ap¬ 
pears to fall into two broad classes, one 
spokesman said. These are: 

I. Use of regular television broadcast 
material. 

II. So-called ’closed-circuit’ perform¬ 
ances in which a privately origi¬ 
nated program is fed to one or more 
theatres. 

"In the second case, some examples of 
originating sources might be: 

I. Live action in a studio from the 
stage of a theatre or from some 
public place such as a sports arena 
or a site of a political event. 

II. Motion picture film produced either 
in more or less regular fashion, or 
by Kinescope photography to ’store’ 
some program such as those de¬ 
scribed. 

In any case, program transmission 
might be by microwave relay, equalized 
telephone lines, coaxial cable, or some 
combination of these. 

In the meantime, while the S.M.P.E. 
dwelt on various phases of television at 
its east coast convention, an important 
advancement in the reception of television 
programs was being unveiled in Los An¬ 
geles. There, before a select group of rep¬ 
resentatives of the press and of the 
radio manufacturing industry, Pieter van 
den Berg, president of North American 
Philips Co., Inc., demonstrated his com¬ 
pany’s latest product—three component 
parts which may be used by any television 
set manufacturer to provide projection 
television on a standard 3 by 4 foot home 
movie screen. 

For the average home, he also demon¬ 
strated a console model receiver, utilizing 


176 • 


American Cinematographer 


• May, 1949 




























the Philips components, which provide a 
12 by 16 inch image on its built-in trans¬ 
lucent screen. The results of this projected 
television are so far superior to that 
viewed from the end of the conventional 
tube of ordinary television receivers as to 
suggest that development of present-day 
TV sets is comparable to the crystal set 
stage of early day radio. 

The adoption of the Philips projected 
image system to television receivers so 
greatly improves image quality that a lot 
of the difficulties presently being experi¬ 
enced in an effort to improve reception 
may easily lie within the receiver itself. 
For example, standing at a distance of 25 
feet from the Philips receiver, the 12 by 
16 inch image viewed was sharp and 
possessed almost 3-dimensional quality. 
Moreover, the usual distortion that ac¬ 
companies reception from direct-tube 
viewing was absent. 

It is the opinion of many who wit¬ 
nessed the Philips demonstrations that 
should major set manufacturers adopt the 
Philips equipment for their receivers, 
average reception quality would be so 
greatly improved as to give marked im¬ 
petus to increased use of films for tele¬ 
vision program material. 

It will be interesting, a year from now, 
to review the many forthright suggestions, 
discoveries and equipment improvements 
revealed, both in this demonstration and 
the S.M.P.E. convention, and to note the 
tremendous influence they had in further¬ 
ing television as the nation’s fastest grow¬ 
ing industry. 


CALIBRATION 
OF LENS MARKINGS 

(Continued from Page 163) 

More recently, this work has been ex¬ 
tended by Dr. Washer in a study of the 
errors in the marking of 20 lenses having 
focal length between 0.5 and 47.5 inches. 
During the investigation, it was found 
that the effective f/ number of the ideal 
lens can be readily determined for each 
of the marked stop openings if the light 
meter readings for a series of standard 
diaphragms (placed between the meter 
and a light source) are compared graph¬ 
ically with the meter readings for the 
range of diaphragm openings of the lens 
(Figure 1). Two curves of about the same 
slope are obtained by plotting the scale 
deflections of the light meter against (1) 
the effective f/ numbers or t/ numbers 
corresponding to the standard diaphragms 
and (2) the marked f/ numbers of the 
lens. The first curve will be a straight line 
since the plotted f/ numbers of the stan¬ 
dard diaphragms give an accurate indica¬ 
tion of the amount of light transmitted. 
The second curve, on the other hand, will 
not in general be a straight line unless the 
marked f/ numbers are accurate in terms 


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May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


177 






















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of light transmission or are affected by a 
constant error. The t/ number correspond¬ 
ing to a marked f/ number is then ob¬ 
tained by locating the point on the first 
curve where the scale deflection is the 
same as that for the given f/ number. 
The value of the abscissa for this point is 
the corresponding t/ number. An approxi¬ 
mate measure of the light losses within the 
lens my be obtained directly from the 
lateral displacement of the two curves. 

The errors in marking the stop num¬ 
bers of the lenses under study were also 
carefully investigated, with particular at¬ 
tention to those arising from errors in 
focal length and effective aperture, either 
separately or together. It was found that 
the magnitude of these errors was fre¬ 
quently as great as the difference between 
stop openings at the larger f/ numbers. 

In connection with this phase of the 
investigation, a method was developed 
for presenting all calibration information 
on a single graph {Figure 2). As loga¬ 
rithmic coordinate paper is used, the in¬ 
tervals between successive stop openings 
are equal and can be taken as the unit 
on each scale. The marked values of the 
f/ numbers (indicated by circles on the 
graph) and the values of the calibrated f/ 
numbers, or t/ numbers (indicated by 
crosses), are plotted against the true geo¬ 
metric f/ number (the quotient of meas¬ 


ured equivalent focal length and measured 
effective diameter of the stop opening). A 
straight line is drawn through the crosses, 
and a dotted diagonal line with unit slope 
is also drawn. If there are no errors in 
the marked f/ numbers—that is, if the 
indicated f/ number equals the true geo¬ 
metric f/ number—all the circles will fall 
on the dotted line. On the other hand, if 
the circles do not fall on the dotted line, 
the error in f/ number can be easily esti¬ 
mated from the curve as a fraction of the 
interval between stop openings. 

All of the crosses would also fall on the 
dotted line if the transmittance were 100 
percent. The displacement of a cross from 
the dotted line is thus a measure of the 
transmittance of the lens at that stop 
opening. If the crosses fall on a straight 
line parallel to the dotted line, the cali¬ 
bration is consistent and the measure¬ 
ment of the true geometric f/ number is 
correct. 


1 For further technical details, see Sources of 
error in and calibration of the f/ number of 
photographic lenses, by F. E. Washer, J. Re¬ 
search NBS 41, 301 (1948) RP1927. 

2 Compensation of the aperture ratio markings 
of a photographic lens for absorption, reflec¬ 
tion, and vignetting losses, by I. C. Gardner, 
J. Research NBS 38, 643 (1947) RP1803. 

3 Calibration system for photographic lenses, 
NBS Technical News Bulletin 31, 137 
(1947). 


HIGH SPEED CINERADIOGRAPHY 

(Continued from Page 164) 


exposures used were 1,000 times longer 
in duration. 

While this is the first step in the new 
development—known technically as high¬ 
speed cineradiography—the scientist be¬ 
lieves that a number of uses for it in 
medicine, industry and rocket research 
can be envisioned. 

He suggested, for example, that with 
modifications of the procedure physicians 
can capture on movie film visible evidence 
of the fastest-moving organs within hu¬ 
man bodies; orthopedists, chiropodists, 
and shoe manufacturers can get a moving 
pictorial record of feet in a running or 
walking action and, through simulated 
conditions in ground laboratories, physi¬ 
cians can study the bodily distortions 
fliers endure when they are catapulted 
out of speeding planes or when they make 
crash landings. 

In industry, the new technique may 
solve at least many of the mysteries of 
how metal is deposited from an arc weld¬ 
ing rod, and of how molten metal flows 
into a casting mold. X-rays, Dr. Slack 
explained, are unaffected by the strong 
light and fumes which obscure the con¬ 
ventional motion pictures made in visible 
light. 


In the field of feature film production, 
X-ray movies could supply interesting 
moments in documentary films on a wide 
number of subjects. 

As more powerful X-ray tubes are 
developed it may even be possible to 
inspect externally the internal action of 
airplane and automobile engines, which 
should result in smoother and safer engine 
performances. 

For the national defense, the technique 
will be used in analyzing the burning 
action of fuel in a rocket. The Bureau of 
Ordnance, U. S. Navy, sponsored the 
project for this purpose. 

Super-speed X-ray movies emerged 
from the same Westinghouse laboratory 
where Dr. Slack and his colleagues de¬ 
veloped an X-ray tube, making possible 
millionth-of-a-second X-ray still pictures, 
eight years ago. Equipment containing 
that tube was used in the atomic bomb 
development and for studies in ballistics 
during World War II. 

The motion picture referred to earlier 
was made by the so-called indirect 
method, one of two procedures possible 
with the new development. A floures- 
cent screen was placed behind the cruci¬ 
ble. Then a shutterless, oscillograph-type 


178 


o 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 









































movie camera photographed the powerful, 
instantaneous images produced on the 
screen by the X-ray equipment. Instead 
of the closing and opening of a slow- 
motion movie camera shutter 100 times a 
second, the individual exposures were 
controlled by the short-time flash of the 
X-ray tube, making a shutter unnecessary. 
Film used was Eastman recording ortho- 
chromatic negative which was subse¬ 
quently copied on Eastman Super-X 
16mm. film. 

The exposures, Dr. Slack explained, fol¬ 
lowed in rapid-fire order after one-hun¬ 
dredth of a second pauses to recharge 
the equipment powering the X-ray unit. 
The electronic tube used to make the 
exposures at such super speeds handles 
power pulses exceeding five million watts, 
1,000 times greater than that handled by 
X-ray tubes in most physician’s offices. 
A pulse transformer, similar to that used 
in radar sets, steps up a 20,000 volt con¬ 
denser discharge unit to the 150,000 volts 
required to flash the tube and make the 
exposure. 

The laboratory in which the X-ray 
movies were made is shown in the 
photographs. In Fig. 1, a technician is 
shown setting the stage preparatory to 
shooting the high-speed X-ray movies. 
The special camera is shown immediately 


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May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


179 


































U. S. Pat. No. 2260368 

GOERZ AMERICAN 
APOGOR 

F :2.3 


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(Continued from Page 168) 


must at the same time make sure that he 
is presenting the client’s message in the 
most forceful manner. If, for example, 
he is about to shoot a picture for a social 
agency, he will plan a documentary style 
which will accentuate the reality of the 
situations in the script. But, on the other 
hand, if he is called upon to film a pic¬ 
ture about fashions, perfumes or similar 
luxury goods, he will summon all the 
glossy tricks at his command in order to 
glamorize the subject. 

Showing what the client has to offer 
in a manner that is compelling often 
presents a problem. Sometimes there is 
very little that lends itself well to photog¬ 
raphy. Frequently, as in a film on some 
mechanical process, the important techni¬ 
cal action takes place within housings 
and sealed receptacles which can not be 
exposed for purposes of photography. In 
cases of this sort the cameraman is re¬ 
quired to use all of his originality to get 
the story across. Mechanical animation 
on celluloid or animated models are often 
the only means of coping with such 
situations. 

The cameraman should approach each 
new assignment with a fresh point of 
view and try to use some techniques that 
are a bit off the beaten path. Such orig¬ 
inality will do much to freshen up an 
otherwise static subject and will help 
build visual interest in the idea that is 
presented. The one limitation is that 
these unusual techniques should fit the 
subject and should not be so startling 
that they detract from the subject. 

Until recently the photoplay and the 
commercial subject were thought of as 
two separate media with nothing in com¬ 
mon. But now the trend is toward more 
dramatic handling of commercial subjects. 
This means that many photographic tech¬ 
niques of the photoplay can be applied 
to fine advantage in the commerical film. 
For this reason the commercial director 
of photography will do well to study the 
photographic handling of feature films 
and analyze them for effects that can be 
adapted to his own field of photography. 

Lighting is perhaps the most important 


element in the photography of any picture 
which includes interior scenes, since 
lighting can build or destroy the atmos¬ 
phere and mood of the film. Here, again, 
the key of lighting is dictated by the 
dramatic requirements of each sequence, 
plus fidelity to the source light that is 
indicated for that particular segment of 
action. 

Lighting can do much to dramatize 
even a dull industrial subject. In black and 
white, dramatic side- or back-lighting can 
be used to good advantage. In Koda- 
chrome, colored light strategically used 
can add actual beauty and pictorial force 
to static colorless machinery. Whether or 
not this treatment is permissible depends 
on whether the client wishes a flatly 
realistic representation of the subject (as 
is usually required in a scientific or train¬ 
ing film), or a cinematically forceful im¬ 
pression of industry in action. 

In photographing the commercial film 
the aim should be to keep the pace 
moving along at a good rate. This matter 
of pace is partially the responsibility of 
the director and the editor, but a great 
deal can be done by imaginative camera 
technique. Pan, tilt and dolly shots have 
movement of their own which, when 
properly applied, complement the action 
of the film and help to keep it "moving.” 
Shots of this type should be motivated 
when possible, but in the commercial film 
it is often permissible to use them for 
no other reason than to force movement 
into an otherwise static subject. It is, of 
course, assumed that all moving camera 
shots will be executed smoothly and with¬ 
out calling attention to the technique 
itself. 

Choice of lens and camera angle is 
especially important in the commercial 
film because the whole success of the 
picture may depend upon the manner 
in which the client’s product or service 
is shown on the screen. The cinematog¬ 
rapher cannot rely solely upon his artistic 
judgment in this regard, because the 
angle which he selects as being the most 
forceful from the composition standpoint 
may not be the one which shows details 


180 


e 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 















important to the client. The easiest way 
to solve this problem is to have a tech¬ 
nical adviser from the client’s staff on the 
set at all times to pass on each set-up 
as it is photographed. 

The wide-angle lens is a boon to the 
commerical cinematographer for several 
reasons. First, it enables him to get ade¬ 
quate coverage on small sets or in situa¬ 
tions in which he is unable to get back 
far enough from the subject to get a real 
long shot. Also, by allowing him to work 
closer to his subject and still get adequate 
coverage, it makes possible the closer 
placement of lights with a consequent 
reduction in the amount of light required. 
Highly dramatic composition of other¬ 
wise static industrial subjects may also 
be achieved with the wide angle lens. 

The closeup really comes into its own 
in the commerical motion picture, be¬ 
cause invariably there is a great deal of 
detail which can only be shown to best 
advantage when the camera moves in very 
close. Rarely can there be too many 
closeups in a well-made commercial film, 
provided that the cameraman re-estab¬ 
lishes his subject adequately from time 
to time. Moreover, from the cinematic 
standpoint, closeups are pictorially force¬ 
ful and add much to the impact of the 
film. 

At first glance, the script for a com¬ 
mercial film may not seem to offer much 
for the imaginative cameraman to work 
with, but there is always some phase of 
any subject which can be built up pic¬ 
torially and made visually forceful on the 
screen. There is a definite sort of beauty 
in industry: smokestacks puffing against 
the sky, the glow of blast furnaces, whirl¬ 
ing machines, etc.—and all of these lend 
themselves to pictorial dramatization by 
the motion picture camera. The cine¬ 
matographer should look closely at his 
subject, discard the idea that he is making 
a straight "nuts and bolts" picture, and 
concentrate on presenting the client’s 
subject in the most forceful and visually 
attractive manner possible. 


TELEVISION FILM CENTER 


(Continued from Page 165) 

a plan whereby all aspects of set lighting 
will be prepared in advance of shooting. 
This will be done to save as much time 
as possible when camera and crew moves 
into a "cold" set. Obviously this will make 
for considerable time-saving and, of 
course, clip plenty dollars from produc¬ 
tion costs. In most cases, it is possible to 
shoot all the interiors on a given picture 
in a single day. "Invariably we shoot 
twice as many setups in a day for tele¬ 
vision films as is general practice in mo¬ 
tion picture production," said Stine. 

"Television film production, as prac- 



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May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


e 


181 




















need on the Roach lot, requires close 
planning, quick decisions and no lost mo¬ 
tion,” Stine said, adding "There is no 
time for the tempermental. We have 
developed fine teamwork and this makes 
possible the low-cost production vital for 
television films.” 

Pre-production conferences between 
producer, cameraman, gaffer, grips and 
others connected with each production is 
common practice, and this, according to 
Stine, contributes to the smooth running 
of the team, once shooting on a picture 
starts. 

The Roach & Beaudette organization 
naturally has made wide study of the im¬ 
portance of lighting to quality of TV 
films. Stine, of course, has been an im¬ 
portant figure in these studies and was the 
first to point out the necessity for sub¬ 
duing the intensity of highlights and 
white areas in a television picture. View¬ 
ing the picture from the face of the tele¬ 
vision tube, the video viewer observes 
that the whites and highlights are often 
much too bright. This is because the 
viewer is not looking at a picture that is 
reflected from a screen but is seeing a 
picture under much the same conditions 
he would if viewing a movie on a trans¬ 
lucent screen, where the highlights come 
through much stronger. 

"Because of this,” Stine points out, 
"it is important to tone down all white 
areas and highlights in films made for 
television so these areas will not burn 
through’ in the televised picture.” 

Much has been said since the advent 
of films for television about following 
a checkerboard” pattern in the overall 
composition of scenes; but Stine feels this 
can easily be overdone with consequent 
disasterous results. Scenes for television 
films must be kept as simple as posible, 
said Stine, and instead of retaining the 
balance of lighting normally used in fea¬ 
ture film production, it is important to 
keep more definite separation between 
background and foreground objects—be¬ 
tween the players and what lies behind 
them. 

Instead of following the 'checkboard' 
pattern,” said Stine, "I believe it is better 
to avoid any form of sharp contrast in 
background patterns; to keep the walls 
in a moderate tone and to use light and 
shadows with discretion.” 

On the subject of makeup, Stine says 
recent studies show that most players in 
TV films should use darker makeup than 
they normally would for feature films. 
This results in better rendition on the 
TV receiver and avoids the washing out 
of features that has characterized so many 
early films made for television. 

Hollywood’s potential as the television 
center of the world can scarcely be dis¬ 
counted, in light of the wealth of techni¬ 
cal talent available there, and especially 
with such men as Clifford Stine, members 


of the American Society of Cinematog¬ 
raphers, and other technical groups pursu¬ 
ing exploratory studies in the field of 
television film production, and at the 
same time contributing the benefit of their 
findings to the television industry. 

As to the future of the television film 
industry, Stine points to a recent develop¬ 
ment which may open up a tremendous 
field for television films. "One equipment 
manufacturer has just announced what it 
terms its basic buy’ in packaged TV 
transmitters,” Stine said. "This is a com¬ 
plete 500 watt television broadcast station 
made to operate with films and on coaxial 
cable network to start. Priced to sell in the 
neighborhood of $75,000, these packaged 
transmitters are certain to result soon in a 
marked increase in the number of tele¬ 
vision stations, especially in areas not 
served at present with video. And when 
one considers that films will make up the 
bulk of the program material for these 
stations it is easy to contemplate extent of 
the demands that eventually will be made 
on Hollywood for television films.” 


PRODUCTION METHODS 
COMPARED 


(Continued from Page 163) 


before anything else is done on a picture, 
to decide just what audience I’m aiming 
at, and then to keep my eye on that tar¬ 
get from that moment on. But it is ob¬ 
viously uneconomic to shoot for a small 
audience, and a motion picture costing 
some hundreds of thousands of dollars, 
which has taken the efforts of one hun¬ 
dred or perhaps two hundred men, has 
no more business directing its appeal 
toward people with a special knowledge 
of film-making than exclusively towards, 
say, Seventh Day Adventists, or Atomic 
Research scientists, or Chicago meat- 
packers. 

Now what of the actual techniques of 
picture making? I happen to have a lik¬ 
ing, for instance, for a roving camera be¬ 
cause I believe, as do so many other di¬ 
rectors, that a moving picture should 
really move. And I have definite ideas 
about the use of cuts and fadeouts which, 
improperly handled, can remind the au¬ 
dience of the unreality of our medium 
and take them away from the plot. But 
those are personal prejudices of mine. I 
do not try to bend the plot to fit tech¬ 
nique; I adapt technique to the plot. And 
that’s the impotrant thing. A particular 
camera angle may give a cameraman—or 
even a director—a particular satisfying ef¬ 
fect. The question is, dramatically, is it 
the best way of telling whatever part of 
the story it’s trying to tell? If not, out it 
goes. 

The motion picture is not an arena for 
a display of techniques. It is, rather, a 


method of telling a story in which tech¬ 
niques, beauty, the virtuosity of the cam¬ 
era, everything must be sacrificed or com¬ 
promised when it gets in the way of the 
story itself. 

An audience is never going to think to 
itself: "what magnificent work with the 
boom” or "that dolly is very nicely han¬ 
dled”; they are interested in what the 
characters on the screen are doing, and 
it’s a director’s job to keep the audience 
interested in that. Technique that calls it¬ 
self to the audience’s attention is poor 
technique. The mark of good technique is 
that it is unnoticed. 

Even within a single picture, techniques 
should vary, even though the over-all 
method of handling the story, the style, 
must remain constant. It is, for instance, 
obvious that audience concentration is 
higher at the beginning of a picture than 
at the end. The act of sitting in one place 
must eventually induce a certain lassitude. 
In order that that lassitude should not be 
translated into boredom or impatience, it 
is often necessary to speed up things a 
little towards the end, particularly towards 
the end of a long picture. 

This means more action and less talk, 
or, if talk is essential, speeches ought to 
be short, and a little louder and more 
forceful than they would be if the same 
scene were played earlier in the picture. 
Putting it bluntly, it’s sometimes necessary 
to ham things up a bit. This rule was rec¬ 
ognized very early in the picture business, 
and the old-timers used to say: "when in 
doubt, get louder and faster.” They were 
putting it a bit crudely, but perhaps the 
rule still applies. 

It takes a certain amount of tact, of 
course, to induce a good actor to over-act; 
and this is another argument in favor of 
shooting pictures more or less in sequence, 
because, once you have edged an actor 
into over-acting, it is, sadly enough, en¬ 
tirely impossible to edge him back again. 

Direction, of course, is a matter of de¬ 
cisions. If it were possible to lay down a 
hard and fast rule that would cover all the 
decisions, all directors would be out of 
work. I shudder to think of that, but for¬ 
tunately it’s impossible. 

The important thing is that the director 
makes his decisions when the need for 
them arises, and operates with as few rules 
as possible. The fewer rules you have, the 
fewer times you’ll have to experience the 
unhappiness of breaking them. 


Reprinted from The Cine Technician (Lon¬ 
don ), courtesy of the publishers. 






182 


o 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 




CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS 

(Continued from Page 156) 

M-G-M Contd. 

• Marcel LePiCARD, Forgotten Wo¬ 
men,” with Elyse Knox, Theodora Lynch, 
Allen Hale, Jr., and Veda Ann Borg. Wm. 
Beaudine, director. 

• Harry Neumann, "Range Rogues,” 
with Jimmy Wakeley, Cannonball Taylor, 
Gail Davis and Tom London. Oliver 
Drake, director. 

Paramount 

• George Barnes, File On Thelma Jor¬ 
dan,” (Hal Wallis Prodn.) with Barbara 
Stanwyck, Wendell Corey, Paul Kelly, 
Joan Tetzel and John Bromfield. Robert 
Siodmak, director. 

° Leo Tover, "My Friend Irma,” (Hal 
Wallis Prodn.) with Marie Wilson, John 
Lund, Dianna Lynn, Don DeFore, Dean 
Martin and Jerry Lewis. George Marshall, 
director. 

• Ernest Laszlo, "Riding High,” with 
Bing Crosby, Coleen Gray, Charles Bick¬ 
ford, Frances Gifford, William Demarest 
and Clarence Muse. Frank Capra, director. 

® Charles Lang, "Copper Canyon,” 
(Technicolor) with Ray Milland, Hedy 
LaMarr, MacDonald Carey, Mona Free¬ 
man and Harry Carey, Jr. John Farrow, 
director. 

• John Seitz, 'Sunset Boulevard,” with 
William Holden, Gloria Swanson, Erich 
von Stroheim and Nancy Olson. Billy 
Wilder, director. 

• John Alton, Captain China,” (Pine 
& Thomas) with John Payne, Gail Rus¬ 
sell, Jeffrey Lynn, Edgar Bergen, Lon 
Chaney, Michael O’Shea and John Qualen. 
Lewis R. Foster, director. 

R. K. 0. 

• Harry Wild, "The Big Steal,” with 
Robert Mitchum, Jane Greer, William 
Bendix, Patric Knowles, Ramon Navarro 
and John Qualen. Don Siegel, director. 

• Joe Valentine, "Love Is Big Busi¬ 
ness,” with Claudette Colbert, Robert 
Young, George Brent and Max Baer. 
William D. Russell, director. 

• Nick Musuraca, "Renegade of the 
Rancho,” with Tim Holt, Richard Mann, 
Edward Norris and Movita. Lesley Sel- 
ander, director. 

• Nick Musuraca, "I Married A Com¬ 
munist,” with Robert Ryan, Laraine Day, 
John Agar, Thomas Gomez and Janis 
Carter. Robert Stevenson, director. 

Republic 

• Lee Garmes, A Strange Caravan,” 
(Title since changed to "The Fighting 
Kentuckian”) with John Wayne, Vera 
Ralston, Philip Dorn, Oliver Hardy, Marie 




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May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


o 


183 



















































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American Cinematographer 
HANDBOOK 


Source of QUICK ANSWERS to such questions 
as: “What is the angle of view of my 25mm. 
lens?” “What’s the depth of focus of my 
50mm. lens at 12 feet?” “How much film will 
a 30 second take consume at 24 f.p.s.?” 
“What’s the Weston daylight rating of Ansco 
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Windsor, John Howard, Grant Withers. 
George Waggner, director. 

20th Century-Fox 

• Joseph LaSHELLE, ” Everybody Does 
It,” with Linda Darnell, Celeste Holm, 
Paul Douglas and Charles Coburn. Ed¬ 
mund Goulding, director. 

® Lloyd Ahern, "Father Was A Full¬ 
back,” (Technicolor) with Fred Mac- 
Murray, Maureen O’Hara, Betty Lynn, 
Rudy Vallee, Thelma Ritter and Natalie 
Wood. Elliott Nugent, director. 

° Joe Macdonald, "Pinky,” with Jeanne 
Crain, William Lundigan, Ethel Waters 
and Basil Ruysdael. Elia Kazan, director. 
® Harry Jackson, "Bandwagon,’’(Tech¬ 
nicolor) with William Powell, Mark 
Stevens, Betsy Drake and Jean Hersholt. 
Irving Reis, director. 

• Milton Krasner, "Three Came 
Home," with Claudette Colbert, Alan 
Marshall and Florence Desmond. Jean 
Negulesco, director. 

° Leon Shamroy, "Twelve O’clock 
High,” (Shooting In Florida) with Gre¬ 
gory Peck, Millard Mitchell, Hugh Mar¬ 
lowe, Paul Stewart, Gary Merrill and Dean 
Jagger. Henry King, director. 

United Artists 

° Lionel Lindon, "Quicksand,” 
(Rooney - Stiefel, Inc.) with Mickey 
Rooney, Jeanne Cagney, Barbara Bates, 
Peter Lorre, Patsy O’Connor. 


Universal-International 

• Irvinc, Glassberg, "Sword In The 
Desert,” (Technicolor) with Dana An¬ 
drews, Marta Toren, Stephen McNally, 
Hugh French, Jeff Chandler and Liam 
Redmond. George Sherman, director. 

• Frank Planer, "Come Be My Love,” 
(Neptune Films) with Robert Montgom¬ 
ery, Ann Blyth, Jane Cowl, Chas. McGraw. 
Robert Montgomery, director. 

• Maury Gertsman, " Partners In 
Crime,” with Howard Duff, Dan Duryea, 
Shelly Winters, Gar Moore and John Mc- 
Intire. William Castle, director. 

Warner Brothers 

• Ted McCord, "The Octopus And Miss 
Smith," with Jane Wyman, Dennis Mor¬ 
gan, Allyn Joslyn, Eve Arden, Fred Clark, 
Ray Montgomery and Lina Romay. 
Michael Curtiz, director. 

• Wilfred Cline, "Always Sweethearts,” 
(Technicolor) with Shirley Temple, Barry 
Fitzgerald, Lon McCallister and Alan 
Hale. David Butler, director. 

® Carl Guthrie, "Barricade," with Dan 
Clark, Raymond Massey and Robert 
Douglas. Peter Godfrey, director. 

• Peverell Marley, " Return of the 
Frontiersman,” (Technicolor) with Gor¬ 
don MacRae, Rory Calhoun, Julie London 
and Fred Clark. Richard Bare, director. 


WHAT’S NEW ^ 

accessories and service 


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Producers Service Co., Burbank, Calif., 
announces a radically new synchronous 
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that provides a selection of fixed speeds 
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Ampro “Compact” 

1000 watt lamp; 2000 ft. reels; and has 
rotating type sound drum. Removable 
front and rear covers facilitates servicing. 

Projector Stand 

A new portable projector stand for use 
in showing home movies is offered by the 
S & D Mfg. Co., 220 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 
When not in use, stand folds up to suit- 






184 


American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 

























Collapsible Projector Stand 


case size, holds reels of film and can be 
carried anywhere. Three collapsible tubu¬ 
lar legs with rubber tips support a table 
top 15"x20". A friction control lock in¬ 
sures against any slipping while unit is in 
use. 

Model A for silent and small sound 
projectors, offering storage for one empty 
reel and six 400-foot 8mm. reels or four 
400-foot 16mm. reels, sells for $28.50. 
Model B, for heavy sound projectors, sells 
for $36.50. 


Hallen Magnetic Recorder 

Simultaneously with announcement of 
the company’s reorganization, Hallen 
Corporation announces a new, improved 
model of the Hallen synchronous mag¬ 
netic film recorder. New model boasts im¬ 
proved amplifier and motors of special 
design which insure absolute synchronous 
operation, according to Hal Powell. Com¬ 
pany head. The Hallen recorder is meet¬ 
ing new trend for recording sound films 
magnetically instead of optically, provid¬ 
ing instant playback of picture sound 
tracks. Also announced is appointment of 
The Camera Mart, New York City, as 
exclusive Hallen distributor. 


Movie Titles 

Title Craft, 1022 Argyle, Chicago, 
whose titles were formerly marketed 
through Bell & Howell Company, now 
offer 8mm. and 16mm. titles direct to con¬ 
sumer. A wide variety of background ef¬ 
fects are available and fades and disolves 
may be had. A free folder is available 
showing samples and giving full details of 
service and prices. 


SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE 

110 Volt A. C., Single Phase, 60 Cycle 


for the 

E. K. Cine Special 



This motor will run in synchronization with 
either 16mm. or 35mm. sound recorders. It is 
provided with mounting platform which permits 
removal of magazine while camera remains 
mounted on motor. 

Drive coupling attaches to single-frame shaft of 
camera and is mated to spring-steel drive arm 
of motor gear box. This assures that camera 
mechanism cannot be damaged if a film jam 
occurs as the spring steel arm drive will shear. 
This is easily replaced. 

A knurled knob on motor armature permits rotat¬ 
ing for threading. “On-Off” switch built into 
base. Platform base threaded for l/p' and %” 
camera tie-down screws. Rubber covered cable 
with plugs included. 


Price $150 . . . 

Immediate Delivery 

4 

FRANK C 

. ZUCKER 

(7flm€RH~G 

duipitkiit (o. 

1600 BROROtUfla 

\ n€UJ aORK CIT9 * 


AKELEY CAMERA, Inc. 

175 Varick Street 
New York 14, New York 

—Established 1914— 

Designers and manufacturers of silent 
and sound motion picture cameras 
with 225° shutter opening, (288° 
shutter opening for television use), 
gyro tripods and precision instruments. 

Complete engineering and machine 
shop facilities for experimental work, 
model and production runs. 

Inquiries Invited 


PROFESSIONAL 
VIEWFINDER 
FOR 
16 MM. 

CAMERAS 

Shows large, erect image, corrected from left 
to right, on ground glass. 

Shown above as used on the Cine Special. Model 
available for your camera, too. Professionalize 
your camera—improve your photography and 
composition. Write for details and price, stating 
make and model of camera used. 

Attractive Discounts to Dealers 

Maier-Hancock Corp. 

12270 Montague St. Pacoima, Calif. 



ART REEVES’ NEW ADDRESS: 

ART REEVES MOTION PICTURE EQUIPMENT 
AND CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY 
7512 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood 46, Calif. 


Only Art Reeves Can Sell The New Model 

SENSITESTER 

Will Handle Modern Fine Crain Film. 


Price Reduced 

General Motors and Henry Kaiser are 
dropping prices and I am doing the same,” 
says Joseph Yolo, in announcing reduc¬ 
tion in price of his automatic dissolve for 
Cine Special cameras from $60.00 to 
$54.00. Device permits making profes- 
sional-like dissolves right in the camera. 


Wtr t* [? MOTION PICTURE 
x 16"" PRINTERS 8 MM 

CONTINUOUS-STEP-REDUCTION 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE LITERATURE 

UHLER MaJUusCS. 

16519 WASHBURN AVE. DETROIT21,MICH 



GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 


164 N. Wticker Dr., Dept. A , Chicago 6, III. 


May, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


185 




































Classified Advertising 

BATF?* Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per agate line (12 agate lines per inch). 
* ““ ’ No discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE 

BASS SAYS: 


Get ’em cold . . . Get ’em hot! 

For satisfaction, BASS is the spot! 

New 1" Eymax F:4 in Eyemo C mount.$ 32.50 

100mm. Cooke Deep Field Panchro coated 
F:2.5 in foe. Eyemo C mt. List $487.50, 

Net ...-.$255.50 

Eyemo Model A-4A, fitted with 1" F:4.5, 

2" F:2.8. 6" F:4.5, 10 F:4.5, optical 

variable finder and case.$57 5.00 

Akeley, complete with Akeley Gyro tripod, 

5 mags., matched pair of F:3.5 lenses 

and 6" Telephoto.$425.00 

Eyemo, single lens, 3 speeds including 24, 

F:2.5 lens, Case.$225.00 

DeVry Automatic 35mm. with F:3.5 lens 

and case.$ 87.50 

WRITE BASS FIRST 


BASS CAMERA COMPANY, 170 W. MADISON ST. 
CHICAGO 2, ILL. 


NOW—HALF PRICE 

35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


FOR SALE: ONE—Maurer 16mm. Recording outfit 
consisting of: Model 10 Recorder, Model 60 
Amp., Model 70 Power Supply, Voltage Regu¬ 
lator, all necessary cables, set of spare tubes, 
TWO—16" Dual Speed Turntables with pickups, 
Bell and Howell Master Projector with sync, 
drive., 4 Shure Super Cardiod Mies., ONE—4 
Channel Pre-Amp. for use in conj. with Maurer 
Model 60 Amp. Up to 5 microphones, 2 turn¬ 
tables and 2 film phonographs may be used. 
Playback and monitor amplifier and loud speak¬ 
er, 1 mic. boom, 2 floor stands, 1 desk stand, 
ONE—8 x 10' perforated screen, ONE—control 
box for starting recorder and camera and pro¬ 
jector at the same time. ONE—16mm. projector 
and editor for matching picture and sound, 1 
film phono. Will sell ONE—16mm. Ampro Arc 
Projector with 13x16 Matt Screen separately. 
Box 1057, AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm. EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910 . 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera & Film Exchange, 68 West 48th Street, 
New York 19, N. Y. 


MITCHELL Combination Matte-Box & Sunshade, 
like new, $165.00. Mitchell Variable-speed mo¬ 
tor with tachometer, $275.00. M. Markmann, 
7217 South Yates, Chicago, Illinois. 


IMMEDIATE DELIVERY on Polaroid Land Camera 
also Stereo Realist. CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 
No. Cahuenga, Hollywod 28, HEmpstead 7373. 


CHAIRS FOR THEATRES, Cafes, Restaurants. New. 
$10.00 each. Bovilsky, 1061 Lara Street, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 


FOR SALE 


M.C.M CAMERA ROLAMBULATOR DOLLY, Pre¬ 
cision, Ball Bearing, Pan Tilt Controls, Weight 
700 lbs. Cost $6,000.00. Barain $1,500.00 

H-C-E 1 6 M M . SPECIAL EFFECTS OPTICAL 
PRINTER, Features: Bell & Howell Projector, 
Model A Eastman Camera, 42" Lathe Bed, 500- 
Ohm Dimmer, Foot Switch, Motor, Microscope, 
Cost $5,000.00. A Gift at $1,500.00. 

35MM. BELL & HOWELL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND 
CAMERA. Four Quality Speed Lenses, Two 1000- 
ft. Magazines, Freehead, Tripod, Ready-to-oper- 
ate, Price $3,750.00. 

LIKE-NEW 16MM. AURICON SOUND CAMERA, 
SINGLE AND DOUBLE SYSTEM RECORDINGS. 
Outfit complete, New Guarantee, Price 
$2,313.60. 

ANIMATION STAND, SUITABLE FOR EITHER 
35MM. OR 16MM. Heavy Steel Construction, 
Precision Machine, Weight 1500 pounds. Price 
$2,350.00. 

35MM. EYEMOS, ARRIFLEX AND OTHER TYPES 
OF CAMERAS, MOTION PICTURES LENSES, 
MOUNTED AND UNMOUNTED, AT REDUCED 
PRICES. 

HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANCE 

1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood 


SURPLUS FILM ROLLERS 

16mm. Bakelite, 3i/ 4 " O.D. %" shaft hole. 15c 
each 1 - 1000. Sample 25c postpaid. Plastic 
upper & lower brackets, Air Squeegees, SS Ball 
Bearings, SS Pumps, other lab mach. parts. 

Complete lab. engineering service. 

Wall Labs., 4722 68th St., San Diego 5, Calif. 


PHOTOGRAPHERS 


TO PRODUCERS 

A NORWEGIAN director of cinematography with 
equipment A.A.-l, both 35 and 16mm., can un¬ 
dertake your coverage on people, places, events, 
and B.P. process film, “in Scandinavia.” 

International Film Service, A.S., 

P. C. Jonson 

5, Lille Crensen, Oslo, Norway 


Your classified ad on this 
page reaches more buying 
prospects for motion pic¬ 
ture photographic equip¬ 
ment and supplies than 
any other medium. 


CLASSIFIED RATES 
10 cents a word 
Minimum 10 words 


Mail Remittance 
and Copy to 

AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
1782 N. Orange Drive 
Hollywood 28, Calif. 


PHOTOGRAPHERS 


SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Mitchell 16mm. Professional camera equipped with 
1200 foot film magazines for continuous film¬ 
ing, available for rent with operator to 16mm. 
producers. Write for rates. 

Walter Porep 
Sportsreel Productions 
1114 Carleton St. 

Berkeley, California 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


100 PACE Sturelab Catalog Ready—Sent free to 
Film Producers, Lab Technicians, Recording En¬ 
gineers and CineMen. Everything for studio, lab¬ 
oratory & cutting room. New 16mm. Sound Print¬ 
ers, $585.00; split 35mm. Tape Recorders, 
$1500.00; Composite Sound Moviola $495.00; 
Schustek 35/1 6mm. Reduction Printer, $1250.00; 
Arriflex Newsreel Camera, 4 lenses, complete, 
$795.00; Stop Watch Film Timer, $24.75; Cine- 
phone 35mm. Recorder, $495.00; Neumade com¬ 
bination 16/35mm. Automatic Film Cleaner, 
$350.00 value, $194.50; Giant Spotlite Tripods 
8 ' high, $9.95; Bardwell 5000W floodlites, 
$111.75; 1/12-HP Synchronous Motor, $39.50; 
Houston 16mm. Developers, $3485.00. Dept, f— 
S. O. S. CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORATION, 602 
W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


ROGER CAMERA TIMER 

for automatic operation of (any) camera and 
light for TIME-LAPSE CINEMATOGRAPHY and 
ANIMATION as used by many organizations 
since 1 5 years. 

SETTINGS: 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Exp. per Hour 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Exp. per minute 
and faster, also single frame push 
button. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook, Connecticut 


EQUIP. WANTED 


WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B & H, EYEMO, DEBRIE, AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


“WANTED” 

Mitchell - Akeley - B & H 
Wall - Eyemo 

Cameras - Lenses - Equipment 

NATIONAL CINE EQUIPMENT, INC. 
20 West 22nd Street 
New York 10, New York 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 


186 




American Cinematographer 


May, 1949 

















































The Armat Vitascope which projected the 
first theater movie, April 23, 1896. 


With this, the “unseen showman” 
got his epoch-making start... 


T HE projectionist has come a 
long, long way . . . since the 
1890’s when he put on his show 
with equipment such as this. 

And today, as then, much of a 
motion picture’s success depends 
upon the unseen showman in 
his booth. 

To his sure sense of split' 
second timing ... to his alert 
control of sound ... to his deft 


handling of elaborate equipment 
. . . the film illusion owes much 
of its dramatic, realistic presen¬ 
tation on the screen. 

Helping the projectionist to 
keep the mechanics of the me¬ 
dium from intruding is the top 
quality of Eastman motion pic¬ 
ture films (both sight and sound) 
. . . members of a famous family 
started more than fifty years ago. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
FORT LEE • CHICAGO • HOLLYWOOD 














IN 16mm PERFORMANCE, 
IN NEW FLEXIBILITY, IN B&H DEPENDABILITY 


You take a professional picture . . . you show a professional 
picture . . . when your personal camera and projector are 
a Bell & Howell matched pair, made for each other! 

You, of all the people who make movies, know the 
greater artistic satisfaction—and the true economy—that 
you achieve with matched, precision-made equipment. 
B&H Filmos give you dependable protection for your film, 
too, plus a flexibility in use that makes you the master of 
the widest variety of photographic situations. That’s why 
you will discover new pleasure and lasting new enjoyment 
when you “work for pleasure” with a Filmo perfect pair. 

The two perfect pairs shown here, and other matched 
Filmos, are at your camera dealer’s now. See them soon! 
Or write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick Road, 
Chicago 45. 



NEW ACADEMY FILMOSOUND, 16mm sound film pro¬ 
jector, offers the same outstanding advantages of the New 
One-Case Filmosound, but is equipped with an 8-inch 
speaker in a separate, streamlined case . . . for handling 
larger audiences. Complete flexibility is offered by 12-inch 
and 25-watt power speakers, available as required. With the 
8-inch speaker, this improved Filmosound provides double 
the sound output of any other make of lightweight projector, 
yet it is now priced at only $495. 

FILMO 70-DA CAMERA is the 16mm camera choice of ad¬ 
vanced workers, both amateur and professional, the world 
over. With a 3-lens turret head, and seven operating speeds, 
the Filmo 70-DA loads with 100-foot film spools. As with 
every Filmo Camera, what you see, you get! Equipped with a 
1" FI.9 Filmocoted lens only, now $295 plus tax. 




NEW ONE-CASE FILMOSOUND, always a wonderful buy, is now 
a better 16mm sound projector than ever before! Outstanding ad¬ 
vances include new aluminum sound head to reduce noise radiation 
. . . new pre-aligned exciter lamp, matching in precision performance 
the famous B&H pre-aligned projection lamp . . . improved ventila¬ 
tion through new-type louvers . . . new reel arms that attach or 
detach in a jiffy . . . new lightness in weight. Higher undistorted 
sound output than any other lightweight sound projector. Six-inch 
speaker may be used in projector, or removed and placed near 
screen. For larger halls, 8-inch, 12-inch, and 25-watt power speakers 
are available. With 6-inch speaker, an outstanding value at only $449! 

FILMO AUTO MASTER CAMERA. Three-lens turret. Positive view¬ 
finders turn with the turret, always match lens in use. Five operating 
speeds include 64 frames per second for slow motion. Single-frame 
exposure control for animation tricks. Built-in exposure guide covers 
all films, all outdoor conditions. With 1" FI.9 lens only, $285 plus tax. 



EVERY FILMO IS GUARANTEED FOR LIFE. During life of 
product, any defects in workmanship or material will be 
remedied free (except transportation). 




Precision-Made by 


Bell £ Howell 


Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 




















$3.00 YEARLY IN U. S 


x.v.^Vv;.\‘; 
>,% « ♦ *.♦ * * ** » .* . 


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JUNE 

1949 


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4 


PRINT MADE ON STANDARD 
CHLORO-BROMIDE PAPER 



PRINT MADE ON "VARIGAM" VARI¬ 
ABLE CONTRAST PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 
Filter # 10 was used for printing lower 
portion. Filter #2 for printing upper 
portion. Two different contrasts obtained 
in a single sheet of paper. 


You’ll Get What 


You Want with . . . 



VARIGAM* 


Both prints were made from the same negative! 

Think of the unlimited possibilities within your 
reach! In a single sheet of paper, with easy-to- 
use filters, you can obtain any one of ten con¬ 
trasts. The illustration shows combination of 
contrasts. Without filters you use "Defender" 
"Varigam'' as a normal contrast paper. 



Eliminate storage of extra grades of contrast 
... a big saving in the long run. Have the right 
paper on hand when you need it. 

Try "Varigam'' in any of the five popular sur¬ 
faces. You'll be amazed with its economy . . . 
versatility . . . and quality. 

E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS & CO., (INC.) 

Photo Products Department, Wilmington 98, Delaware 

In Canada, Canadian Industries Ltd., 

912 New Birks Building, Montreal, P. Q. 


TUNE IN "CAVALCADE OF AMERICA " 
MONDAY EVENINGS-NBC-COAST TO COAST 


BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 
.. .THROUGH CHEMISTRY 


* TRADE MARK REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 





















For amateur or professional, here’s a new-type splicer . . . 
for 16mm or 8mm . . . sound or silent . . . color or black- 
and-white film. Gives you a film-saving straight cut at the 
frame line. And lowest visibility. Splice is only .070" wide! 

Beautifully compact, the new FILMO-PRO is a versa¬ 
tile, one-operation, semi-automatic machine occupying 
only 7h2"x7Jd}"x4-H"of bench space, and weighing but 
five pounds. Will take B&H Heavy-duty 16mm Rewinds, 
as shown above. 

Innovations on the FILMO-PRO include a Carboloy- 
tipped scraper . . . good indefinitely, without resharpening. 
Blade-holder and support arm are integral parts of the 
machine. No need to pick up scraper block manually. After 
cement is applied, FILMO-PRO shears both ends of the 
film and applies mechanical pressure automatically. Heater 
in the base shortens setting time. After scraping, simply 
release scraper support. Both hands remain free for wind¬ 
ing film and clamping scraper blades. 

New FILMO-PRO Splicers are available for shipment 
now. Write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick 
Road, Chicago 45. Branches in New York, Hollywood, 
and Washington, D. C. 


Precision-Made by 


B&H PROFESSIONAL PORTABLE . . . 35mm-16mm 

Straight-across frame line cut, 
base heater, Carboloy-tipped 
scraper blades... all the outstand¬ 
ing features of the FILMO- 
PRO Splicer (above) have been 
adapted to 35mm-16mm editing 
in this new . . . and portable pro¬ 
fessional model. Occupies lOLj" 
x 8Y 2 " x 4%" of bench space. 
Weighs only 12]^ pounds. Write 
for full details today! 


B&H AUTOMATIC FILM SPLICING MACHINES ARE AVAIL¬ 


ABLE IN 7 MODELS TO ACCOMMODATE ANY REQUIREMENT 


Anticipating every special 
need in professional film edit¬ 
ing, B&H provides seven 
versatile 35mm splicing ma¬ 
chines, all fully automatic. 
Welds are film-strong and in¬ 
conspicuous ... accomplished 
quickly with minimum effort. 
B&HSplicing Machines 
have been standard equip¬ 
ment in film exchanges, lab¬ 
oratories, and studios since 
1915. Write for new catalog, 
outlining your needs. 


-PRO...NEW 16mm and 8mm SPLICER 


Bell & Howell 


Since 1907 the Largest Manufacturer of Professional Motion Picture 
Equipment for Hollywood and the World 











*_>/he brilliant white light, controllability, carrying 
power, and the unprecedented light output from 
single lighting units, make the use of carbon arcs 
a very important factor in successful lighting for 
Technicolor photography . 55 



The term “National” is a registered ^ 
trade-mark of 

NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation 


30 East 42nd Street. New York 17. N. Y. 

Division Safes Offices: 

Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Kansas City, 
New York, Pittsburgh, San Francisco 












AMERICAN 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

FOUNDED January 8, 1919, The American 
Society of Cinematographers is composed of 
the leading directors of photography in the 
Hollywood motion picture studios. Its mem¬ 
bership also includes non-resident cinematog¬ 
raphers and cinematographers in foreign lands. 
Membership is by invitation only. 

The Society meets regularly once a month 
at its clubhouse at 1782 North Orange Drive, 
in the heart of Hollywood. On November 1, 
1920, the Society established its monthly pub¬ 
lication "American Cinematographer” which it 
continues to sponsor and which is now circu¬ 
lated in 61 countries throughout the world. 


Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

Technical Editor, Emery Huse Glenn R. Kershner Art Editor 

Circulation, MARGUERITE Duerr 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 JUNE • 1949 NO. 6 

CONTENTS 

ARTICLES 


Dominant aims of the Society are to bring CHAMPION— By Ralph Lawton .196 

into close confederation and cooperation all • lT ’ S THE PRINT THAT COUNTS— By Clemmie Galloway . . . 198 

leaders in the cinematographic art and science The FOUNTAINHEAD— By Herb A. Lightman .200 

and to strive for pre-eminence in artistic per- , NeWSREELER’s DILEMMA— By John Dared, A.S.C .201 

fection and scientific knowledge of the art. 


OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 

Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
George J. Folsey, Jr., Second-Vice-Pres. 
WILLIAM V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray Rennahan, Secretary 
JOHN W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
Victor Milner 
Sol Polito 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 


ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

John Arnold 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 




52 


TELEVISION PHOTOGRAPHY 


How Zoomar Aids TV Photography —By Victor Ford . . . 202 

Pushbutton Cinematography —By Frederick Foster . . . 205 

16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 

On The Way—Magnetic Sound For 8mm.206 

Cutting The Commercial Film —By Charles Loring . . . 208 

Camera Timer For Time-Lapse 

Cinematography —By John Forbes .210 

FEATURES 

Hollywood Bulletin Board.194 

Roster of American Society of Cinematographers . . . 121 

Cine Kinks For Movie Amateurs.214 

25 Years Ago With A.S.C. and Members.222 

What’s New In Equipment, Accessories, Service .... 222 

Current Assignment of A.S.C. Members.224 


ON THE COVER 

VINCENT FARRAR, A.S.C., (second from left) in a between scenes con¬ 
ference with Penny Singleton, director Edward Bernds and Arthur Lake, 
on the "Blondie’s Hero” set, points out how a suggested switch in the action 
will give him a better camera angle. "Blondie” is calling instructions to her 
standin going through suggested routine on the set.—Photo by Warner 
Crosby. 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 











Hollywood 

Bulletin Board 



<- 

“A SWELL PICTURE!”—Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C., (left) and 
Arthur Miller, A. S. C., congratulate Robert Stillman, Asso¬ 
ciate Producer, Screen Plays Corpn., on his recent hit produc¬ 
tion, “Champion,” which Stillman screened for A. S. C. mem¬ 
bers at opening of Society’s new projection room last month. 


-*>► 

CENERAL APPROVAL—Cen. Jonathan Wainwright meets with 
actor Jimmy Stewart (center) and Ralph Staub, A. S. C., who 
together with writer Owen Crump produced a ten-minute 
short, “How Much Do You Owe?” gratis for Disabled 
American Veterans, of which Wainwright is national com¬ 
mander. Purpose of short is to build sales for Vets’ “Indent- 
O-Tags," key-ring auto license plate miniatures sold by mail. 



PROVING AN IDEA — Recent guest of Charles Rosher, A. S. C., (right) and screen director 
Ccorge Sidney (left) at MCM was Harris Tuttle, Eastman Kodak exec and head of Motion Pic¬ 
ture Division of P. S. A. Trio collaborated on demonstration tending to show economic advant¬ 
ages of using 16mm. Kodachrome for screen tests. 


CHARLES C. CLARKE, president of the 
A.S.C., and John Boyle, A.S.C., have been 
re-elected to Board of Governors of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences. Clarke currently is in Berlin to 
photograph a picture based on the airlift 
for Fox. 

o 

JACK CARDIFF, A.S.C., who won an Acad¬ 
emy Award two years ago for photo¬ 
graphy of 'Black Narcissus,’’ is in Mor¬ 
occo shooting "The Black Rose” which 
Henry Hathaway is directing for Twen¬ 
tieth Century-Fox. 

a 

GEORGE FOLSEY, A.S.C., recently returned 
with George Cukor from New York 
where he photographed background shots 
for Adam s Rib, M-G-M production. 

© 

FRANK PLANER, A.S.C., sailed for Europe, 
May 1st, to visit relatives in Vienna and 
to enjoy a long-overdue vacation. Mrs. 
Planer accompanied him. 

• 

HAL ROSSON, A.S.C., planed to New York 
City recently to photograph background 
footage for M-G-M’s On The Town,” 
which is being directed by Kelly, who also 
is the star. 


TECHNICOLOR and Eastman Kodak Co., 
have developed a new type negative for 
the three-strip Technicolor cameras. Stock 
is claimed to be 100 percent faster than 
present film, will allow considerable sav¬ 
ing in illumination costs. Test rolls have 


been shot by most of the major studios 
for comparison. 

• 

HARRY STRADLINC, A.S.C., goes to Sam¬ 
uel Goldwyn Studios as head cameraman 

(Continued on Page 224) 




194 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 

















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BEHIND THE SCENES — The camera shown here being used for a moving actual warfare. Hollywood is converting these cameras to studio use wherever 

closeup of Kirk Douglas as he enacts role of a fighter in “Champion,” is a realistic action scenes are needed. Second cameraman Perry Finnerman is 

combat veteran formerly employed by the U. S. armed services to photograph shooting while being wheeled around the ring on a baggage handler's truck. 


Champion 

... a two-fisted picture made startlingly real by skillful photography 


By RALPH LAWTON 

W HEN I talked with Frank Planer, 
A.S.C., on the eve of his departure for 
Europe, he still was as enthusiastic about 
the photography of "Champion’’ as when 
first he started the cameras rolling on the 
picture several months earlier. " Cham¬ 
pion’ has set a new precedent in the pro¬ 
duction of motion picures,” he said. 

There’s a new method of making pic¬ 
tures in Hollywood today that ignores 
the old, so-called "star” system. Instead, 


it places emphasis on careful pre-produc¬ 
tion planning, on the value of an en¬ 
thusiastic and tightly-integrated produc¬ 
tion crew, and recognizes the director of 
photography for the valuable contribu¬ 
tions he can make in the planning of a 
picture as well as in its photography. 
Champion,’ produced by Stanley Kramer 
for Screen Plays, Corp., is an example of 
the type of successful picture being pro¬ 
duced by this method.’’ 


Very often, when a motion picture 
scores outstanding success, there is the 
tendency to credit all to the star of the 
picture; the star’s success becomes the pic¬ 
ture’s success, and vice versa. Actually, of 
course, the star plays only a nominal part 
in its success. First there has to be a good 
story — an exceptional story — and there 
must be a good script. There must be a 
good director and a good cameraman, too. 
Screen Plays’ Champion’’ had all these. 


o 


19 6 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 




REAL PROBLEMS in lighting and camera movement were posed for director 
of photography Frank Planer, A.S.C., in this Santa Monica roadside inn where 
much of the early action in “Champion” is played. Here scenes were shot with 
camera mounted on the counter or a stack of pop bottle boxes. Windows in 
background had to be covered with blue cellophane to permit balancing light. 



LEAP FOR LIFE — Kirk Douglas leaps from a camera car and down an em¬ 
bankment for a scene in “Champion.” In the picture it emerges as a leap from 
a freight train at night, through Frank Planer’s cinema magic and lens filters. 



IN FOCUS — A camera aide measures distance from lens to Douglas’ 
money pocket, as Frank Planer (right of camera) prepares to film 
exciting scene of fight in a boxcar. 


"Champion’’ graphically dramatizes the 
rise and fall of a pugilist amid the 
glamour and corruption of the boxing 
game. Briefly, the story concerns unem¬ 
ployed Kirk Douglas who, with his broth¬ 
er, played by Arthur Kennedy, are riding 
the rods west. The two are beaten and 
robbed in a boxcar by a gang of hood¬ 
lums, and escape by jumping from the 
car as the train moves over desolate hill 
country. They are picked up and given 
a ride to the nearest town by a kindly 
motorist who turns out to be a popular 
ring champ. This chance meeting ultima¬ 
tely leads Douglas into the fight game and 
ironically it is the motorist who is to be¬ 
come his opponent in a critical match 
at the height of his career. How Douglas 
gets into the fight game, works his way 
to the top, becomes involved with gamb¬ 
lers whom he double-crosses, and the in¬ 


evitable result, furnished exciting drama¬ 
tic opportunities not only for the picture’s 
stellar cast of comparatively unknowns, 
but also for Frank Planer, who directed 
the photography. 

Once he had a good script developed 
from the Ring Lardner original story, 
producer Kramer started his art director 
planning the picture. During the first 
pre-production conferences, on which 
script writer, art director, and director 
sat in along with Kramer, rough sketches 
were made of all the action in every 
sequence. When the story was thus 
planned in semi-graphic form, an artist 
was called in and the whole picture laid 
out in story board form. This constituted 
the basic action as developed by the pro¬ 
ducer, director, script writer and art di¬ 
rector. They were now ready for con¬ 
sultation with the cameraman. 


In the meantime, Frank Planer had been 
selected to direct the photography. Hav¬ 
ing read the script, he was given the 
storyboard to study and here began a 
series of further pre-production confer¬ 
ences which afforded Planer opportunity 
to contribute additional ideas for cutting 
costs, saving time or enhancing the pic¬ 
torial impact of a scene. He accompanied 
the production staff in scouting location 
sites, and this gave him opportunity to 
pre-plan his camera setups on exteriors 
as well as to offer technical suggestions 
that would contribute further to the econ¬ 
omy of the production. 

But the most important pre-production 
planning, and probably the most time- 
and money-saving was the rehearsal ses¬ 
sions held before the camera started shoot¬ 
ing. Before a single scene was filmed, 
(Continued on Page 216) 


e 


June, 1949 


e 


American Cinematographer 


197 














M h - 

ggfe. * 



§jp\ 






AT TWENTIETH CENTURY-FOX studios, Sol Halprin, A.S.C., (center) supervises both the 
laboratory and the camera department, which accounts tor the consistent high quality of TCF’s 
films. Here he consults with his two capable assistants, Tom Ingman (left) and Henry Coldfarb. 


Its The Print That Counts 

After the takes are canned and sent to the lab, exacting 
methods of testing, developing and printing follow to 
insure maximum pictorial quality on the screen. 

By CLEMMIE CALLOWAY 


T HE DIRECTOR of photography’s in¬ 
terest in the film he daily exposes in 
his camera does not cease with its ex¬ 
posure and subsequent removal to the 
laboratory for processing. After it is shot, 
just as much detail and attention is ex¬ 
pended on it in the laboratory to insure 
the maximum of photographic quality. 
The cinematographer’s immediate interest 
continues until the film is developed and 
printed and the rushes screened in the 
studio projection room. It is the daily 
rushes, which every cameraman sees 
screened when time and schedules permit, 
that enable him to keep a check on his 
immediate work — lighting, exposures, 
composition, etc. 

In some studios, like Twentieth Century- 
Fox, the two operations — photography 
and processing—are considered so inter¬ 
related that one man supervises both the 
cameramen and the men who develop 
and print the films. The overall respon¬ 
sibility for the high quality of TCF’s 
films is that of Sol Halprin, A.S.C., who, 
besides being superintendent of the lab¬ 
oratory, is head of the camera department. 

The scientific precision, exactitude, and 
cleanliness of a hospital operating room 
are found in the TCF Western Avenue 
laboratory. The stress on cleanliness is of 
utmost importance for if any dirt gets 
on the film it will mar and even scratch 
the negative and consequently be visible 
on the prints. 

As in an operation the patient’s life 
depends on the skill of the surgeon and 
the perfection of the implements, the 
studio’s life — the day’s shooting of film 
— depends on the skill of the laboratory 
workers and their equipment. 

Concentrated in that can of film arriv¬ 
ing at the laboratory at the end of each 
day is a fortune. The many millions of 




THE TCF negative developing crew works unhamered in total darkness, relying upon keenly THE PICTURE negative is tested on Cinex testing machine 

developed sense of touch and timing. Negative film is developed at rate of 90 ft. per min. by Harry Rehman who prints the specimen guide strips. 




198 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 











































dollars spent each year is represented on 
that bit of celluloid. 

Before the processing of film begins at 
6 o’clock in the morning, the night crew 
has already completed its work of washing 
the developing machines, changing de¬ 
veloping solutions, and doing everything 
necessary to enable the day crew to start 
immediately so that the daily rushes can 
be ready for screening before TCF’s studio 
executives by 4 o’clock in the afternoon. 

No actual production negatives can be 
developed until sensitometric strips are 
developed and read to insure that the 
density and contrast of the developing 
solutions are correct. The strength of the 
solutions must be the same, not only for 
a given day’s work but from day to day, 
and this is accomplished by developing 
and reading sensitometric strips continu¬ 
ously while the developing machines are 
in operation. 

Before the negatives are sent into the 
developing room, the cans containing 
sound film are separated from those con¬ 
taining picture film. The foreman of the 
negative developing room and his crew 
work in Stygian darkness by sound and 
feel, rather than by sight. 

The next step occurs in the testing 
room. Sound negative is timed on a densi¬ 
tometer and the picture negative is tested 
on a Cinex testing machine. The latter 
machine prints a strip of film about nine 
inches long in one-frame exposures from 
each negative scene to be printed, each 
frame changing in density from lights 1 
to 22. These lights match in density with 
the corresponding lights on the printing 
machines. 

After the Cinex test is developed, it is 
taken to the timing room where the print¬ 
ing light best suited or each scene is de¬ 


termined. The negative is then cleaned 
and taken to the printing room where it 
is printed on model D Bell & Howell 
printing machines. Each scene has a small 
notch in the edge of the film, near the 
first frame. When this notch contacts an 
’ interrupter’’ in the printer mechanism it 
rings a buzzer which indicates to the 
operator that a change in printing light 
is required. This change is made manually 
by the operator. Although there are 22 
light changes on the printing machines, 
most of the negatives at TCF stay within 
a range of three or four printing lights. 

After the negatives are printed, prints 
are taken to the positive developing room 
for processing. The negative is then 
broken down or separated into individual 
scenes and filed in vaults according to the 
production category. The developed posi¬ 
tive print then moves to the positive as¬ 
sembly room where it is assembled, 
synchronized for picture and sound, and 
then waxed. Waxing prevents the fresh¬ 
ness of the emulsion from gumming up 
the projection machines and consequently 
tearing the film. 

In the projection room all picture prints 
are reviewed individually to insure that 
both picture and sound quality are correct. 

The laboratory operates without any 
waste of film, and salvages all waste silver 
from the used hypo solutions. Raw film 
averages from IV 2 to 2 Vl ounces of silver 
per thousand feet, and after it goes 
through the hypo bath in course of de¬ 
velopment, the unused silver is removed 
from the emulsion. The silver thus sal¬ 
vaged is molded into bricks which assay 
over 99% pure silver. Each brick weighs 
about 90 pounds and at present there are 
19 bricks on hand, stored in vaults, to 
be sold. 


The master print of each production, 
like a designer’s pattern, is sent to the 
laboratory where the negative is cut to 
match it, so that the finished prints in¬ 
tended for showing in the nation’s the¬ 
atres each will conform with the master 
print. 

Thus setp by step, the film emerges 
from the camera; goes to the laboratory, 
where it is given pre-developing tests, 
then developed to a negative. The nega¬ 
tive is then tested to determine correct 
printing lights, and the positive prints for 
projection made. These in turn are waxed 
to safeguard emulsion against damage. 
The original negative, then, is broken 
down into individual scenes or sequences 
and filed in fireproof vaults. 

"Exactitude and precision are necessary 
in every phase of laboratory work," said 
Sol Halprin, adding, "The developing 
solutions and film drying cabinets must be 
kept at a definite temperature, for if 
the temperature varies the density of the 
film would vary.” 

Negative film is developed at the rate 
of approximately 90 feet a minute, ac¬ 
cording to Halprin, and positive film at 
approximately 160 feet per minute. Dur¬ 
ing 1947, just to take the handiest record, 
21,652,189 feet of film was processed 
at Twentieth Century-Fox’s laboratory. 
According to Sol Halprin, this figure will 
be greatly exceeded during 1949- Con¬ 
tributing footage during 1949 are cine¬ 
matographers L. B. Abbott, Lloyd Ahern, 
Arthur Arling, Norbert Brodine, Walter 
Castle, Charles G. Clarke, James Gordon, 
Edwin and Ralph Hammeraas, Allan Irv¬ 
ing, Harry Jackson, Milton Krasner, Jo¬ 
seph LaShelle, Joe MacDonald, Arthur 
Miller, Ernest Palmer, Leon Shamroy, Ed¬ 
ward Snyder, J. O. Tayler and Dewey 
Wrigley—all members of the A.S.C. 



AFTER the Cinex test, Fred Danashew and John Friteh de¬ 
termine the correct timing and printing light for film. 



ONE OF the large printing rooms at the Twentieth Century-Fox laboratories, which operates 
in total darkness. All printing is done on model D Bell & Howell printing machines. 






June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


199 








ONE OF several scenes in “The Fountainhead” in which Bob Burks, A.S.C., combined skillful 
lighting and camera work with an excellent process plate and miniature structure to produce 
an effective pictorial composition. The angular appearance of background structures in this picture 
was caused by peculiarities of fhe still camera lens, is not apparent in the production scene. 


Robert Burks, A. S. C, Photographs 

The Fountainhead 

By HERB A. LICHTMAN 


64THE FOUNTAINHEAD,” as pro- 

I duced by Warner Bros. Studios, is 
a handsomely mounted, beautifully de¬ 
signed, and imaginatively photographed 
motion picture. Adapted from Ayn Rand’s 
best-selling novel of the same name, it is 
the sophisticated story of an architect 
whose extremly advanced ideas of func¬ 
tional modern architecture place him in 
constant conflict with those who favor 
the outmoded cliches of pseudo-classic de- 
sign. 

Simply stated, it is the story of a clash 
between two sharply opposed artistic 
ideologies which the author uses to sym¬ 
bolize a broader conflict between the 
forces of progress and reaction. Inter¬ 
woven with this lofty theme is a torrid 
romance between the incredibly "calm, 
cool and collected” architect and a beauti¬ 
ful young heiress who quite obviously 
suffers from an excess of hormones. 

Interspersed with the amorous thrash- 
ings-about of these two worldly creatures 
is a good deal of philosophy based upon 
the concept that a man’s artistic ideals 
are sacred and inviolable, and that he has 
a right to defend same even if it means 
blowing up a whole housing project. Fans 
who enjoy reading the highly popular 
novel may ponder the usual conjecture as 
to whether the film is as good as the book. 
Those who view the film without having 
read the book may find the continuity a 
bit jumpy as the result of motivating 
situations which had to be omitted in 
order to boil the story down to normal 
running time. But ignoring pros and cons 
as to the picture’s dramatic worth, it must 
be agreed by all hands that "The Foun¬ 
tainhead,” judged purely from the view¬ 
point of visual presentation, is a brilliantly 
conceived and executed blend of camera 
art and architecture. 

Robert Burks, A.S.C., one of Holly¬ 
wood’s youngest and most original directors 
of photography, combined lens and light- 























THE architecturally modern interiors of “The Fountainhead” combined beauty THE QUARRY location with its jutting rock shelves and massive monoliths 

of functional design with economy of set construction, simplified the lighting. afforded wide play for Burks’ compositional talents with striking pictorial effect. 


200 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 




















ing to produce a clean modern style of 
photography that is perfectly keyed to 
the mood and theme of this unusual story. 
Burks worked very closely with director 
king Vidor and art director Edward Car- 
rere in pre-planning the visual conception 
of the film. They all agreed that the set¬ 
tings and camera approach should be kept 
as simple as possible, since simplicity and 
functionalism were fetishes with Howard 
Roark, the story’s hero. 

"Our main problem,” Burks points out, 
"was to present our story in sharply dra¬ 
matic fashion, without cluttering it up 
with frills of technique. This meant that 
settings and camera treatment had to be 
designed to complement each other, and 
to accentuate the impression of dramatic 
simplicity. The sequences dealing with 
the protagonist and his functional ideas 
were presented in this manner. By way 
of dramatic contrast, the sequences domi¬ 
nated by characters representing the old- 
fashioned approach to building design, 
were photographed in a conventional style. 
By contrasting the two types of photo¬ 
graphy we aimed to sharpen the gulf be¬ 
tween the two opposing trends of thought 
in the story.” 

Using this formula of camera treat¬ 
ment, the photography became a graphic 
ally of the hero—an effect which is, of 
course, sensed rather than consciously 
noticed by the audience. Throughout these 
sequences, single lighting units were used 
as source illumination and a minimum of 
fill light was employed in order to preserve 
the clean black and white quality that is 
so forceful in pointing up the action. 

The photography of the film draws 
great power from the dynamic composi¬ 
tions which the cinematographer used to 
frame his scenes. The sweeping lines of 
the modern architecture formed excellent 
patterns with which to work, and Burks 
(Continued on Page 220) 



CARY COOPER, who plays Roark, checks a camera 
set-up while Burks (right) and director Vidor look on. 



SUCCESS and scope of the Berlin airlift provided newsreel photographers in Europe 
with first real postwar “news subject.” John Dored, A.S.C., covered the activity in 
all its phases for Paramount News.—Int. News photo. 


Newsreeler's Dilemma 

Our changing world poses problems 
for the newsreel photographer, too 


By JOHN DORED, A.S.C. 


I F, AFTER DISCHARGE from the army, a Holly¬ 
wood cameraman returned to his former studio 
and found the stages in ruin and his best actors gone 
and replaced by new faces devoid of personality and 
color, he would most certainly feel at loss for incen¬ 
tive. This was my reaction, however, when I came 
back from the last war and resumed work at my old 
"studio,” Western Europe. 

Since the beginning of newsreels, I have been 
covering world events with a motion picture camera, 
and since the inception of Paramount News, I have 
been roaming the continent supplying footage for 
our "make-up days" back in New York. From the 
a roaming newsreel reporter—due partly to my own 
desire and partly because I was already equipped with international ex¬ 
perience and a number of foreign languages. Paramount sent me all over 
the globe, of course, but the most interesting happenings occurred in 
Europe. The continent became my special "stage.” Its dictators and its 
kings, its generals and its politicians, all became my "actors," and its 
capitals and colorful country-sides my picturesque stage settings. 

When World War II broke out, I covered the Polish campaign and 
afterwards was sent to South America on a "good neighbor" film assign¬ 
ment. In the spring of 1944, I joined our armies in Italy. Working my 
way through France and Germany, I had reached Czechoslovakia by 
V.E. day. 

Now no longer a war correspondent, Paramount assigned Frankfurt- 
Maine or Berlin as my base of operations, and from there I again began 
to roam around the European stage. That many of my old stage settings 

(Continued on Page 213) 



John Dored, A.S.C. 


start, I specialized as 


June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


o 


201 












How Zoomar Aids TV Photography 


Vari-focal lens permits entire show to be photographed 
with one camera to gain consistency in image quality. 


By VICTOR FORD 



DR. FRANK C. BACK, (right) explains to Burr Tilistrom, producer and star of “Kukla, Fran and 
Ollie,’’ the one-camera television Zoomar show, how the lens’ 26 optical elements work to pro¬ 
duce zoom effects. Zoomar is only lens used on camera and is operated by a single knob at 
rear, below camera viewfinder. 


W HEN Dr. Frank G. Back devloped 
the Zoomar lens for cinematography, 
he had not considered the advantages it 
also would offer television cameramen, 
mainly because television photography was 
virtually still in its infancy. But now the 
Zoomar is assuming importance as the 
TV cameraman’s most important acces¬ 
sory. It does the work of four lenses and 
in some instances dispenses with the need 
for a second camera in covering studio 
programs. 

The Zoomar’s application to television 
in one respect is even simpler than when 
it is adapted to cinematography, because 
there is not the need for a special zoom¬ 
ing viewfinder. With the TV camera, 
what the lens sees the cameraman also 
sees in exact image in the camera’s elec¬ 
tronic viewfinder. 

The lens’ name, Zoomar, suggests its 
function: that of zooming from close dis¬ 
tances to far, and vice versa. It is a vari¬ 
focal lens in that by a simple mechanical 


adjustment the focal length of the lens 
may be varied within certain limits. With 
the Zoomar lens made for use on movie 
cameras, which is slightly different in 
mechanical details from the type used in 
television, this change is made by moving 
a lever attached to the lens barrel. Chang¬ 
ing the focal length thus, an apparent 
change in the proximity of the viewer 
of the film or of the television screen 
takes place. In other words, if the change 
is from the minimum focal length to the 
maximum, it appears to the viewer that 
he has started way back from his subject 
and has been carried up close for a better 
view, without the customary cuts from 
long to medium to closeups shots which 
is general practice in movie making. All 
this, of course, without the camera’s 
physical position being altered. 

There are twenty-six elements in the 
Zoomar lens compared to the average of 
perhaps six or eight in the more com¬ 
plicated of ordinary camera lenses of 

• 


fixed focal length. In the early stages of 
the lens’ development, this immediately 
posed the problem of light absorption 
and reflection, for at an air-glass surface, 
as much as 10% of the light may be lost 
in reflection. With 26 lenses in the 
Zoomar, this meant 52 air-glass surfaces 
—52 times 10%. The answer, of course, 
was coating, which reduced reflection to 
approximately 1%. 

The Zoomar has two interchangeable 
front lenses. One for wide angle and the 
other, a tele-front lens, for closeup work. 
There is also a short range adaptor for 
use in ultra-closeup work, but this at¬ 
tachment has little application in the 
field of TV photography. 

In the model for television, shown in 
the photo, the zooming range with the 
wide angle front lens is from 2 inches 
to 9 inches. Lens speed is from f/5.6 to 
f/22 when used from 2 to 12 inches, 
and about f/8 in the region of 12 to 18 
inches. The difference in field coverage 
in any one continuous shot is nine inches 
or a three-to-one diameter change. The 
difference in field coverage can be greatly 
increased to 36 times by the use of a 
compound shot using both front lenses. 

Main difference between the Zoomar 
television lens and the one for movie 
work is in the mechanical method by 
which the inside barrel is moved. In the 
movie type it is done by means of a lever 
arrangement underneath the barrel. In the 
television type, barrel movement is ac¬ 
complished by means of a rod that ex¬ 
tends beneath the full length of lens, 
through center of the turret and camera 
and back to the turret shift handle in 
back of the camera. This method was 
adopted since size of the TV camera 
prohibts the cameraman handling the lens 

One of the main advantages of the 
Zoomar is its psychological effect. It 
can give a complete picture and a detailed 
picture and yet not have the disconcert¬ 
ing choppiness of cutting back and forth 
from one camera to another with differ¬ 
ent lenses on each. The video viewer has 
the tendency to lose either the trend of 
thought or become lost in the relative 
positions of the camera and the subject 
being viewed when this cutting, or cam¬ 
era switching, is done. 

It remained for Harry Birch, chief cam¬ 
eraman of WBKB, Chicago, to discover 
still another and far more important ad¬ 
vantage—the ability to overcome the dif¬ 
ference in the response between two dif¬ 
ferent TV camera tubes. Birch is using 
the Zoomar exclusively in photographing 
the "Kukla, Fran and Ollie’’ show. 

"This show would not be the show that 
it is,’ Birch said, "without the aid of the 
Zoomar. Up until last fall, at which 
(Continued on Page 214) 


202 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 








In Negative— 

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Pushbutton Cinematography 

Television Employs It To Record Programs For Re-broadcast 


A NEW TYPE of motion picture pho¬ 
tography came into existence with 
the advent of television. It is called 
kinescope or kinephoto photography. It 
is unique in that it calls for no camera¬ 
man, as we know cameramen today, and 
it isn't necessary to adjust lights and take 
exposure readings each time before start¬ 
ing to shoot. Actually, this movie mak¬ 
ing may be justly termed "pushbutton 
photography” because it operates that 
simple. 

Kinescope photography or "kinescop- 
ing” has to do with photographing—us¬ 
ually on 16mm. film—television programs 
directly off the tube for re-broadcast. The 
camera is in fixed position, requiring little 
or no more attention than loading and 
unloading the film. The lens stop and 
focus are pre-set. All the operator has to 
do to start shooting is press a button that 
starts the camera’s motors turning. 

Equipment designed by RCA to record 
television images on motion picture film 
was given its first public showing at the 
National Association of Broadcasters’ con¬ 
vention in Chicago recently. 

Already in operation in a number of 
the nation’s key network stations, this 
equipment is filming hundreds of thous¬ 
ands of feet of TV program material each 
week for delayed broadcast, for docu¬ 
mentary, historical, legal, and advertising 
purposes, for syndication to remotely lo¬ 
cated network stations, and for re-broad¬ 
cast because of difference in time zones. 

The system consists of RCA Kinephoto 
Equipment (Type TMP-20B it says in 
their catalog), which is basically a pro¬ 
jection-type kinescope with its associated 
video amplifier, deflection circuits, and 
power supplies; and a suitable 16mm. 
sound motion picture camera. The kine¬ 
scope and camera are mounted on a double 
cabinet rack which houses the amplifiers, 
power supplies, control panel, and oscil¬ 
loscope. 

The equipment utilizes standard RMA 
video signals supplied directly to the 
equipment from the switching system in 
the television studio. The signal is fed 
to a video amplifier, where it is amplified 
and separted into a signal for synchroniz¬ 
ing the scanning raster of the kinescope 
with that of the television pickup camera, 
and a modulating signal which is ampli- 


By FREDERICK FOSTER 

fied and used to control the kinescope 
beam which forms the visual image. 

The kinescope, RCA Type 5WJ11, is 
a special 5-inch flat-face aluminized pro¬ 
jection-type cathode ray tube having a 
short persistence blue phosphor screen of 
high actinic value, which makes possible 
the use of high-resolution, low-cost posi¬ 
tive-type film stock. The equipment has 
been designed and manufactured to the 
high quality standards set by the broad¬ 
cast industry. 

In addition to the TMP-20B Kine¬ 
photo Equipment, the system requires a 
16mm. motion picture recording camera, 
such as the Model TK-75-B camera de¬ 
veloped by RCA especially for use in 
television. This camera compensates for 
the timing differences between the tele¬ 
vision system, which has a scanning fre¬ 
quency of 30 complete frames or 60 in¬ 
terlaced fields per second, and the con¬ 
ventional motion picture system, which 
exposes film at the rate of 24 frames per 


second. Since 1/12 of a second is the time 
interval for five interlaced television 
fields and for two frames of film, com¬ 
pensation can be made by exposing each 
film frame for the duration of two tele¬ 
vision fields and advancing the film dur¬ 
ing an interval representing one television 
field out of five. 

Because of differences in phasing, each 
film frame may represent parts of as 
many as three television fields, but a pre¬ 
cision timing shutter and pull - down 
mechanism provides for precise matching 
between the cutoff point in one field and 
the point of pickup in the next. 

The camera exposure time in terms of 
the television system must be accurate to 
less than one half of a scanning line, or 
roughly one part in 30,000. It must be 
timed to expose exactly the proper num¬ 
ber of picture lines for each frame, or 
525 lines, no more or less, or an effect 
known as "banding" will take place on 
(Continued on Page 218) 



IN FIXED position, with focus and exposure pre-set, camera at right photographs on 16mm. 
film television programs from face of kinescope tube within housing at left. This is latest 
RCA kinescoping equipment as used in NBC’s television studio in Hollywood, and many other 
TV studios throughout U. S. 


June, 1949 


9 


American Cinematographer 


a 


205 



















FIC. 1—Side view of a silent 8mm. projector which has 
been converted into a complete unit for both recording 
and playback of synchronized sound recorded magneti¬ 
cally on edge of the film. 


FIC. 2—Rear view of same projector, showing controls. 
The commercial jobs will be considerably refined in ap¬ 
pearance and more compact. Not shown is the speaker 
unit which is placed near the screen. 




On The Way—Magnetic Sound For 8mm! 


F OUR MAJOR manufacturers of cine 
cameras and projectors will shortly an¬ 
nounce their new magnetic sound 8mm. 
film projectors. Since a laboratory model 
of a converted silent projector was de¬ 
veloped by the Armour Research Founda¬ 
tion of Chicago, four equipment manu¬ 
facturers here and one abroad have ob¬ 
tained licenses to use the foundation pat¬ 
ents, which means that very soon, now, 
movie amateurs will be able to realize 
a long promised adjunct to their home 
movies—synchronized magnetic sound. 

Of course, all developments have been 
kept under wraps and much of the pro¬ 
gress has been confidential development 
and tooling up for production, which is 
expected to start before the end of the 
year. Therefore, no specific details are 
available at this time on any of the new 
projectors. However, when finally they 
are available, it will mean that, not only 
will the movie amateur be able to screen 
8mm. movies in sound, but will be able 
to record sound magnetically on his own 


Dr. A. H. Leedy, Director of 
Armour Research Foundation, 
reveals developments that 
promise early appearance of 
magnetic sound projectors for 
8mm. home movies. 



FIC. 3—Diagram of an 8mm. magnetic 
sound projector circuit. 


movies films for showing on these same 
machines. The application of the mag¬ 
netic sound medium — a fine metallic 
emulsion—will in all probability be a 
commercial service provided by film com¬ 
panies: they will put a magnetic sound 
track on exposed or unexposed 8mm. film 
for a fee. Also, it is likely that rolls and 
magazines of 8mm. films will shortly 
thereafter become available with the mag¬ 
netic flux for the sound track already ap¬ 
plied to the edge of the film. 

The Armour Research Foundation of 
the Illinois Institute of Technology has 
pioneered in the development of mag¬ 
netic sound in this country, both on wire 
and tape, and later on film. Very early 
in their research they discovered, mainly 
through the tremendous interest in mag¬ 
netic sound evidenced by hundreds of 
amateur movie makers who wrote them, 
that one of the most logical applications 
of magnetic sound was in the field of 
home movies where, up until this time, 
(Continued on Page 219) 


206 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 





























Professional movie effects with amateur ease 

This is the one 16mm. movie camera with which you can 
create most of the unusual screen effects ordinarily produced 
by special and expensive laboratory treatment. The controls 
are built into the camera itself! 

Fades, dissolves, mask effects, double and multiple expo¬ 
sures, montages, animation, slow motion, and speeded motion 
—all can be achieved from the camera position. The reflex 
finder permits precise focusing and framing, requires no rack- 
over, eliminates parallax, does away with the need for titlers, 
allows really big close-ups. The wind-back shaft rules out the 
need for backing up film in a darkroom. The single-frame shaft 
even permits time exposures for dark scenes ordinarily beyond 
the reach of the fastest lens. 

Imagination — only—limits its range 

Name your effect. With the "Special II,” you can have it! 

Animated titles . . . maps . . . diagrams . . ."self-assembling” 
machines. Tremendously speeded action or time-lapse studies. 
All are easy with the "Special II.” 

Comedy situations, wherein big men vanish behind small 
trees . . . shiny new cars are transformed into battered flivvers 
. . . a screen character greets himself in mid-screen, is "beside 
himself” when and where you desire. The old and the new, 
the rich and the poor, the fast and the slow—all can be on the 
screen at the same time when the movie is made with the 
"Special II.” 

Title exposures against moving backgrounds . . . ghost ef¬ 
fects wherein the background shows through the subject . . . 
fades against an unchanged background. These effects, and 
scores more—all under perfect finger-tip control—are sim¬ 
plicity itself with this camera. 

Small wonder Cine-Kodak Special II Camera is the first, and 
last, choice of the serious worker . . . the advanced amateur. 
Good news that production is once again in step with demand. 
Your Kodak dealer will be glad to accept your order for a Cine- 
Kodak Special II Camera—now! 


Now fitted with superb new Kodak Cine Ektar //1.4 Lens 


Finest lens ever made for 16mm. motion 
picture cameras. The Kodak Cine Ektar 25- 
mm. f/ 1.4 Lens meets the highest stand¬ 
ards of definition and edge-to-edge sharp¬ 
ness. Aided by the unique optical qualities 
of Kodak rare-element glasses, Lumenized 
glass-air surfaces, blackened lens rims, 
beveled flanges, and a new precision 
mounting of all elements, it provides su¬ 
perb image quality, excellent contrast and 
color purity, and unmatched flatness of 
field in addition to its extreme speed. And 
with the complete line of accessory Kodak 
Cine Ektar Lenses in a wide range of focal 
lengths also now available, still further scope and variety can be given to 
your film shows. Ask your dealer for the free Kodak booklet, Kodak Cine 
Ektar Lenses, which describes them in full detail. 



Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester 4, N. Y. 



The basic model of the Cine-Kodak Special II Camera is equipped with 
a 100-foot capacity film chamber and the 25mm. f/l.4 Kodak Cine 
Ektar Lens. It may be purchased with a 200-foot capacity film chamber 
and the same lens—-shown at left—or with either chamber and a 
25mm. f/l.9 Kodak Cine Ektar Lens. In one of these four forms, this 
fine camera will meet your every film-making requirement. 


‘‘Kodak" is a trade-mark 


© 














Cutting The Commercial Film 

Since subject matter of the average commercial film is 
often unexciting, the film editor must accept the chal¬ 
lenge of making the film move along and hold interest. 

By CHARLES LOR I NG 


T O THE uninitiated, the expression 
cutting a film" simply means getting 
rid of the scenes or parts of scenes that 
you don’t want to appear in the finished 
feature. The implication is that a motion 
picture is created by the process of elim¬ 
ination, and that after the unwanted foot¬ 
age ends up on the cutting room floor, 
what is left will automatically fall into 
an acceptable visual pattern suitable for 
showing to an audience. 

This is only partially true. While it 
is granted that the preliminary step is to 
cull out the unwanted footage, the real 
process of cutting or editing depends 
upon correctly assembling the scenes that 
you have decided should appear in the 
finished product. In cutting away the 
deadwood you are merely clearing the 
decks for a phase of production that is 
highly creative and constructive, and in¬ 
deed upon which the whole meaning of 
the finished film may depend. 


Each separate motion picture scene 
has a certain limited meaning, but it is 
only a very small part of a much greater 
whole. The individual scene takes on its 
real meaning in the overall pattern de¬ 
pending upon the scenes immediately 
preceding and following it. Sometimes a 
direct visual connection exists between 
two or more scenes placed together—but 
even scenes which have no visual rela¬ 
tionship take on a unique and inter¬ 
related meaning when cut together. Thus, 
if you show a bird flying and then cut 
to a close-up of a man looking skyward, 
the audience naturally assumes that the 
man is looking at the bird. 

In the commercial film, as in any other 
type of motion picture, skillful cutting is 
of the utmost importance. Many such 
subjects gain their force and meaning, 
not from the scenes themselves which may 
be very ordinary), but from the imagina¬ 
tive way in which those scenes are cut 



THE EDITOR runs the film through a viewer or Moviola, marking with grease pencil the frames 
where he feels cuts can be made to best advantage. Using these marked frames as a guide, he 
then cuts and deletes unwanted frames or footage. Here Leonard Shafitz watches screen of his 
Moviola preview machine as he edits an industrial film for Reynolds Metals Company. 


and edited. Since the subject matter of 
the average commercial film is all too 
often somewhat less than exciting, the 
film editor must accept the challenge of 
making the film move along so that audi¬ 
ence interest does not lag. 

In the commercial film, cutting should 
actually begin when the script is written. 
The writer, the director, and a technical 
advisor representing the client should 
agree as to which are the most important 
phases of the story, and then make sure 
that these elements are pointed up through 
the use of sufficient close-ups. If this is 
indicated clearly in the script, the editor’s 
job is greatly simplified, since he can use 
that script as a bluprint and know ex¬ 
actly where to cut each scene. 

In the how-to-do-it or nuts and bolts" 
type of educational - commercial film, 
the important aim is to convey informa¬ 
tion or the details of a process in such 
a way that the full meaning is clearly 
understood by the audience. The editor 
must avoid cutting the action so fast that 
important details are slighted or left out 
entirely. If this occurs, even though the 
action may seem to have a nice active 
pace, the film will fail in its prime pur¬ 
pose. 

On the other hand, the institutional 
film (the main object of which is to 
create good will for the client) can bene¬ 
fit greatly from a fast style of cutting 
which tends to add dramatic pace to the 
unfolding of the story. Cut the action 
rapidly enough that the audience will 
want to stay with the subject and so that 
interest will not bog down. 

Continuity is born in the script, ad¬ 
vanced through proper direction of the 
action, and smoothly resolved in the final 
editing. Thus, correct cutting alone will 
not insure smooth continuity, and the 
responsibility of the flow of the film nar¬ 
rative should not be thrown upon this 
one phase of production. An imaginative 
editor, however, can find elements of 
visual continuity between totally unre¬ 
lated scenes and cut them together in 
such a way as to lead smoothly from one 
to another. For example, a turning wagon 
(Continued on Page 215) 


208 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 













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F 1C. 1 —Showing Roger camera timer in use operating a Cine Kodak Special 16mm. FIC. 2— On control panel are frame counter, dials for 

camera in recording a microscopic study in time-lapse sequence. The timer may be regulating exposure intervaj, light switches and speed 

regulated to expose pictures ranging from 1 to 8 per minute or 1 to 24 per hour. control. Timer operates continuously or intermittently. 


Camera Timer For 
Time-lapse Cinematography 

By JOHN FORBES 


T IME-LAPSE cinematography has be¬ 
come increasingly important in the 
production of industrial and scientific 
16mm. films. At the Rockefeller Institute 
for Medical Research it was used by Dr. 
Alexis Carrel for making micro-cinema 
studies of living cells and tissues and 
blood, and of bacteria. The U. S. Depart¬ 
ment of Agriculture has been using time- 
lapse photography in its motion picture 
department for about fifteen years, for 
recording plant and animal life. 

Camera timers, developed by the Rolab 
Photo Science Laboratories at Sandy Hook, 
Connecticut, are being used extensively 
to record on 16mm. film the growth of 
various plants, such as mushrooms and 
other fungi; opening of flowers; budding 
of yeast and starting from a single cell; 
growth of bacterial colonies and single 
bacteria; capillary action of dyed liquids 
in the grain of wood; and the formation 
of ice crystals and their peneration into 
pores of wood to prove adhesion, as legal 
evidence. 

By time-lapse or stop-motion cinema¬ 
tography is meant motion pictures of 


comparatively slow actions that appear 
to be speeded up when projected upon 
the screen. We may presume that film 
records of actions taken at any lower 
frequency than normal projection speed 
would belong to this category because 
they are more or less speeded up when 
projected. For practical reasons we may 
say, however, that useful time-lapse work 
ranges between one frame per second and 
one frame per hour. 

The filming of motion pictures of this 
type is, of course, very simple, aside from 
some experience in determining the pro¬ 
per time - intervals between exposures. 
Provided the illumination is constant, the 
camera needs only to be operated at the 
proper speed by hand or motor. Many 
types of automatic driving mechanisms, 
more or less complicated, have been con¬ 
structed—mostly home made affairs, serv¬ 
ing only limited purposes—and because 
of the increasing use of time-lapse work 
in recent years, Rolab Photo Science Lab¬ 
oratories have developed an efficient cam¬ 
era timer for this work which they are 
producing commercially. 


The Roger timer, which is illustrated 
above, is the result of Rolab’s more than 
30 years practical experience in time- 
lapse cinematography as applied in a scien¬ 
tific and industrial research laboratory, 
where accuracy and excellence of results 
are of prime inportance and where the 
attention of the operator should be 
focused upon the object itself rather than 
upon manipulation of the camera. Ob¬ 
viously such a timer must be compact and 
portable, automatic, easy to operate, and 
foolproof. 

The Roger camera timer consists of a 
number of integrated units assembled in 
a light carrying case that may be mounted 
on a tripod or other suitable stand set 
up next to the camera, as shown in Figs. 
1 and 2 above. The timer is connected 
with the camera by means of a telescop¬ 
ing shaft fitted with two universal joints, 
or by a flexible shaft. As may be seen 
in Fig. 1, shaft extensions or connections 
are on either side of the timer so that 
the instrument panel always faces the 
operator at all times, whether the camera 
is horizontal, as for straight photography, 
or vertical for closeup or microscopic 
work, as shown in the photo. 

The timer apparatus consists of the 
following parts or features: (1) minute 
timer, (2) hour timer, (3) camera motor, 
(4) frame (exposure) counter, (5) relay 
mechanism for intermittent and continu¬ 
ous operation, (6) the automatic light 
control mechanism, and (7) instrument 
panel. 

The minute timing device consists 


210 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 










mainly of a synchronous motor, a contact 
disk assembly, and a commutator switch. 
It can be set to operate camera to expose 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 pictures per minute. 

The hour device is of similar construc¬ 
tion, and includes synchronous motor, con¬ 
tact disk assembly, and commutator switch 
for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 pictures per 
hour. It has, in addition, a contact mech¬ 
anism that insures uniformly exposed 
pictures. 

The motor operating the camera is of 
the silent precision type, with speed gov¬ 
ernor and gear-shift assembly for two 
speeds. The frame-counter registers single 
exposures and can be re-set at any time. 

The mechanism for intermittent and 
continuous operation plays an important 
part in the timer performance, and the 
intermittent operation may be considered 
a most valuable feature. It has been 
found that the majority of home-built 
time-lapse devices, operating continually, 
have a definite drawback because any 
change of time-interval usually requires 
lengthy readjustment of gears, pulleys, 
lights and camera objective, besides the 
making of exposure tests. 

With the Roger camera timer a change 
of frequency may be effected by simply 
turning a dial on the instrument panel. 
This does not change the exposure time 
previously found correct, and was made 
possible by the intermittent operation of 
camera and light source. Between expos¬ 
ures, and after having turned one revolu¬ 
tion, the motor stops completely at the 
moment the camera shutter is closed. A 
cycle begins with an impulse from the 
minute or the hour timing device, which 
activates the relay and starts the motor 
with intermittent mechanism. The camera 
lights are switched on and off in syn¬ 
chronism with the camera shutter, and the 
motor stops again at the end of the re¬ 
volution. 

A single lever on the panel may be 
turned to disengage the intermittent 
mechanism so that the camera will oper¬ 
ate continuously with two adjustable 
speeds for frequencies over 8 pictures 
per minute. 

Another use for the Roger timer, of 
course, is in the production of animated 
movies and animated plastilina models, 
sequences of which are finding increasing 
use in modern industrial and educational 
16mm. films. 


CINE CAMERA FRAME SPEEDS 

By shooting at frame speeds other than 
the standard 16 f.p.s., a number of inter¬ 
esting effects can be made. For slow mo¬ 
tion on the screen, use 32 or 64 f.p.s.; for 
rapid action, drop to 8 f.p.s. Allow one 
full stop more exposure for 32 f.p.s., two 
stops for 64. When dropping down to 
8 f.p.s., close lens diaphragm one full stop. 





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CAMERA EQUIPMENT 


Interchangeable - Removable Head Tripods 


STANDARD TRIPOD BASE AND COLLAPSIBLE ADJUSTABLE METAL TRIANGLE 


BLIMP for 16mm. E 
CINE SPECIAL 


This Blimp constructed of Dow 
Metal magnesium, is thoroughly in¬ 
sulated to afford absolute silent 
operation. Exclusive features: Fol¬ 
low focus mechanism permits 
change of lens focus while camera 
is operating in blimp. Blimp takes 
synchronous motor drive which 
couples to camera. A dovetail 


bracket is provided to mount an erect image viewfinder. 


FRICTION TYPE 

Handles 16mm. EK Cine 
Special with or without 
motor; 35mm. DeVry; B&H 
Eyemo with motor and 400' 
magazine; and all 16mm. 
hand-held cameras. Head is 
interchangeable with the 
Cear Drive head. Both 
types fit “Professional 
Junior” standard tripod 
base, “Hi-Hat” and “Baby” 
all-metal tripod base. 


GEAR DRIVE 

The head, made of Dow 
Metal magnesium, weighs 
but 5>/ 2 lbs. and is inter¬ 
changeable with the Fric- 
tion type head. It handles 
all types of cameras. Snap- 
on metal cranks control 
pan and tilt action from 
both sides. Worm-driven 
gears are Gov’t spec, 
bronze. 


SUNSHADE & FILTER HOLDER 


COMBINATION 


For use with Bolex and Cine Special 
16mm. cameras. Holds two 2" sq. 
glass filters and a round 2’A" Pola 
Screen with handle which can be ro¬ 
tated for polarization. Covers all lenses 
from 1 5mm. to 6" telephoto and elim¬ 
inates need of various filters. Preci¬ 
sion made of the finest materials. Com¬ 
pact, simple to assemble and dismount. 
May be permanently affixed to camera 
or quickly detached. 


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CHANCING BAGS “HI-HATS” 

Send for our catalog. It describes all our products completely 


June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


211 
























American 


RESIDENT MEMBERS 

L. B. Abbott 
David Abel 
Lloyd Ahern 
John Alton 
Wesley Anderson 
Lucien Andriot 
Arthur Arling 
John Arnold 
Jerome H. Ash 

Lucien Ballard 
George Barnes 
R. O. Binger 
Joe Biroc 
Charles P. Boyle 
John W. Boyle 
Elwood Bredell 
Norbert Brodine 
James S. Brown, Jr. 

Robert Burks 

Walter Castle 
Philip Chancellor 
Dan B. Clark 
Charles G. Clarke 
Wilfrid Cline 
Russell Collings 
Stanley Cortez 
Ray Cory 

Edward Cronjager 
Floyd Crosby 
John Crouse 
Russell A. Cully 

Wm. H. Daniels 
Mark Davis 
Robert deGrasse 
Clyde DeVinna 
E. B. DuPar 
Elmer Dyer 

Paul E. Eagler 
Arthur Edeson 
A. Farciot Edouart 

Max Fabian 
Daniel L. Fapp 
Vincent Farrar 
Ray Fernstrom 
Frank Finger 
Rolla Flora 
George J. Folsey, Jr. 

Ray Foster 
Henry Freulich 
Karl Freund 
John P. Fulton 

Glen Gano 
Lee Garmes 
Maury Gertsman 
Alfred L. Gilks 
Irving Glassberg 
James Gordon 
W. Howard Greene 
Jack Greenhalgh 1 
Loyal Griggs 
Burnett Guffey 
Carl Guthrie 

Ernest Haller 
Sol Halperin 





Society Of 


Cinematographers 


| U N E 1 , ]949 


Edwin Hammeraas 
Ralph Hammeras 
Russell Harlan 
Byron Haskin 
Sid Hickox 
Winton Hoch 
David S. Horsley 
James Wong Howe 
Roy Hunt 

Allan E. Irving 
PaulIvano 

Fred H. Jackman, Jr. 
Fred W. Jackman 
Harry A. Jackson 
H. Gordon Jennings 
J. Devereaux Jennings 
Ray June 

W. Wallace Kelley 
Glenn Kershner 
Benj. H. Kline 
Lloyd Knechtel 
H. F. Koenekamp 
Milton Krasner 

Charles B. Lang, Jr. 
Toe LaShelle 
Ernest Laszlo 
Charles C. Lawton, Jr. 
PaulK. Lerpae 
Marcel LePicard 
Lionel Lindon 
Leo Lippe 
Harold Lipstein 
Arthur Lloyd 
Walter Lundin 
Warren E. Lynch 

Joe MacDonald 
Jack MacKenzie 
Glen MacWilliams 
Fred Mandl 
J. Peverell Marley 
Charles A. Marshall 
Harold J. Marzorati 
Rudolph Mate 
Ted McCord 
Wm. C. Mellor 
Ray Mercer 
John J. Mescall 
R. L. Metty 
Arthur Miller 
Virgil Miller 
Victor Milner 
Hoi Mohr 
Ira H. Morgan 
Nick Musuraca 

Harry C. Neumann 

L. William O’Connell 
Roy Overbaugh 

Ernest Palmer 
Harry Perry 
Gus C. Peterson 
R. W. Pittack 
Robert H. Planck 
Frank Planer 
Sol Polito 
Gordon B. Pollock 


Frank Redman 
Ray Rennahan 
Irving Ries 
Irmin Roberts 
George H. Robinson 
Guy Roe 
Len H. Roos 
Jackson Rose 
Charles Rosher 
Harold Rosson 
Joseph Ruttenberg 

Charles Salerno, Jr. 

George Schneiderman 
Charles Schoenbaum 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Henry Sharp 
William A. Sickner 
Allen Siegler 
Wm. V. Skall 
Tack Smith 
Edward Snyder 
Wm. E. Snyder 
Ralph Staub 
Mack Stengler 
Clifford Stine 
Archie J. Stout 
Harry Stradling 
Walter Strenge 
Karl Struss 
Robert L. Surtees 

Philip Tannura 
J. O. Taylor 
George Teague 
Ted Tetzlaff 
Stuart Thompson 
Robert Tobey 
Leo Tover 
Thomas Tutwiler 

James C. Van Trees 
Paul C. Vogel 

Joseph Walker 
Gilbert Warrenton 
Albert Wetzel 
Lester White 
Harry Wild 
Wm. N. Williams 
Rex Wimpy 
Dewey Wrigley 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Simeon Aller 
Mark Armistead 
Cecil Bardwell 
Edgar Bergen 
Louis A. Bonn 
L. M. Combs 
J. L. Courcier 
George Crane 
Wm. T. Crespinel 
Edward P. Curtis 
Ralph Farnham 
Fred W. Gage 
George H. Gibson 
Wm. J. German 
Carl Louis Gregory 
Herbert Griffin 


A. J. Guerin 
Robert Hansard 
Emery Huse 
Lloyd A. Jones 
Wilson Leahy 
Sidney Lund 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Lewis L. Mellor 
Garland C. Misener 
Peter Mole 
Hollis Moyse 
J. K. Nunan 

Dr. Konstantin Pestrecov 

H. W. Remerscheid 

Elmer C. Richardson 

Park J. Ries 

Robert Riley 

Loren Ryder 

Dr. V. B. Sease 

Peter L. Shamray 

Sidney P. Solow 

Dr. James S. Watson, Jr. 

James R. Wilkinson 
E. A. Williford 
Wallace V. Wolfe 

NON-RESIDENT MEMBERS 

Charles E. Bell—St. Paul, Minnesota 

Georges Benoit—France 

O. H. Borradaile—England 

Jack Cardiff—England 

S. C. Chuck—China 

Olle Comstedt—Sweden 

J. Burgi Contner—New York, N. Y. 

John Dored—Europe 

Max B. DuPont—Tahiti 

Higino J. Fallorina—Quezon City, P. I. 

Frank R. Follette—Sparta, New Jersey 

Charles Harten—New York, N. Y. 

Reed N. Haythorne—Tucson, Arizona 
Charles W. Herbert—Tucson, Arizona 
John L. Herrman—New Orleans, La. 

Eric Horvitch—South Africa 
Wm. H. Jansen—Manila, P. I. 

Don Malkames—Tuckahoe, N. Y. 

Louis Page—France 
Ted Pahle—Spain 
Paul Perry—California 
Alex Phillips—Mexico 
Bob Roberts—Areentin^ 

Robert Sable—Chicago, Ill. 

James Seeley—Philadelphia, Pa. 

William Steiner, Jr.—Cliffside Park,N. J. 
Prasart Sukhum—Thailand 
Nicholas Toporkoff—France 
Frederick A. Young—England 
Frank C. Zucker—New York, N. Y. 

INACTIVE MEMBERS 

Faxon Dean 
Jos. A. Dubray 
Harry Hallenberger 
G. Floyd Jackman 
Douglas Shearer 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

E. O. Blackburn 
A. S. Howell 
David MacDonald 
G. A. Mitchell 


212 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 





NEWSREELER’S DILEMMA 


(Continued from Page 201) 


were now in ruins was depressing to me 
but not too great a handicap. Ruins can 
sometimes be colorful and are always 
dramatic. But my actors were gone. Gone 
was the incredulous Goering, the pompous 
Mussolini, the sinister Hitler, the strut¬ 
ting Ciano, the gentlemanly Horthy, the 
oily Beck, vain Carol and all the others. 
Some had died a natural death, some had 
been shot, hanged or exiled—-gone were 
they all from the European scene and my 
camera viewfinder. 

Their places had been taken by a bleak 
row of insignificant and often temporary 
personalities, among whom foreign min¬ 
ister Bevin is perhaps the most spectacular. 
I don’t intend to discuss what the world 
has gained or lost by these changes, but 
I want to stress that for me, as a newsreel 
cameraman, it has posed a difficult pro¬ 
blem. 

Added to this setback in performance 
personnel is the iron curtain which Stalin 
has drawn across the European stage, cut¬ 
ting postwar newsreel coverage possibil¬ 
ities to half that of prewar. Because all 
open news work is forbidden behind the 
iron curtain, I have no chance to cover 
the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
Hungary, Bulgaria, Roumania or Albania. 
Once, very long ago, when Lenin died in 
1924, I filmed that funeral story in Mos¬ 
cow in spite of strong Soviet restrictions. 
I even managed to get the film out of the 
country, which resulted in my arrest by 
Soviet secret police. After six weeks in 
prison and endless cross-questioning, I 
was sentenced to death. Diplomatic pres¬ 
sure was brought to bear and this sentence 
was reduced to a decree of "eternal ex¬ 
pulsion from the Soviet territories." So 
with this experience behind me, I can 
readily say there is no newsreel story in 
Eastern Europe that would make it worth¬ 
while for me to cross into Russian ter¬ 
ritory with my camera. 

Perhaps the most urgent problem fac¬ 
ing the foreign newsreel cameraman since 
the war is what I may term the problem 
of "the plot." Like every Hollywood pro¬ 
duction, every newsreel story must have 
a plot, too. Before the war, the world 
was full of angles for news plots. There 
were a number of power centers dispersed 
around the globe, each with its own ideolo¬ 
gic, economic, cultural and military in¬ 
terests. With the fantastic, highly explo¬ 
sive war plot still fresh in the peoples’ 
memory, postwar events seem tame by 
comparison. 

Only one story has created a really 
worldwide sensation during the past three 
years and that is the story of the Berlin 
Airlift. That Russia tried to starve two 
and a half million people into submission 



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June, 1949 


© 


American Cinematographer 


213 

















SPLIT A GALLON LUBRICATING oil can 

in half, lengthwise, for an emergency re¬ 
flector for photoflood lamps. Attach the 
lamp socket to bottom of can with small 
bolts. Solder a large picture frame hook 
to top of can or attach a spring clothes 
pin here with screws as means for clamp- 
inf reflector to a stand, chair or other 
convenient fixture. 

USE A FRESHLY LAUNDERED flour sack 
for holding your unedited film strips. Fit 
opening of sack with a wire frame and 
attach to your editing table by means of 
short wooden batten. Use numbered spring 
clothespins around edge of frame to hold 
the lead ends of each film strip. 

• 

IF RANGE OF TILTING DEVICE ON y0 ur 
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may be made from a block of wood, 
roughly 2" by 4" by 6", with three steps 
cut in the top surface, affording three 
additional levels for your projector. 

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larger in diameter than the camera lens, 
can be used in an emergency by mounting 
them in front of lens with scotch tape. 

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A LARCE BOTTLE OR GALLON j U g makes 
an excellent developing drum for short 
lengths of film. Wind film around bottle 
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for developing short title strips or tint¬ 
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WHEN YOUR PROJECTOR pilot light burns 
out, tie a small pen-size flashlight to a 
spring clothespin and clamp it to pro¬ 
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CUTTING PORTHOLES in living room 
walls enable you to set up projector in 
another room, thereby eliminating the 
projector noise and giving your films pro¬ 
fessional presentation. To conceal these 
portholes, when not showing movies, 
mount a framed picture over them. Hing¬ 
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raise and lower the picture at will from 
other side of the wall. 

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and that these people were saved by the 
gallantry and resourcefulness of British 
and American airmen, made news of mag¬ 
nitude equalling that of many wartime 
events. But as such news is invariably 
shortlived and because by now the airlift 
has become a routine and almost common¬ 
place operation, it will only become news 
again when and if the blockade is lifted. 
(Mr. Dored Wrote this prior to the re¬ 
cent dubious lifting of the blockade— 
ED.) 

Out of the titanic struggle of this last 
war, two giants emerged: America and 
Soviet Russia—overshadowing all other 
powers. As long as the Russia giant defies 
truth and therefore bans open news 
work, we newsreel photographers must 
content ourselves with "western’’ news. 
But in so doing, it seems to me that all 
our newsreels have ventured farther and 
farther away from news and now manily 
consist of what I would term entertain¬ 
ment-. sports, fashions, beauty contests, 
etc. Only occasionally does a newsreel to¬ 
day contain a real news item, of which 
a very small percentage is foreign. In a 
way I think our newsreels have remained 
isolationists while our country’s general 
policy has changed to embrace more than 
half of the world. 

Behind this phenomenon may be the 
always questionable economy of the news¬ 
reels. Perhaps, also, they are influenced 
by the competition between newsreels and 
the growth of television. As a very sea¬ 
soned newsreel cameraman, I have been 
through quite a number of "economy 


time we switched all our studio cameras 
over to R. C. A. Image-Orthicons, we 
were doing this show with two Icono¬ 
scopes. We put two Image-Orthicons on 
the "Kukla, Fran and Ollie” show and 
added more gray hairs to the present ones, 
in trying to find two tubes that were 
properly matched.” 

This is where the Zoomar saved the 
day, he said. Using the two Image-Orthi¬ 
cons gave them the result of different 
looking characters every time they 
switched from one camera to another. 
Birch suggested using the Zoomar and 
doing the entire show with one camera 
and the Zoomar lens. The second camera 
could then be used on the commercials. 
His suggestion was followed and the re¬ 
sult is that the puppets and Fran are al¬ 
ways of the same image quality through¬ 
out the show. The show no longer suf¬ 
fers from the image differences that fol¬ 
lowed when cuts were made between two 
cameras. 


drives” in my time, and when I consider 
how news expenses have been reduced 
since the early days—as when I would 
charter a plane to fly a parcel of news 
film half way around the world to beat 
a competitor newsreel—and compare con¬ 
ditions with today where I must carefully 
compose a cable to keep the wordage 
down, I still am not convinced that econ¬ 
omy needs can be the reason for the trend 
of the newsreel today. As to television, 
I know still less about it than I know of 
economy. Therefore newsreel managers, 
editors and treasurers will probably smile 
at my naive proposal that we leave race 
events, sports matches and all the other 
purely entertainment events to television 
and let us concentrate on recording news 
which no other agency is as well equipped 
by experience and organization to do. 

I do not underrate the difficulties con¬ 
fronting us, which I have partly described 
from a cameraman’s point of view already. 
But as the sensations of war and victory 
recede, I think news will come out of its 
slump and will again be evaluated for 
its own merits. I also believe that as Eur¬ 
ope recovers and the Atlantic brother¬ 
hood gets going, new plot centers will 
develop within the borders of America 
and Russia. With the American policy 
now embracing all the free world, does 
not the interest of Americans also turn 
towards contemporary world news and 
history? 

Or am I just an old news-hound whose 
hunting instincts make me blind and deaf 
to the strange trends of this postwar era? 


"We also found our zoom shots much 
improved,” continued Birch, "enabling 
us to do away with a dolly and a dolly 
pusher. We feel the show is tops’ from 
a photographic and technical standpoint 
and that the Zoomar has added more in¬ 
terest to it.” 

Nor is the Zoomar’s use confined to 
the "Kukla, Fran and Ollie” show at 
WBKB. According to Birch, the lens is 
used on baseball, football, parades and 
other remote telecasts. They have used it 
in the studio on their super-dramatic 
shows where, according to Birch, it has 
given results the studio could not obtain 
in any other way. "In fact,” he said, 
"WBKB was the first television studio 
to use the Zoomar on a dramatic show.” 

As the use of this radically new lens 
is learned by and through experience, it 
is certain to become one of the most im¬ 
portant accessories for the television cam¬ 
era. Today it is being used by more than 
25 TV stations for studio productions 
and remotes. 


HOW ZOOMAR AIDS TV PHOTOGRAPHY 

(Continued from Page 202) 


0 


214 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 
















CUTTING THE 
COMMERCIAL FILM 

(Continued, from Page 208) 
wheel can be cut to dissolve to a close-up 
of a whirling fly - wheel on a modern 
machine, thus providing a quick and 
smooth transition from old to new in¬ 
dustry. 

The actual physical routine of cutting 
is familiar to everyone whose job it is 
to edit commercial features. For the bene¬ 
fit of those who are just entering this 
phase of the field, we shall review briefly 
the various steps of creative cutting. 

First, the raw footage is screened and 
the best take of each scene is selected 
and noted on a scene list. Secondly, these 
good takes are culled out and assembled 
in sequence, preferably on a film rack 
or pigeon-hole board. The extra takes on 
each scene are very carefully catalogued 
as to subject matter and filed away in 
cans to form a stock library for use in 
future productions. 

Next, the "slates” are cut off of the 
scenes in the first sequence (one by one) 
and they are assembled by splicing in the 
order indicated in the script. None of 
the action is cut off any of the scenes at 
this point; therefore, there will be quite 
a bit of overlapping action in the various 
angles of the same sequence. The footage 
is then run on a projector (we assume 
work-print is being used) and the editor 
views the sequence several times until he 
can "feel” the flow of the action and 
select the spots in the overlapping action 
where cuts can be made most smoothly. 

The editor then runs the sequence 
through a viewer, marking with grease 
pencil the frames where he feels cuts 
can be made to best advantage. Using 
these marked frames as his guide, he then 
cuts out the excess overlap footage and 
splices the scenes together in a rough cut 
of the sequence. It is best to cut the foot¬ 
age too long than too short at this par¬ 
ticular stage. 

Once again the rough cut sequence is 
projected and closely checked for smooth¬ 
ness and pace. The editor checks the 
narration for that particular sequence 
and, working with the writer, juggles pic¬ 
ture and words so that the two directly 
complement each other. Sometimes there 
is a certain amount of information that 
must arbitrarily be included in the narra¬ 
tion of a certain sequence and the picture 
must be padded to fit. The more satis¬ 
factory method to be used wherever pos¬ 
sible, however, is for the picture to be 
cut so that it flows smoothly, and then 
tailor the narration to match. 

When the editor and the director are 
satisfied with the cutting of the first 
sequence, it is set aside and the second 
sequence is tackled. So on down to the 
final sequence. It is by far the best 
technique to cut a picture one sequence 



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« 


June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


215 


























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at a time, and preferably in order. Other¬ 
wise, if the editor attempts to cut the 
whole picture at once, he becomes 
swamped by it and is not able to pay 
attention to the little details that add up 
to precision cutting. 

When all of the sequences are ap¬ 
proved for cutting, they are spliced to¬ 
gether in order and the entire picture is 
run for the editor, the director and the 
client’s representatives. Some changes will 
undoubtedly have to be made when the 
picture is thus viewed as an entity, but 
such adjustments are usually minor if the 
individual sequences have been carefully 
edited. 


When the cut work-print has been 
approved, the picture is ready for sound 
dubbing, and as soon as the sound track 
has been checked, the original color or 
black and white negative is matched to 
the cut work print and optical effects are 
set up preparatory to making the com¬ 
posite print. 

The importance of creative cutting in 
the production of commercial pictures 
cannot be over-estimated, since it is the 
editing which accounts for the ultimate 
presentation to the audience of the efforts 
of the writer, the director, the cameraman, 
and (most important) the client. 


CHAMPION 

(Continued from Page 197) 


the entire picture was rehearsed scene 
for scene on a vacant sound stage, with 
no props other than those necessary to 
complement the action. On hand, beside 
the cast, director, producer, script writer, 
the editor, grips, etc., was Frank Planer 
and his gaffer, Tom Ouellette. Together 
they planned the lighting of sets—plan¬ 
ning which called for elimination of scaf¬ 
folding where possible, the barest mini¬ 
mum of lighting equipment, but with a 
reserve of lighting units to cover any 
emergency. 

Planer, using his detached camera view¬ 
finder, planned his camera angles and 
setups, always in consultation with direc¬ 
tor Mark Robson, of course. "Thus, when 
I was ready to shoot the picture,” Planer 
said, ”1 had a very real conception of the 
complete production. I had the lighting 
and the photography fully planned for 
every scene in advance. The delays and 
the lost motion that often follow where 
the cameraman must take each scene as 
he comes to it, was thus avoided. The 
production was placed on a strict time¬ 
table basis, and once the camera started 
to roll, shooting proceeded according to 
schedule.” 

Contributing much to the smooth run¬ 
ning of the production, according to 
Planer, was the fact that the advance 
planning, conferences, and rehearsal of 
the picture had given everyone concerned 
a complete visualization of the produc¬ 
tion. The final rehearsal action was the 
same as enacted in the actual shooting 
later. The lighting and camera angle 
which Planer had established weeks ear¬ 
lier, say, for scene 232, dovetailed with 
the action and script instructions when 
the time came to shoot the scene. Only 
in very rare instances were any last min¬ 
ute changes made in the script. Earlier, 
as problems were encountered—and every 
opportunity was given for them to be 
recognized and dealt with during the 


numerous rehearsals—they were settled 
then and there, and the script changed 
accordingly and followed to the letter 
when shooting began. 

The terrific impact of "Champion’s” 
story demanded a mood which was es¬ 
tablished early in the picture by Planer’s 
well calculated lighting and camera angles. 
From the very beginning, Planer built 
steadily for the climax—the big fight 
sequence. ”1 had decided that, above all 
else, I would put everything I had into 
the final sequence, which is the climactic 
point of the story,” he said. The grim 
aspects of the story which prevail through¬ 
out much of the picture called for ap¬ 
propriate lighting to sustain mood, and 
Planer met it successfully with a fine 
degree of low-key lighting, first in the 
opening scenes of the two men scuffling 
with the hoodlums in the box car, then the 
hunt by one for the other in the darkness 
after they have jumped from the train, 
and later in the interior of the training 
quarters, in the fight arena, and finally 
in the big championship bout scenes. 

Planer accomplished mood lighting and 
at the same time saved considerable money 
for the producer by employing photo¬ 
flood lamps in a great many scenes, thus 
eliminating the bulky, and more costly 
illumination of big arc lamps and inkys. 
Photofloods, replacing the usual light 
globes in the practical lamps dotting the 
ceiling of the corridors and the dressing 
rooms of the fight stadium, gave the right 
effect of natural lighting. Photofloods 
supplied overhead lighting for the fight 
arena. And interiors at the little roadside 
inn in Santa Monica were lit for the most 
part with photofloods. 

In the early part of the story, much 
of the motivating action takes place within 
the roadside inn, where Douglas and 
Kennedy have found work — and Ruth 
Roman. Planer chose the location in pre¬ 
ference to a studio-built set for several 






216 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 












reasons; first, it was completely natural; 
it afforded a view of the passing traffic 
through the windows which, to be re¬ 
produced on a studio set would have in¬ 
volved costly background plates. It also 
posed a problem in camera movement, 
for the little "two-by-four” eatery would 
not permit use of either tripod or small 
dolly. Planer made many of the shots 
with camera mounted on a stack of pop 
bottle cases; on the counter, or on a chair. 

Planer encountered trouble, too, in the 
light coming through the windows direct¬ 
ly facing the camera. When first they 
scouted the location, it was a mild sunny 
day. But on the day they chose to shoot 
at this location, a brush fire sprung up 
suddenly in the hills back of the inn, 
flooding the sky with billowing white 
smoke. This increased the brilliance of 
the light coming through the windows, 
a problem which Planer met by placing 
blue cellophane over the window panes. 
But even this expedient was not without 
contributing problems. The heat of the 
sun caused the cellophane to shrink and 
curl, and the wind rustled the cellophane, 
causing highlights to flash back toward 
the camera lens. Had Planer the time, 
had he not a rigid timetable to follow, 
he would have met the problem by re¬ 
placing the clear glass in the windows 
with blue. Instead, fiine piano wire was 
stretched across each window pane to 
keep the cellophane flat. 

The moonlit beach scenes are a tribute 
to Planer’s camera artistry. Shooting these 
scenes in daylight, he used a combination 
of filters, which he developed himself, 
to achieve the excellent moonlight illusion. 
Only the closeups of Douglas and the 
girl on the beach were shot on the sound 
stage, and only because dialogue require¬ 
ments made the exterior location imprac¬ 
tical. But so carefully are these lit and 
filtered that they match the heavily filter¬ 
ed exterior long shots perfectly. 

Planer’s camera takes a virile and start¬ 
lingly realistic turn in the fight scenes, 
which are supposedly staged in a number 
of big fight stadiums throughout the 
country. Actually they were all shot in 
the same stadium. Planer changed the 
visual aspect each time, as the story locale 
required, by altering his lighting, by paint¬ 
ing the ropes and posts white for one 
sequence, and darker for another; or by 
shooting one sequence from a higher or 
lower camera angle. 

The picture is remarkable for the ex¬ 
cellent spectator viewpoint of the fight 
scenes, lending further to the naturalness 
of the action and contributing to the 
mood of the story which Planer early 
decided was one of the most important 
factors in building the picture to its 
smashing climax. Planer’s Mitchell cam¬ 
era was mounted on a special '"Rosie” 
dolly which permitted it to be used close 
to the floor. It permitted sliding the cam- 


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June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


217 





















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era over the canvas of the ring to follow 
the fighters, and back again, to pan 
from side to side, as required—with the 
same smoothness and percision had cam¬ 
era been mounted on the conventional 
studio dolly or tripod. 

Meanwhile, Perry Finnerman, Planer’s 
second cameraman, "covered” him with 
a special Cunningham - Eyemo combat 
camera. Perched on a baggage-handler’s 
two-wheel hand truck, Finnerman was 
wheeled around the ring as he trained his 
camera on the battered leatherpushers 
slugging away at each other in a mythical 
prizefight that had all the earmarks of the 
real thing. Indeed, in many instances it 
was real. Douglas and each of his oppon¬ 
ents had agreed, for the sake of realism, 
to really fight instead of resorting to the 
usual leather tossing that passes for box¬ 
ing in so many fight pictures. Douglas 
went into rigid training before the fight 
sequences were filmed and received pro¬ 
fessional coaching from veteran ring 
champ, Ace Hudkins. And when the pic¬ 
ture was finished, Douglas knew how it 
really feels to be a prizefighter. 

This same sincerity of purpose marked 
Frank Planer’s work in the production, 


too. After he had read the script, Planer 
agreed to direct the photography if he 
could also have a hand in planning the 
production, which, happily, coincided with 
producer Kramer’s wishes. Good pictures 
do not come the way of cameramen very 
often—pictures with Academy Award 
winning possibilities—but when one does 
come along, a picture that offers real op¬ 
portunity to enhance and motivate the 
story through intelligent lighting and 
camera work, it poses the sort of chal¬ 
lenge every cameraman is eager to accept. 

"Champion” is—or was at the begin¬ 
ning—a picture without star names. To 
put it across, it was necessary to give it 
production values and real "socko” that 
would enable it to sell on merit alone. 
And that is exactly what happened. As 
sincere as Kirk Douglas’ punching is 
Frank Planer’s calculated mood photog¬ 
raphy; Mark Robson’s smart direction and 
the frank portrayal’s of every member 
of the cast. Planer may well rest on his 
laurels, while enjoying his European sab¬ 
batical, and contemplate the heights to 
which his stock may rise as a result of 
his excellent photography of this picture. 


PUSHBUTTON CINEMATOGRAPHY 


(Continued from Page 205) 


the exposed film. This exposure is con¬ 
trolled by a mechanical shutter. 

The camera and shutter are driven by 
synchronous motors which are synchroni¬ 
zed with the entire television system. The 
shutter drive is isolated from the main 
camera, and a 3600 - rpm synchronous 
motor drives the shutter at the necessary 
1440 revolutions per minute through a 
set of precision gears. Another motor, 
synchronized with this, drives the film 
transport and intermittent mechanism. 
This arrangement insures rotational ac¬ 
curacy and freedom from inter-action of 
the camera drive and shutter drive mech¬ 
anisms. 

The density of film recording depends 
not only on the length of exposure but 
on the brightness of the cathode-ray pic¬ 
ture tube. Since the exposure time is 
fixed, the highlight brightness of the pic¬ 
ture is varied by means of the video gain 
control; the kinescope bias control will 
set the black level or point of visual 
extinction of the return lines. The beam 
current of the picture tube is measured 
by a microammeter on the control panel 
of the monitor; since there is a direct 
relationship between this current and the 
output of the tube, the measurement of 
the beam current provides a good index 
to the brightness of the picture. 

Normally, the positive kinescope images 
are filmed on standard stock, producing 


negative film images which can be used 
for rebroadcast by reversing the video 
phase in the TV camera. The negative is 
then available to produce as many posi¬ 
tive prints as desired. For applications 
where quick processing and projection is 
required, such as in theatres, a polarity 
switch makes it possible to adjust the 
kinescope to produce negative images. 
Such images can be photographed and 
processed as direct film positives for im¬ 
mediate projection. RCA has found that 
with special processing equipment, it is 
possible to project the finished pictures 
on the motion picture screen within 40 
seconds after they are filmed. Using this 
technique, theatres could take pictures 
"off the air,” rush them through proces¬ 
sing, and use standard film projectors to 
show them on the screen as newsreels. 

The 16mm. film has been chosen in¬ 
itially for television recording because of 
the importance of costs of film stock and 
film processing, together with the safety 
problems involved. RCA engineers have 
found that 16mm. fine grain films with 
suitable processing can produce excellent 
picture quality, and since the costs in¬ 
volved are only about one-third as much 
as in the case of 35mm. film, the use of 
16mm. film is felt well justified. When 
it is realized that it takes 1200 feet of 
film to record a half-hour performance, 
cost of film and developing is recognized 


218 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 






















as an important factor. 

The motion picture camera can be 
equipped with RCA sound recording 
equipment to place the sound track and 
picture on the same film, or the sound 
signals may be fed to a separate sound 
recorder which permits editing, re-record¬ 
ing, and dubbing. 


MAGNETIC SOUND 

(Continued from Page 206) 

movie amateurs had attempted to satisfy 
their desire for sound through use of 
sound on discs and record playing turn¬ 
tables. 

The culmination of the Foundation’s 
efforts to perfect a method of application 
of magnetic sound to 8mm. movies is told 
by Dr. H. A. Leedy, Director, Armour 
Research Foundation, in an article in a 
recent issue of the Foundation’s publica¬ 
tion Frontier, part of which is reprinted 
here: 

"The possibility of recording sound di¬ 
rectly on 8mm. motion picture film has 
always been intriguing to motion picture 
engineers and to others interested in the 
field of sound recording. Attempts in the 
past to record sound on 8mm. film have 
proved unsatisfactory primarily because 
of the small space available for the sound 
track and because of the very low film 
speed—approximately 2.7 in. per second. 

"The development and improvement of 
recording heads and magnetic powder 
has made possible for the first time the 
satisfactory recording of sound on 8mm. 
film. In 35 mm. sound film the optical 
track is 0.100 in. wide and is well re¬ 
moved from the sprocket holes and edge 
of the film. This is, of course, necessary 
for optical recording since uneven de¬ 
velopment in the neighborhood of the 
sprocket holes and the edge of the film 
results in a distortion of the optical track. 

"A magnetic track can be used instead 
of the optical track on 35mm. film. With 
improved magnetic powders, it is possible 
to obtain high-quality magnetic records 
on 35mm. film. Recent experiments have 
shown that at 24 frames per second it is 
easily possible to obtain a reproduced sig¬ 
nal having a signal-to-noise ratio in ex¬ 
cess of 45 db and a frequency response 
which is flat within plus or minus from 50 
to 16,000 cycles per second. 

"For 16mm. sound film the sprocket 
holes have been removed from one edge 
of the film to make space for the optical 
track. This optical track can be replaced 
by a magnetic track, or, on 16mm. silent 
film, the magnetic track can be placed 
between the sprocket holes and the edge 
of the film. In either case, at the same 
film speed, the results are equally satis¬ 
factory. 

"For 8mm. silent film, the sprocket 



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Animation Motors for Cine Special. 
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NEW YORK 10, N. Y. 


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SYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC 

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June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


219 





































NOW AVAILABLE! 

• 35mm. Variable Area Film Record¬ 
ing Equipment. 

® 35mm. Re-recorders. 

® Interlock Systems. 

® Studio Mixer Consoles. 

® Portable Converters. 

• 35mm. Double Film Magazines and 
Loop Attachments. 

QUALITY FILM RECORDING 
EQUIPMENT SINCE 1930 

BLUE SEAL SOUND DEVICES 

536 E. 85th St., New York 28, N.Y. 

Cable Address : SOUNDFILM 


AKELEY CAMERA, Inc. 

175 Varick Street 
New York 14, New York 

—Established 1914— 

Designers and manufacturers of silent 
and sound motion picture cameras 
with 225° shutter opening, (288° 
shutter opening for television use), 
gyro tripods and precision instruments. 

Complete engineering and machine 
shop facilities for experimental work, 
model and production runs. 

Inquiries Invited 



MOVIE AND SLIDE TITLES 

STILL AT SAME LOW PRICES! 

Same titles formerly distributed by Bell & Howell 
—now sold direct. Large variety backgrounds 
available. No charge for tinting film Amber! 
WRITE FOR . . . 

free illustrated literature and samples 

TITLE-CRAFT, 1024 Argyle St., Chicago 40, III. 



MOTION PICTURE 
i* MM PRINTERS 8 M " 

CONTINUOUS-STEP-REDUCTION 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE LITERATURE 

UHLER MicAsmGr. 


16519 WASHBURN AVE. 


DETROIT 2I,MICH 


holes already have been removed from 
one side of the film. If an optical sound 
track is to be used on this film it can be 
placed either on the unsprocketed side 
reducing the limited area available for the 
picture or it can be placed between the 
sprocket holes and the edge of the film, 
in which case troubles are encountered 
due to uneven development. 

Thus, neither of these locations is 
satisfactory for an optical track. How¬ 
ever, a magnetic track 0.030 inches wide, 
can be placed on the sprocketed side. 
Very satisfactory results for the record¬ 
ing of speech have been obtained with a 
track in this position. 

"Fig. 3 shows a typical block diagram 
of an 8mm. magnetic sound projector 
circuit. With the four-gang switch in 
the record position, as shown in the dia¬ 
gram, the high frequency oscillator cur¬ 
rent is applied to the erase head, thereby 
removing any signal which has been pre¬ 
viously recorded on the magnetic track. 
The output from the microphone, after 
being amplified and equalized, is applied 
to the record-play head along with the 
high frequency bias current. With the 
four-gang switch in the play position, 
the high frequency oscillator is removed 
from the circuit, and the output from 
the record-play head is sent through the 
amplifier and equalizer to the loud¬ 
speaker. 

"Several 8mm. silent projectors have 
been converted for use with magnetic 
tracks. More recently, a silent 8mm. pro¬ 
jector has been converted and built into 
a complete unit for both recording and 
playback. Fig. 1 shows a side view of 
this projector. A contact type governor 
has been added to the series motor of 
this projector giving essentially a con¬ 
stant speed drive at 18 frames per second 
—2.7 inches per second. This projector 
is mounted on a base containing the 
erase-record-play head, an oil-damped fly 
wheel, the bias and erase oscillator and 
the audio amplifier. 

"The film path, Fig 1, is from the 
supply wheel over the first drive sprocket, 
through the film gate, thence, after a long 
loop, through the erase-recotd-play head, 
over the fly wheel roller, under an idler 
pulley (which is pressed against the fly 
wheel roller by the tension in the film), 
and finally over the second sprocket to 
the take-up reel A back view of this 
projector is shown in Fig 2. the over¬ 
all frequency response of this projector 
is flat within plus or minus 5 db for 120 
to 3,500 cycles per second. If desired, an 
improved low - frequency response can 
easily be obtained by increasing the bass 
equalization 

"With such a projector, recording can 
be made easily by the average amateur 
and can be played back immediately 
without the necessity of any intermedi¬ 


ate processing. If the recording is unsat¬ 
isfactory, it can readily be erased and a 
new recording made immediately. The 
recordings thus made may be played over 
and over again without appreciable loss 
of fidelity. It is possible to place magnetic 
tracks on existing 8mm. films; thus sound 
rides can be added to present 8mm. film 
libraries. 

"It should be pointed out that it is ex¬ 
tremely difficult to obtain uniform film 
motion at this low film speed of 2.7 
inches per second. It is particularly dif¬ 
ficult to obtain this by converting ex¬ 
isting silent equipment. Much more sat¬ 
isfactory results could, of course, be 
obtained by designing an entirely new 
projector having uniform film speed in 
mind from the beginning. Such projec¬ 
tors, having satisfactory film speed con¬ 
trol, would, of course, be suitable for 
recording music for amateur use. How¬ 
ever, with the projector shown, very sat¬ 
isfactory recordings of speech have been 
made, and such a unit should prove a 
boon to the amateur who is interested 
in placing sound titles and other speech 
sounds on 8mm. film.” 


THE FOUNTAINHEAD 


(Continued from Page 201) 


employed them to complete advantage, 
without at any time going overboard for 
arty’’ effects. But he went beyond the 
tailor-made dimensions of the interior 
sets in carrying the modern style of com¬ 
position over into even the outdoor na¬ 
tural locales. For example, a huge rock 
quarry serves as one of the important 
settings for the action. Had this location 
been photographed in a conventional 
manner it would have been just another 
rock quarry. But to the lens of cinemato¬ 
grapher Burks it became a ruggedly mo¬ 
dern, almost stylized, mounting for dra¬ 
matic action. The angular jutting shelves 
of rock were used as cubistic art forms 
to frame and balance the composition of 
the scenes. On paper, this sort of symbol¬ 
ism may sound cryptic and a bit far¬ 
fetched—but on the screen the visual 
parallels are most forceful and direct. 

In designing the sets for "The Fountain¬ 
head,” art director Carrere was guided by 
the author s own descriptions of build¬ 
ings and planned structures, some of 
which were described in the novel as 
"a mass of planes.” He used cantilever 
design for some of the buildings, and 
produced some sharply moderne, almost 
futuristic, designs—most of which, he 
maintains, are practical enough to actually 
be put into use. 

Over 300 architectural drawings were 
prepared for the film, and most of them 
followed the ultra-modern style for which 
the hero fought. Of the 70 separate sets 


220 




American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 





















in the picture, 36 were interiors and 34 
were exteriors. The modern settings in¬ 
cluded the architect’s office, his penthouse 
apartment, the office of the newspaper 
publisher, and the living room of his 
"dreamhouse” in the country. All of 
these settings are characterized by bold 
but simple lines, plus the use of struc¬ 
tural materials of varying textures. 

The most spectacular outdoor set is, of 
course, the stone quarry. Located at Know¬ 
les, California, 55 miles from Fresno, it is 
the largest quarry in California and has 
been in operation since 1882. It furnished 
the granite for the City Hall and Hall 
of Justice in Los Angeles, as well as for 
many public buildings in other large west¬ 
ern cities. The company spent three days 
shooting on location there, working in 
temperatures ranging up to 126 degrees. 

Models of each set were built in advance 
and studied by the director of photography 
in order that he might plan his lighting 
and camera set-ups far in advance of con¬ 
struction of the actual sets. 

To give the sets the desired "plane- 
against-plane” effect, Carrere had them 
painted lighter in the foreground than at 
the back and then flooded them with a 
great amount of light to provide sharp 
shadow lines. To further intensify the light 
and shadow effect, he painted the shadow 
areas of the set very dark and the high- 
’ight areas very light. 

Carrere and Burks followed through 
vith this black and white effect in the 
quarry sequence, also. Here the painters 
igain went to work darkening the shadows 
for more forceful contrast. The touch of 
paint gave modeling and depth to the 
monolithic formations, lending them 
added force as compositional forms. The 
one technical nuisance was that caused 
by the sun moving across the horizon. As 
the sun moved, the painted shadows had 
to be washed off and repainted to match 
the new natural shadow patterns. 

"The Fountainhead” owes much of its 
visual scope to the special effects created 
by William McGann and his staff. Mini¬ 
atures, process plates and matte shots are 
smoothly executed and succeed in produc¬ 
ing illusions that are especially realistic. 
Unusually effective is the collection of 
trick shots used in final sequence which 
shows theWynand Building, "largest struc¬ 
ture in the world,” under construction. 

The process by which the heroine is 
apparently taken to the top of the 1,400 
foot unfinished building to visit her archi¬ 
tect husband, required weeks of prepara¬ 
tion and involved a nightmare of special 
effects. Riding to the top on a service 
elevator, she eventually reaches the point 
where she is looking down on the Empire 
State Building. Glancing up she sees the 
remainder of the building she is ascending, 
and to make this effect believable, it was 
(Continued on Page 225) 


The MART MESSAGE 


The Camart Microphone Boom 

With 12 Vi Ft. Extension Arm, Rotating 
Mike, Portable, Collapsible 
Price $261.85 

MICRO EDITING SPECIALS 


16MM Electro Splicer _ __$ 97.50 

16MM Motor Viewer . . 165.00 

16MM Reader and Amplifier. 147.50 

Double or Single Inspector. 45.00 

Twin 16MM Synchronizer. 110.00 

Twin 35MM Synchronizer. 110.00 

Four Way 16MM Synchronizer.. 150.00 

Double 16MM and 35MM. 180.00 


New Sound 16MM Moviolas 


CINE SPECIALS - FILMOS - AURICON 
NEW AND USED SOUND CAMERAS 
MAURER SILENT AND SOUND CAMERAS 
AND RECORDERS 


WE BUY - RENT — Write For List 


IF YOU CO ALONG WITH THE 

CHANCING TIMES 
THESE ARE FOR YOU!! 

Major Film Companies and Photographic 
Illustrators are using the New 

COLORTRAN LIGHTS 

High Intensity - Color Corrected. Get approx. 
1 6,000 Watts, 3200-3400 Kelvin from 40 Amp. 
Fuses. Eastern Distributors. 

RECORDING 

On Magnetic Film Tape 17'/ 2 MM, 90 ft. per 
minute Syncronous. 

HALLEN RECORDER 

PORTABLE - HIGH FIDELITY 

Tape film can be used over and over. Re-record 
on 16 or 35MM films. 

LOWER PRODUCTION COSTS 

Eastern Distributors 

$1850.00 


the CAMERA • MART, inc. 

70 WEST 45TH STREET WORLD-WIDE SERVICE 

NEW YORK 19, N. Y. CABLE ADDRESS: CAMERAMART 



MW...16 mm. Moviola 

NOW—a professional Moviola for 16mm. pro¬ 
duction. Made by makers of the 35mm. Movi¬ 
ola. Runs at controlled speed, forward and 
reverse. Brilliant 2 " x 23/4" picture on screen. 
Write for literature and prices. 

MOVIOLA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1451 Gordon St. Hollywood 28, Calif. 



PROFESSIONAL 
VIEWFINDER 
FOR 
16 MM. 

CAMERAS 


Shows large, erect image, corrected from left 
to right, on ground glass. 


Shown above as used on the Cine Special. Model 
available for your camera, too. Professionalize 
your camera—improve your photography and 
composition. Write for details and price, stating 
make and model of camera used. 

Attractive Discounts to Dealers 

Maier- Hancock Corp. 

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SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS | 

- 35 mm. • 16 mm.- == 

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Complete Line of Equipment for Production Available for Rental 

Mitchell: Standard - Hi-Speed - NC - BNC - 16 mm. [e 

Bell & Howell: Standard - Shiftover - Eyemos 

Maurer: 16 mm. Cameras S 

Moviola: Editing Machines - Synchronizers 

SPECIALISTS IN ALL TYPES OF CAMERA REPAIR WORK. LENSES MOUNTED = 





June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


O 


221 





























$ 8888888 $ 


yrn 


a 


V 

'—■ 

nJ n 

)ir 

1 


S3 

Lru 

IT) U 


With A.S.C. 


And Members 


• Ernest Haller was shooting "Puppy 
Love” at the F.B.O. studios which site 
is now the present RKO-Radio studios on 
Gower Street 

• Gil Warrenton, having acquired a 
new Mitchell Camera, was engaged to 
shoot a new Universal production, "We 
Are French," under the direction of Ru¬ 
pert Julian. 

• Victor Milner and Fred Niblo were 
celebrating the completion of filming 
"The Red Lily," Niblo’s latest production. 

• Jimmy Van Trees was photographing 
Single Wives, an eight-reel First Na¬ 
tional Production starring Corrine Griffith 
and with George Archinbaud at the mega¬ 
phone. 

• Al Gilks was seeing Betty Compson 
daily through his camera viewfinder as 
he photographed this popular Paramount 
star in Sam Wood’s production titled 
"The Female.” 

• Arthur Edeson signed with First Na¬ 
tional to photograph "The Lost World.” 

• Fred Jackman, who was now a suc¬ 
cessful director, and Homer Scott were 
engaged by First National to produce im¬ 
portant special effects photography for a 
forthcoming super-production. 

• Sol Polito, drawing upon his full 
range of glamour tricks, was photograph¬ 
ing Priscilla Dean in The Siren Of 
Seville” for Hunt Stromberg. 

• Bob Doran finished shooting Will 
Rogers’ last production for Hal Roach 
and took over the photography of "The 
Spat Family” series of comedies for 
Roach. 


• Norbert Brodine was receiving acco¬ 
lades for his splendid camera work in 
The Sea Hawk. 


• Steve Norton was filming a series of 
comedy dramas at Universal, under di¬ 
rection of Jack Dawn, which combined 
live action with clay models. 

• Cinematographers —they were called 
simply cameramen, then—were buzzing 
with excitement over the consolidation 
of three large film producing studios into 
one, namely, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

• John Arnold completed filming "Free 
Love,” the first production made under 
the new M-G-M merger. It had an all star 
cast and was directed by Hobart Henley. 


WHAT’S NEW 

in equipment, accessories, service 



New 8mm. Cine Kodak 

Reliant’ is name of Eastman Kodak’s 
newest postwar 8mm. roll-loading motion 
picture camera. Features include sprocket¬ 
less roll film loading, a pre-focused 13mm. 
f/2.7 Ektanon lens, and the popular Cine 
Kodak universal exposure guide. Other 
features include a full range of taking 
speeds from 16 to 48 frames per second 
for slow motion movies; an enclosed eye- 
level viewfinder equipped with indicators 
for parallax correction when taking close- 
ups, and likewise showing the field of 
acessory telephoto lenses. A locking ex¬ 
posure button and an accurate footage 
counter complete the equipment. Finish 
is silver-gray hammered metallic com¬ 
plementing the camera’s functional styl¬ 
ing. Price of camera is $89.00, including 
federal tax. Several accessories, including 
extra lenses are available. 



New Tripod 

Camera Equipment Company, New 
York, announces its new balanced "TV 
Tripod Head,” said to meet the strict re¬ 
quirements for a pan-tilt head for tele¬ 
vision cameras. Head is designed on a 
new principle of pan and tilt action which 
discards friction and gyro principles. Tilt 
action is balanced to assist cameraman in 
the operation of his camera, reducing to 
a minimum the effort required to move 
the camera. 

An important safety feature is incor¬ 


porated in the Balanced "TV" Head, 
which relieves the operator from addi¬ 
tional strain and eliminates the possibility 
of accidents. If, due to the neglect of the 
operator, the head is left unlocked with 
the camera mounted, it cannot fall for¬ 
ward or backward. The pan handle is 
adjustable for the operators’ comfort, 
with no play betweeu the pan handle 
mounting bracket and the head. To adjust 
the position a simple locking lever is re¬ 
leased, adjustment made, and lever re¬ 
positioned. The pan handle is an adjust¬ 
able telescoping type. 

The weight and manufacture of the 
camera to be used must be known to 
achieve proper tension and accomplish 
floating action. A special "TV” size tripod 
base with reinforced shoes can be sup¬ 
plied for the head which can also be 
mounted on all standard professional type 
tripod bases, perambulators, pedestals, and 
dollies. 



Photo Floodlight 

General Electric Company’s lamp de¬ 
partment at Nela Park, Ohio has devel¬ 
oped a small but extremely powerful pho¬ 
tographic floodlight designed to provide 
the intense concentration of light neces¬ 
sary for high-speed motion picture photo¬ 
graphy. The new lamp, rated at 750 
watts, throws a 75,000 footcandle beam 
of light. 


Firm Name Changed 

The American Bolex Co., Inc. has 
changed its name to Director Products 
Corporation and is now dealing exclu¬ 
sively in the manufacturing and market¬ 
ing of the Norwood Director Exposure 
Meter, according to Robert E. Brockway, 
president. 

All sales correspondence should be ad- 
dresed to 2 West 46th Street, New York 
19, N.Y., whereas all meters requiring 
service should be sent directly to the fac- 






222 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 








































tory service department at Director Pro¬ 
ducts Corporation, Stark Street Gate, Man¬ 
chester, New Hampshire, Brockway said. 



Lens Turret 1 

J. Burgi Contner, A.S.C., 536 E. 85th 
St., New York, has designed a three-lens 
turret for the Auricon single system 
16mm. sound camera. The turret will ac¬ 
commodate lenses mounted in standard 
16mm. "C” mounts. 

Turret is mounted on the main camera 
frame and insulated from the exterior 
housing. The adaptation of this turret 
to the Auricon is said to make the camera 
more adaptable to news work, where 
frequent quick change of lenses is neces¬ 
sary. Contner is a consultant to N.B.C.’s 
eastern television headquarters and to 
Jerry Fairbanks, Inc., on motion picture 
and television equipment. 


New Cine Lenses 

A new lens series, produced by Bausch 
& Lomb Optical Company, leading U. S. 
supplier of motion picture studio lenses, 
comes in both standard and telephoto 
models for 8mm. and 16mm. cameras. 

As a companion series to the optical 
firms’ Baltar 35mm. lenses used by 20th 
Century-Fox, Paramount, Columbia, Uni¬ 
versal, RKO, and other Hollywood studios, 
the new lenses were designed especially 
for the home movie maker who demands 
professional results,” according to Dr. 
Konstantin Pestrecov, chief photographic 
lens designer at Bausch & Lomb. 

Known as Animats, each lens is fitted 
with a seasonal exposure guide plus click 
and spread diaphragm stops to assure cor¬ 
rect exposure. The standard lenses are 
for photography under average light con¬ 
ditions, while the telephotos are for close- 
up shots of distant subjects, candid shots, 
and extreme close-ups of small subjects. 
A depth of field scale on the high speed 
and telephoto lenses enables the photo¬ 
grapher to control the focus range on both 


foreground and background objects. 

Seasonal exposure guides inscribed on 
the lens barrels help the amateur camera¬ 
man, and even those with no knowledge 
of photography, to obtain correct exposure 
in any kind of weather. 

Barrels are marked with two seasons, 
Summer and Winter, and a corresponding 
scale of light conditions, Dull, Hazy, and 
Bright. When pictures are taken on a 
gloomy December day, for example, the 
photographer merely turns the scale so 
that the word "Dull” is aligned with 
"Winter,” and correct exposure is as¬ 
sured. 

Speeds for the five standard lenses 
range to f/1.9, and to f/3.5 in the four 
telephotos. 



Wide Angle Attachments 

Dejur-Amsco Corporation, Long Island 
City, New York, announces the addition 
of Wollensak wide-angle attachments for 
its camera line. These include a lens wide- 
angle attachment and a view finder at¬ 
tachment, available for both the single 
and turret cameras, using either the f/1.9 
or f/2.5 (13mm. lens). 

These attachments are recommended 
for shots taken in small, cramped quarters, 
such as interiors, and the like, which in¬ 
clude more than the regular lens will 
cover. They double the field of view that 
the standard 13mm. lens gives, yet no 
compensation is necessary in lens speed 
or exposure. They are fully color-cor¬ 
rected. 


Printer Price Reduced 

The Oscar F. Carlson Company, Chi¬ 
cago, manufacturers of the Carlson Craft 
Depue” Film Printing equipment has 
recently announced a substantial price 
reduction on their Optical Picture and 
Sound Track Reduction Printer, Continu¬ 
ous and Microfilm Printers. 

The officials of the company stated that 
this price reduction was made possible 
because of improved engineering design, 
which lends itself to more efficient manu¬ 
facturing procedures. 


AUTOMATIC DISSOLVE 

For The Cine Special 



/. 


New Improved Model ‘C” 

New Price $54.00 Plus Tax 

See your dealer, or write 

JOSEPH YOLO 

5968 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 


RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE 

Rents .. Sells .. Exchanges 

Everything You Need for the 

PRODUCTION & PROJECTION 

of Motion Pictures Provided 
by a Veteran Organization 
of Specialists 

35 mm.16 mm. 

Television 


IN BUSINESS SINCE 1910 


729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Cable Address: RUBYCAM 



GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 


164 N. Wacker Dr., Dept. A , Chicago 6, III. 


June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


223 




















Current Assignments of H.5.C. Members 


Major film productions on which members of the American 
Society of Cinematographers were engaged as directors of pho¬ 
tography during the past month. 


Columbia 

• Charles Lawton, "Lawless,” with Ran¬ 
dolph Scott, Dorothy Malone, Jeff Corey, 
Forest Tucker and Frank Faylen. Gordon 
Douglas, director. 

• RAY CORY, "Lawless,” 2nd unit. 

© IRA MORGAN, "The Adventures Of Sir 
Galahad,” (Esskay) with George Reeves, Nel¬ 
son Leigh, Pat Barton and Ffugh Prosser. 
Spencer Bennet and Derwin Abrahams, di¬ 
rectors. 

• Lester White, "The Adventures of Sir 
Galahad,” 2nd unit. 

• Vincent Farrar, "Blondie’s Hero,” with 
Penny Singleton, Arthur Lake, Larry Simms, 
Marjorie Kent and Jerome Cowan. Edward 
Bernds, director. 

• JOSEPH Walker, "My Next Husband,” re¬ 
titled "Tell It To The Judge,” with Rosalind 
Russell, Robert Cummings, Gig Young, 
Marie McDonald and Harry Davenport. Nor¬ 
man Foster, director. 

• Henry Freulich, "Beyond These Walls,” 
with Warner Baxter, Anna Lee and Harlan 
Warde. Seymour Friedman, director. 

• Burnett Guffey, "Baby Is Here,” with 
Robert Young, Barbara Hale, Robert Hutton, 
and Janis Carter. Henry Levin, director. 

• Lester White, "Good Humor Man,” with 
Jack Carson, Lola Albright, and Jean Wallace. 
Lloyd Bacon, director. 

M-G-M 

• Robert Surtees, "Intruder In The Dust,” 
with Claude Jarman, Jr., David Brian, Juan 
Hernandez, and Charles Kemper. Clarence 
Brown, director. 

• HAROLD ROSSON, "On The Town,” (Tech¬ 
nicolor) with Frank Sinatra, Gene Kelly, Vera 
Ellen, Ann Miller, and Betty Garret. Gene 
Kelly, director. 

• PAUL Vogel, "Battleground,” with Van 
Johnson, John Hodiak, Ricardo Montalban, 
George Murphy, Marshall Thompson, Tommy 
Breen, Jim Mitchell, Bruce Cowling, and 
Denise D’Arcele. William Wellman, director. 

• Harry STRADLING, "Annie Get Your Gun,” 
(Technicolor) with Judy Garland, Howard 
Keel, Keenan Wynn, Frank Morgan, Edward 
J. Arnold, J. Carroll Naish, and Clinton 
Sunberg. Busby Berkeley, director. 

• Ray June, "Death In The Doll House,” 
with Ann Southern, Zachary Scott, Gigi Per- 
reau, Nancy Davis, Kristine Miller, and Tom 
Heilman. Pat Jackson, director. 

® JOE Ruttenberg, "Side Street,” (shoot¬ 
ing in New York) with James Craig, Farley 
Grainger, Paul Kelly, and Cathy O’Donnell. 
Anthony Mann, director. 

• Charles Schoenbaum, "Stars In My 
Crown,” with Joel McCrea, Ellen Drew and 
Lewis Stone. Jacques Tourneur, director. 

• Robert Planck, "Bodies and Souls,” with 
Glenn Ford, Gloria deHaven, Charles Coburn, 
Janet Leigh and Nancy Davis. Curtis Bern¬ 
hardt, director. 

• Harry STRADLING, "Tension,” with Aud¬ 
rey Totter, Richard Basehart and Cyd Charisse. 
John Berry, director. 

• Harold Lipstein, "Ambush,” with Robert 


Taylor, John Hodiak, and Don Taylor. Sam 
Wood, director. 

• GEORGE FOLSEY, "Adam’s Rib,” with Spen¬ 
cer Tracy, Katherine Hepburn, Judy Holliday, 
and Tom Ewell. George Cukor, director. 

Monogram 

© Harry Neumann, "Cattle King,” with 
Johnny Mack Brown, Max Terhune and Felice 
Ingersol. Ray Taylor, director, 
o William Sickner, "Trail Of The Yukon,” 
with Kirby Grant, Susanna Dalbert, and Bill 
Edwards. William Beuadine, director. 

Paramount 

® George Barnes, "Riding High,” with 
Bing Crosby, Coleen Gray, Charles Bickford, 
Frances Gifford, William Demarest, and Clar¬ 
ence Muse. Frank Capra, director. 

• Charles Lang, "Copper Canyon,” (Tech¬ 
nicolor) with Ray Milland, Hedy LeMarr, 
Macdonald Carey, Mona Freeman, and Harry 
Carey, Jr. John Farrow, director. 

• JOHN Seitz, "Sunset Boulevard,” with Wil¬ 
liam Holden, Gloria Swanson, Erich von 
Stroheim, and Nancy Olson. Billy Wilder, 
director. 

• JOHN Alton, "Captain China,” (Pine & 
Thomas) with John Payne, Gail Russell, Jef¬ 
frey Lynn, Edgar Bergen, Lon Chaney, Michael 
O’Shea, and John Qualen. Lewis R. Foster, 
director. 

R. K. 0. 

® Harry Wild, "The Big Steal," with Robert 
Mitchum, Jane Greer, William Bendix, Patric 
Knowles, Ramon Navarro, and John Qualen. 
Don Siegel, director. 

• nick Musuraca, "I Married A Commun¬ 
ist,” with Robert Ryan, Laraine Day, John 
Agar, Thomas Gomez, and Janis Carter. Rob¬ 
ert Stevenson, director. 

o Robert deGRASSE, "The Bail Bond Story,” 
with George Raft, Pat O’Brien, Jean Wallace, 
and Jim Backus. Ted Tetzlaff, director. 

20th Century-Fox 

• Joe Macdonald, "Pinky,” with Jeanne 
Crain, William Lundigan, Ethel Waters, and 
Basil Ruysdael. Elia Kazan, director. 

o Harry Jackson, "Bandwagon,” (Techni¬ 
color) with William Powell, Mark Stevens, 
Betsy Drake, and Jean Hersholt. Irving Reis, 
director. 

® Milton Krasner, "Three Came Home,” 
with Claudette Colbert, Alan Marshall, and 
Florence Desmond. Jean Negulesco, director. 
® LEON Shamroy, "Twelve O’Clock High,” 
(Shooting in Florida) with Gregory Peck, 
Millard Mitchell, Hugh Marlowe, Paul Stew¬ 
art, Gary Merrill, and Dean Jagger. Henry 
King, director. 

• Norbert BRODINE, "I Was A Male War 
Bride,” with Cary Grant, Ann Sheridan, and 
William Neff. Howard Hawks, director. 

« Jack Cardiff, "The Black Rose,” (Techni¬ 
color) (Shooting in North Africa) with 
Tyrone Power, Cecile Aubry, Alfonso Bedoya, 
and Bobby Blake. 

• Charles G. Clarke, "The Quartered 
City,” (Shooting in Germany) George Seaton, 
director. No announcement on cast as yet. 


United Artists 

o Joseph Biroc, "Mrs. Mike,” (Sam Bischoff 
Prod.) with Dick Powell, Evelyn Keyes and 
J. M. Kerrigan. Louis King, director. 

• Russell Harlan, "Gun Crazy,” with 
Peggy Cummins, John Dahl, and Annabelle 
Shaw. Joseph H. Lewis, director. 

Universal-International 

• William Daniels, "Abandoned,” with 
Dennis O’Keefe, Gale Storm, Marjorie Ram- 
beau, and Meg Randall. Joe Newman, director. 

• IRVING Glassberg, "Francis,” with Donald 
O’Connor, Zasu Pitts, Richard Long, Ray 
Collins, and Patricia Medina. Arthur Lubin, 
director. 


Warner Brothers 

• Wilfred Cline, "Always Sweethearts,” 
(Technicolor) with Shirley Temple, Barry 
Fitzgerald, Lon McCallister, and Alan Hale. 
David Butler, director. 

• Carl Guthrie, "Barricade,” with Dan 
Clark, Raymond Massey and Robert Douglas. 
Peter Godfrey, director. 

• PEVERELL MARLEY, "Return of the Fron¬ 
tiersman,” (Technicolor) with Gordon Mac- 
Rae, Rory Calhoun, Julie London, and Fred 
Clark. Richard Bare, director. 

• Sid HlCKOX, "White Heat,” with James 
Cagney, Virginia Mayo, Edmond O’Brien, and 
Ray Montgomery. Raoul Walsh, director. 

• Ernest Haller, "Chain Lightning,” with 
Humphrey Bogart, Elinor Parker, Raymond 
Massey, and Richard Whorf. Stuart Heisler, 
director. 

• Robert Burks, "Beyond The Forest,” with 
Bette Davis, Joseph Cotten, David Brian, and 
Ruth Roman. King Vidor, director. 


BULLETIN BOARD 

(Continued from Page 194) 

on a three-year contract, at expiration of 
his present contract with M-G-M. 


A.S.C. PRESIDENT Charles Clarke is work¬ 
ing on plan for the Society to grant an 
annual award for best photography by an 
A.S.C. member. Plan calls for screening 
best film voted each month by A. S. C. 


JOSEPH VALENTINE 

Joseph Valentine, a member of the 
A.S.C. since 1927, died in his sleep, 
May 19th. Winning an Acadmey 
Award this year for his photography 
on Joan of Arc,’’ Valentine had pre¬ 
viously been nominated for awards on 
four other occasions. His initial first- 
camera job was photographing Shirley 
Mason in My Husband’s Wives” at 
the old Wm. Fox Studios in 1924. His 
most recent work was on "Love Is Big 
Business ’ at RKO. Surviving are his 
widow, Katherine; a two-year old son, 
Joseph; his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Valentine, and a sister, Mrs. Lucy 
Gaudioso. 






224 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 







members, with a certificate of recognition 
probably going to the cinematographer. 
The year’s twelve best films will then be 
evaluated in December for the annual 
award. 

• 

WARNER BROTHERS’ electrical depart¬ 
ment has developed a radically new 
lighting feature that involves Selsyn motor 
controlled shutters for arc lamps. Innova¬ 
tion of the shutters permits unlimited 
freedom in the dimming of arc lights— 
a feat hitherto impossible. 

The setup consists of small, Venetian 
type shutters hinged in an aluminum 
frame and keyed to a Selsyn motor. The 
frame is hung in front of the arc and 
wired to a central control console. Opera¬ 
tion of the motor controls light intensity 
from full up to off. More than 100 shut¬ 
ters can be set up at once and broken 
down into light moves running from slow 
fades to complete blackouts. Shutters can 
be utilized independently or in groups and 
a total of eight light cues can be worked 
in a single setup. 

Use of the shutters proved invaluable 
on the "Fighter Squadron” set when the 
script called for a complete blackout of 
35 arcs in a bombing sequence in the 
Technicolor saga of the Army Air Forces. 
Cutting the switches on such a great 
number of arcs would have caused the 
studio generators to run wild with an 
underload, so Selsyn shutters were utilized 
with completely satisfactory results. 

• 

FIRST COMPREHENSIVE report on de¬ 
velopments in production and processing 
of motion pictures as television program 


material, and a means of recording tele¬ 
vision programs has been compiled and 
published by the Society of Motion Pic¬ 
ture Engineers. Report, in booklet form 
and selling for 75c a copy, was compiled 
by a group of 32 specialists within the 
Society’s Television Committee. 

• 

CASPARCOLOR reportedly will enter the 
market soon with a complete new 35mm. 
color film. 

• 

EASTMAN KODAK Company has opened 
a new research laboratory in Panama 
City, Panama. Designed for the study of 
photographic materials under tropical 
conditions, its facilities include a modern 
two-story building in the Juan Franco 
area of Panama City and a jungle test 
station on Barro Colorado Island in Gatun 
Lake, part of the Panama Canal. The new 
building has offices, a photographic studio, 
a library on photography, and air-condi¬ 
tioned storage rooms on the ground floor. 
On the second floor are darkrooms, and 
rooms for research in chemistry, biology, 
physics and sensitometry. A darkroom 
has been built on the roof where it will 
be exposed to full tropical conditions. 
Main activity of laboratory will consist of 
a study of the vast range of problems that 
face photographers in the tropics. 

• 

TELENEWS NEWSREEL originating in 
New York, is now turning out eight dif¬ 
ferent newsreels each week: two for the¬ 
atres, one double reel weekly for tele¬ 
vision and a five times a week daily reel, 
also for television. 


THE FOUNTAINHEAD 

(Continued from Page 221) 


necessary to keep the perspective con¬ 
stantly changing from floor to floor as she 
rose. 

The settings for "The Fountainhead ”, 
besides being visually striking and per¬ 
fectly matched to the theme of the story, 
are notable for yet another reason com¬ 
pletely unrelated to art: they were eco¬ 
nomical to construct. 

Back in the all-too-recent days when a 
film’s worth was judged (at least by those 
in the industry) according to the amount 
of money spent on it, the consensus of 
opinion was that settings could not pos¬ 
sibly be good unless they were expensive. 
Now that production economy has become 
the smart thing on the sound stages, the 
less expensively a good effect can be 
achieved, the more it is praised. 

The settings for ’’The Fountainhead” 
thus come in for a heavy share of praise, 


because their simpliciay of design and 
detail made them economical to con¬ 
struct and decorate. Paradoxically, this 
simplicity is so rich in its clean forceful 
sweep, that an impression of expensive 
production value permeates the entire 
film. 

An example of this forceful economy 
can be drawn from examining the sets 
for the architect’s apartment and for the 
publisher’s office. In each of these sets, 
huge windows take up one whole wall of 
the huge room. Outside, skillfully exe¬ 
cuted photo-murals form the cycloramic 
skylines. The remaining walls are abso¬ 
lutely plain, with only a few functional 
pieces of modern furniture for set dress¬ 
ing. 

"The Fountainhead,” artistically speak¬ 
ing, achieves its visual elegance by under¬ 
statement.” 



TO YOUR ^ 

SILENT FILMS 

( Music ' Narration * Special Effects) 

LET us convert your 16 mm picture to a sound film 
of the highest quality. Skilled technical staff, and 
finest sound recording equipment and studio fa¬ 
cilities to serve industrial, amateur and educational 
film producers. Write TELEFILM, Inc., Dept. A-li 
6039 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood 28, Calif, 
for prices and literature. 

OUR SERVICE IS USED IT: J" 

• AiReiearch Mfg. Co. • Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 

• Douglas Aircraft Co, • Food Machinery Corp. 

U. S. Naval Photo Services Dept. • Santa Fe Railroad fj 

• Standard Oil Co. of Calif. ^ * 


TELEFILM 

HOLLYWOOD 


For Every Movie Maker, 
Amateur Or Professional 



Source of QUICK ANSWERS to such ques¬ 
tions as: “What is the angle of view of my 
25mm. lens?” “What’s the depth of focus of 
my 50mm. lens at 12 feet?” “How much 
film will a 30 second take consume at 24 
f.p.s.?” “What’s the Weston daylight rating 
of Anseo Ultra-Pan negative?” “What stop 
shall I use to shoot at 8 f.p.s. if exposure at 
16 f.p.s. is f/4.5?” And thousands more! 
A handbook that’s a must for every motion 
picture cameraman, professional or amateur. 

ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY! 

$500 

prepaid 

Book Department, 

American Cinematographer, 

1782 No. Orange Dr., 

Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find $5.00 
for which olease send me a copy of 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
HANDBOOK AND REFERENCE GUIDE. 


Name. 


Address. ..... 

City—..Zone. State_ 

(If you live in California, please include 
..15c sales tax — total $5.15.) 






June, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


225 






















Classified Advertising 


RATES: 


Ten cents per word—minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60c per agate line <12 agate lines per inch). 
No discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 


FOR SALE 


FOR SALE 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 


BASS SAYS: 

For Camera Values hard to beat . . . 
Write Bass, 179 W. Madison Street! 


35mm. Eyemo Compact 3 lens Turret, 71 L, 

1" Cooke F :2.5, 4" Cooke deep field 
Speed Panchro F:2.5 coated, 6" Cooke 

F:4.5, carrying case . . $875.00 

35mm. DeVry Automatic, F :3.5, Case. $ 87.50 

35mm. Akeley, complete with Akeley 
Gyro tripod, 5 mags., matched pair of 
F:3.5 lenses and 6" Telephoto... $425.00 

WRITE BASS FIRST 


BASS CAMERA CO., 179 W. MADISON ST., 
CHICAGO 2, ILL. 


35MM. MODEL U-D-S SOUND MOVIOLA. In good 
optical and mechanical condition. Price $797.00. 

M.G.M CAMERA ROLAMBULATOR DOLLY, Pre¬ 
cision, Ball Bearing, Pan Tilt Controls, Weight 
700 lbs. Cost $6,000.00. Barain $1,500.00 

H-C-E 1 6 M M . SPECIAL EFFECTS OPTICAL 
PRINTER, Features: Bell & Howell Projector, 
Model A Eastman Camera, 42" Lathe Bed, 500- 
Ohm Dimmer, Foot Switch, Motor, Microscope, 
Cost $5,000.00. A Gift at $1,500.00. 

35MM. BELL & HOWELL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND 
CAMERA. Four Quality Speed Lenses, Two 1000- 


HUNDREDS OF BRAND NEW ITEMS featured in 
catalog Sturelab — Sent free to Film Producers, 
Lab Technicians, Recording Engineers and Cine- 
Men. Everything for studio, laboratory and cut¬ 
ting room. New Nord 16mm Professional Camera 
$1935.00; New 16mm Sound Printers. $685.00; 
New 17.5mm Tape Recorders, $1500.00; Com¬ 
posite Sound Moviola $495.00; Arriflex News¬ 
reel Camera, 4 lenses, complete. $795.00; MR 
2000W Spots on stands, $99.50; combination 
Reversal Processing Machine, $2,375.00; Eyemo 
Q Turret Camera, $695.00; Stop Watch Film 
Timer, $24.75; Neumade combination 16/35mm 
Automatic Film Cleaner, $350.00 value, $194.50; 
Giant Spotlite Tripods 8' high. $9.95; Bardwell 
5000W Floodlites, $111.75. Dept, f — S. O. S. 
CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORATION, 602 W. 52nd 
Street, New York 19. 


35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 
—precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam¬ 
eras, and for silencing and modernizing motion 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 
in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200- 
foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. Original cost $1,000.00. 

AFP 

1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 
New York 19, N. Y. 


35MM. CINEPHON NEWSREEL CAMERA — Fea¬ 
turing built-in automatic dissolving shutter, 6 v. 
motor, 3—200 foot magazines, 3 lens revolving 
turret, rotating drum, side viewfinder, focusing 
through film, including 3 Meyer Primoplan 
lenses—in excellent condition — fine precision 
movement — only $750.00. FLORMAN & BABB, 
1254 Sherman Avenue, Bronx 56, New York. 


AURICON-PRO SINGLE SYSTEM sound-on-film 
camera; dual lateral track; noise reduction am¬ 
plifier; case; extra magazine. Norwood Director 
meter. All like new—not a scratch. CINE 
SPECIAL, 1" F. 1 :9; 15mm. F.2:7; 2V 2 " F.2:7. 
Extra 100 ft. magazine; Weston meter; case, 
masks and synchronous motor drive. KODAK 
REFLEX, 4x5 B&J press with F.4:7 Raptar in 
Rapax shutter. Ten holders, adapter and Gadget 
Bag—5x7 Model E. Eastman auto-focus enlarger. 
Best offer on all or part. Will personally deliver 
sound camera up to 500 miles and give purchaser 
two days instructions in maintenance and opera¬ 
tion of same. Write or Wire — OP1E EVANS, 
164 East Lods Street, Akron, Ohio. 

ARRIFLEX, 35mm camera with 3 lenses, excellent 
condition; 32mm, 1.9, 2", 1.5 Astros, $450.00. 
Jack Lieb, Care of Kling Studios, 601 N. Fair¬ 
banks Ct., Chicago 11, Illinois. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
16mm. EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEADING MANU¬ 
FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 


ft. Magazines, Freehead, Tripod, Ready-to-oper- 
ate, Price $3,750.00. 

LIKE-NEW 16MM. AURICON SOUND CAMERA, 
SINGLE AND DOUBLE SYSTEM RECORDINGS. 
Outfit complete, New Guarantee, Price 
$2,313.60. 

ANIMATION STAND, SUITABLE FOR EITHER 
35MM. OR 16MM. Heavy Steel Construction, 
Precision Machine, Weight 1500 pounds. Price 
$2,350.00. 

35MM. EYEMOS, ARRIFLEX AND OTHER TYPES 
OF CAMERAS, MOTION PICTURES LENSES, 
MOUNTED AND UNMOUNTED, AT REDUCED 
PRICES. 

HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE 

1600 Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood 


3 STAINLESS STEEL 16mm. tanks; 1 wash tank; 
4 cypress racks, 120 ft, good buy; 8mm. films, 
16mm, closing out—lists, dime. 24 volt model 
E Eastman Kodak camera, 100 ft. capacity, 
f/3.5 Wollensak lens, $60.00, like new; photo 
for $1.00, refund purchase of camera. Two 
Natco sound projectors, equal to new, $225.00 
each. Hollywood Jr. sound picture printer. $100.- 
00. Two 6" RCA speakers, use any sound pro¬ 
jector built in cabinets, $10.00. Complete li¬ 
brary sound films of B. W. Life Songs Stephen 
Foster, twelve 2-reel subjects, $50.00 a set, 
literature free. Buy—Sell—Exchange—Swap. Will 
buy all type of flood lights. What have you? 
SAM’S ELECTRIC SHOP, Passaic, New Jersey. 


CINE SPECIAL—f/1.9 lens, complete with Yolo 
automatic dissolve, $475.00. JOSEPH YOLO, Box 
369, Yakima, Washington. 


PHOTOGRAPHERS 


SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 

Mitchell 16mm. Professional camera equipped with 
1200 foot film magazines for continuous film¬ 
ing, available for rent with operator to 16mm. 
producers. Write for rates. 

Walter Porep 
Sportsreel Productions 
1114 Carleton St. 

Berkeley, California 


ROCER CAMERA TIMER 

for automatic operation of (any) camera and 
light for TIME-LAPSE CINEMATOGRAPHY and 
ANIMATION as used by many organizations 
since 15 years .Microcinema Equipment. 
SETTINGS;' 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Exp. per Hour 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Exp. per minute 
and faster, also single frame push 
button. 

ROLAB 

Sandy Hook, Connecticut 


EQUIP. WANTED 

WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 
MITCHELL, B & H, EYEMO, DEBRIE. AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


COMPLETE 16MM. and 35MM. movie production 
equipment—Especially want 35mm. Eyemos and 
Arriflex cameras—16mm. Maurer and Cine 
Special Cameras — Lenses, accessories, Moviolas, 
high price paid—Immediate Cash. Write fully or 
send equipment for our offer. FLORMAN tj 
BABB, 1254 Sherman Avenue, Bronx 56, New 
York. 


“WANTED” 

Mitchell - Akeley - B & H 
Wall - Eyemo 

Cameras - Lenses - Equipment 

NATIONAL CINE EQUIPMENT, INC. 
20 West 22rtd Street 
New York 10, New York 


WE PAY CASH FOR EVERYTHING PHOTO¬ 
GRAPHIC. Write us today. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 


MOTION PICTURES WANTED 


Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910. 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora¬ 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull's 
Camera & Film Exchange, 112-114 W. 48th St., 
New York 19, N. Y. 


IMMEDIATE DELIVERY on Polaroid Land Camera 
also Stereo Realist. CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 
No. Cahuenga, Hollywod 28, HEmpstead 7373. 


CHAIRS FOR THEATRES, Cafes, Restaurants. New. 
$10.00 each. Bovilsky, 1061 Lara Street, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 


You’d Be Surprised How 
Much Equipment This 
Page Sells Each Month. 
Ask Any Advertiser. 

—American Cinematographer 


16MM. KODACHROME FOR SCHOOL MARKET. 
NATIONAL ORGANIZATION INTERESTED COM¬ 
PLETED FILMS OR UNCUT FOOTAGE WITH 
EDUCATIONAL VALUE. ONLY PROFESSIONAL 
QUALITY MATERIAL CONSIDERED. GIVE FULL 
DETAILS FIRST LETTER. BOX 1058, THE 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


A.S.C. “ClNTEMATOCRAPH 1C ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies availabble at $3.50 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 1782 N. Orange 
Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 




226 


o 


American Cinematographer 


June, 1949 






































When “the dawn conies up like thunder”... 


HE’S at his console—the re-record¬ 
ing mixer—weaving skeins of sound 
into the picture’s pattern . . . skill¬ 
fully matching sound to sight, mood 
for mood. 

Under his sensitive control, dia¬ 
logue and music and special effects 
are expertly proportioned, delicately 
balanced to round out the realism 
and drama of the scene. 


To fulfill this essential contribu¬ 
tion to the picture, the re-recording 
mixer requires creative understand¬ 
ing of the director’s desires ... a 
sense of the dramatic ... a feeling 
for mood . . . and the high order of 
faithful sound reproduction and re¬ 
recording he gets from the large and 
versatile family of Eastman motion 
picture films. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 
FORT LEE • CHICAGO • 


HOLLYWOOD 














HOWELL D 

'f 


proof 


' - 

• : •• : • . 


FILMOSOUND 
Runs 1300 Hours 
Perfectl y in 
Endurance Test 


A B&H Filmosound Projector, taken at random from stock 
and projecting film under normal conditions, is in con¬ 
tinuous operation on our laboratory test stand. As this 
page goes to press, it has run 1300 hours, with no time 
lost for repairs! 

Think what this means to you in terms of sound-film 
projector performance you can depend on and in 
really low cost-per-hour operation! 

Such dependability has long been one of the major 
reasons for Filmosound superiority. Now this new test 
supplies additional proof that a Bell & Howell Pro¬ 
jector assures you maximum available projection time, 
no disappointed audiences, no wasted film bookings, 
minimum repair cost, the greatest protection for valu¬ 
able films. 

You cannot afford to select any other than a Filmo¬ 
sound Projector. For full details on all Filmosound 
models, write Bell & Howell Company, 7148 McCormick 
Road, Chicago 45. 


NEW SINGLE-CASE 
FILMOSOUND 

Higher undistorted sound output than any 
other lightweight projector! Built-in 6" 
speaker can be removed from case and placed 
near screen. Larger speakers available. 
Handles both sound and silent films. An 
outstanding value (with 6" speaker) 
at only. 


$449 


NEW ACADEMY 
FILMOSOUND 

Specially designed for sizable audiences . . . 
sound or silent films. Separate 8", 12", or 
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'k 


AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

FOUNDED January 8, 1919, The American 
Society of Cinematographers is composed of 
the leading directors of photography in the 
Hollywood motion picture studios. Its mem¬ 
bership also includes non-resident cinema¬ 
tographers and cinematographers in foreign 
lands. Membership is by invitation only. 

The Society meets regularly once a month 
at its clubhouse at 1782 North Orange Drive, 
in the heart of Hollywood. On November 1, 
1920, the Society established its monthly pub¬ 
lication “American Cinematographer” which 
it continues to sponsor and which is now cir¬ 
culated in 61 countries throughout the world. 

Dominant aims of the Society are to bring 
into close confederation and cooperation all 
leaders in the cinematographic art and sci¬ 
ence and to strive for pre-eminence in artistic 
perfection and scientific knowledge of the art. 


OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Charles G. Clarke, President 
Fred W. Jackman, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 
Arthur Edeson, First Vice-President 
George J. Foi.sey, Jr., Second Vice-Pres. 
William V. Skall, Third Vice-President 
Ray Rennahan, Secretary 
John W. Boyle, Sergeant-at-Arms 
Victor Milner 
Sol Polito 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles Rosher 
Lee Garmes 
John Seitz 
Leon Shamroy 
Joseph Walker 


ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 

John Arnold 
Sol Halprin 
Arthur Miller 
Hal Mohr 
Joseph Ruttenberg 


★ 




Arthur E. Gavin, Editor 

Technical Editor, Emery Huse Glenn R. Kershner, Art Editor 

Circulation, Marguerite Duerr 

Editorial Advisory Board: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthur 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A.S.C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 

Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

Telephone: GRanite 2135 


VOL. 30 |ULY • 1949 NO. 7 

CONTENTS 

ARTICLES 

India’s Movie Industry— By Clyde De Vinna, A.S.C. . . 236 

The A.S.C’s. New Preview Theatre— By Frederick Foster . 238 

DuPont’s New Color Film— By V. B. Sease, A.S.C. . . . 240 

Translucent Photo Backgrounds Cut Production 

Costs — By Phil Tannura, A.S.C . 240 

The Research Council Camera Crane— 

By Frank E. Lyon .242 

The Hollywood Close-up— By John Alton, A.S.C. . . . 245 

16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Cine Clubbers Lend A Hand— By J. Wesley Neal . . . 246 


The Animars —By John D. Hayes and 

Dr. K. Pestrecov, A.S.C . 248 

The “Pro” Touch In Amateur Movies— 

By Charles Coring .250 

FEATURES 

Hollywood Bulletin Board.234 

'Pips To Amateurs From The Pros. 252 

Currlnt Assignments of A.S.C. Members . 264 


ON THE COVER 

ERNIE HALLER, A.S.C. (foreground) used the Research Council Camera 
Crane to advantage in shooting scenes in an airplane hangar for his 
current Warner Brothers’ picture assignment, “Chained Lightning," which 
stars Humphrey Bogart and Elinore Parker. Pictured with Haller is his 
operator, Ellsworth Fredericks (right) and assistant, Wally Meinardus. 
Photo by Jack Woods. 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A S. C. 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP¬ 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C. 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill's, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 











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CHARLES G. CLARKE, A.S.C.—Filming T.C.F's. 
"Quartered City," in Berlin, Germany 


REPORT FROM BERLIN — A.S.C. presi¬ 
dent, Charles G. Clarke, who is cur¬ 
rently in Berlin to photograph “The 
Quartered City” for 20th Century-Fox, 
relays his impressions of postwar Ger¬ 
many in a letter addressed to fellow 
members of the Society: 

“June 3, 1949: 

“I wish I could write you a stirring 
article for the American Cinematog¬ 
rapher regarding photography in Ger¬ 
many, but the truth is I haven’t done 
much as yet and besides it’s little differ¬ 
ent from photography in any other place. 
Our cast hasn’t come over yet and our 
director is writing the script, so we 
haven’t started actual shooting. 

“During the blockade when the airlift 
operations were heavy, we did make 
some airlift activity scenes for the pic¬ 
ture. These were rushed to Hollywood 
for processing. Part have been returned 
and we have screened them here. Our 
time has mostly been spent in selecting 
locations, preparing equipment and ac¬ 
quainting our German crews with Holly¬ 
wood equipment. I have two 20th-Cen¬ 
tury cameras and a Mitchell, while the 
sound man brought over complete sound 
recording equipment. 

“My operator, Lou Kunkle, is with 
me but our assistants are German stu¬ 
dio men. They are very willing and as 
anxious to get started as we are. Our 


interior scenes are to be made at the old 
UFA studios at Templehof — right in 
the heart of Berlin, adjoining the famous 
Templehof airfield. Much of the studio 
was shot up during the war and almost 
all of the equipment carried away. We 
have located some Army searchlight gen¬ 
erators and are having some lights built 
here. Our grip equipment is also being 
built here. 

“As the electric current here is 200 
volts, it means we’ll have to use special 
globes and generators. We did bring 
along some of the Color-Tran light out¬ 
fits and a special transformer for con¬ 
verting the 220 volt current to their use. 
We expect to use these lights for many 
of the natural interiors we do here. So 
much for what we expect to do. 

“Victor Milner is here and we have 
had many pleasant evenings together. 
Naturally we talk ‘A.S.C.’ At the mo¬ 
ment he is touring southern Germany, 
but I see his son, Major Victor Milner, 
Jr., frequently — a fine boy and doing 
very important work here in Berlin. 
Compared to western Germany, Berlin 
is a very dreary place. There has been 
terrible destruction, and as the place is 
surrounded by Russian ‘zones,’ life is 
quite uncertain. Most of the people have 
left who could, so except for certain sec¬ 
tions which escaped bombing, the streets 
are almost empty. 

“Grotesque wrecks of buildings loom 


against the leaden skies which are always 
overcast. Of the buildings that still stand, 
all the window glass is gone — blasted 
by the concussion during wartime shell¬ 
ing of the city. These are boarded up 
or covered with cardboard salvaged from 
shipping cartons. The only things which 
appear to have survived as though noth¬ 
ing had happened are the trees and the 
flowers. These are everywhere. Wistaria 
climbs over ugly skeletons of buildings 
and bursts into bloom as though it were 
trying to cover the scars of war. Chest¬ 
nut trees line the streets, with rose and 
white blossoms standing up like Christ¬ 
mas tree candles. 

“Right now the city’s few streetcars 
are not running because of a strike. A 
few omnibusses are to be seen on the 
streets but they are always bulging with 
passengers. The rest of the populace 
walk. Nearly everyone carries a brief¬ 
case and a bunch of flowers. About the 
only automobiles seen are military jeeps 
and cars. Because of the dearth of gaso¬ 
line, there are scarcely any private cars 
on Berlin streets. That is Berlin today 
— a mere shadow of its former gay self, 
but still grimly carrying on. 

“These people are hard workers and 
will, one day, when their political future 
is secure, rebuild their beautiful country. 
If our ‘reds’ at home could only see 
Soviet rule and actions as they are prac- 
(Continued on Page 265) 



AMONG the memorabilia acquired by Gus A. Peterson, A.S.C., during his association with the old 
Kalem's studios in Santa Monica during early silent film days, is this sketch by a sidelines observer 
of picture making on an open, windswept stage. Gus says cameramen had lighting problems in 
those early days, too, and points to the four "gaffers" in this picture perched perilously on top 
of each of the four stanchions, struggling to hold the flapping diffuser in place while scene 
is being shot. 


234 


American Cinematographer 


July, 19+9 













































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The MITCHELL STUDIO MODEL"BNC”is 
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India’s 

Movie 

Industry 


CLYDE DeVINNA, A.S.C., (left) who recently returned from a 
filming assignment in India, found native Indian cameramen 
highly artistic and resourceful, accomplish miracles in the face 
of tremendous odds. At right is B. Deoji, one of India's top 
cinematographers. 


T HE MOTION PICTURE industry in India is sur¬ 
prisingly extensive and, in many respects, tremendously 
interesting. A definite overall picture of it is difficult to obtain, 
because it is not at all centralized as we know the industry 
in Hollywood. These were my observations during my recent 
assignment in India as director of photography for Oriental- 
International Pictures. This company had been granted rights 
to photograph the Keddah or annual wild elephant roundup 
—the first held since the war. After somewhat hasty prepara¬ 
tion, I was sent flying overseas to Calcutta, thence to Bombay 
to photograph the proceedings on Monopack. 

Virtually all the producers in India function independently. 
There are at least 25 studios operating in the country, prin¬ 
cipally in the three major cities, Calcutta, Bombay, and 
Mad ras, but they all operate as rental concerns; none, so far 
as I was able to learn, produce pictures for themselves. There 
seems to be little or no organization in the industry, either 
among producers, talent, or technicians; consequently com¬ 
petition is keenly individual. 

There are a number of stars, both men and women, who 
are prime favorites with the public and therefore in great 
demand, with the resultant bidding from producers boosting 
their salaries to figures relatively fantastic. This creates an¬ 
other situation a bit more difficult for us to realize: It is not 
unusual for certain stars, as well as leading directors and the 
better technicians, to be working in several pictures simul¬ 
taneously ! 

Inquiry into this unusual state of affairs brought forth the 


LIGHTING in American-made films is closely studied by the Indian 
with the result that he achieves remarkable results considering the 
of his equipment. Above is well-lighted two-shot from recent film. 


answer: the producer who first signs the individual has priority, 
and each succeeding employer must make his arrangements by 
co-operating with those producers preceding him. This may 
also be the reason for other unusual features of their method 
of production. Exterior sets are nearly always huilt on the 
stage; there is very little location work. It is not at all 
unusual for a studio to work in three shifts, with three dif¬ 
ferent pictures working in turn through the day and night. 

A curious custom, which is so prevalent that it almost has 
become a ceremony, is that which accompanies the first day 
of shooting on a picture. After all arrangements have been 
made, studio space obtained and the first set erected, the first 
day’s shooting is scheduled. The initial shot is most carefully 
arranged and rehearsed, extra care being taken to see that this 


Clyde DeVinna 

Reports On 


236 • 


American Cinematographer 


July, 19+9 






TYPICAL of the lighting technique practiced by India's top flight cameramen ANOTHER scene from "Amprapali" that demonstrates the Indian cameraman's 

is this scene from the production "Amprapali," photographed by Fali Mistry, studied use of lighting, which differs widely from American methods but never- 

whom DeVinna calls the "Bill Daniels" of Indian cinematographers. theless achieves a compelling and dramatic pictorial effect. 



A TYPICAL interior in a Bombay studio. There is little or no overhead lighting 
due to the lack of necessary equipment. Also limited power is a big problem. 
All studio lights draw current from domestic power lines. 


AN INTERESTING highlight of India's movie industry is the wide use of sign¬ 
boards to advertise native pictures. The signs, which are everywhere, are indi¬ 
vidually handpainted and lettered instead of lithographed as in the U.S. 


particular scene goes smoothly, for nothing must go wrong 
with this initial effort. When the camera finally turns and the 
take is made, work is called off for the day and the producer, 
cast, crew and friends all join in a feast and a general celebra¬ 
tion of good will. This is to insure not only the successful pro¬ 
duction of the picture but its favorable reception by the public 
upon its release. Doubtless some similar plan would find great 
favor with our own crews in Hollywood. 

The cameraman of India is a quite amazing person; the 
more 1 saw of him and his efforts at the different studios I 
was fortunate enough to visit, the more 1 marveled. He has 
no such well organized crews as prevail under our system of 
production; he is about as nearly a one-man organization as 
is possible, and how he manages such uniformly good results 


with the conditions under which he works is beyond my under¬ 
standing. 

If definite efforts were to be made to put more handicaps 
in his way, I don’t know just how it could be managed. He 
has to supervise and check makeups, hairdresses, wardrobe, 
sets, and practically everything else connected with the pic¬ 
ture; he lights his own sets, literally placing and adjusting 
each unit before turning it over to the “lamp coolies” (their 
term for electricians). He sets and operates his own camera; 
while he has plenty of semi-skilled help at his command, he 
usually finds it advantageous to do nearly everything himself. 

His lighting equipment is of fair quality, but scant as to 
numbers of units. The average set in India is shot with less 

(Continued on Page 260) 


July, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


237 


































The A.S.C’s. New 


Comfortable club-like atmosphere 
is salient feature of unique pro¬ 
jection installation in Society's 
Hollywood headquarters. 


T HE SCREENING of motion pictures at 
the American Society of Cinematographer’s 
clubhouse is a project that has long been high 
on the Society’s planning program. Recently 
the Society has placed increasing importance 
on the study of the technical problems of cine¬ 
matography, and the development of new 
cinematic techniques applying to present day 
him production. Thus it found it imperative 
to be able to project selected films before its 
membership as a means of study and as a source 
of discussion material at its monthly technical 
meetings. Also considered was the convenience 
of being able to preview films photographed 
by its members. 

After . considerable planning and surveys 
made by various contractors, the Board of 
Directors finally solved the many problems 
posed by building code restrictions and fire 
ordinances with a unique plan to erect a mod¬ 
ern, fireproof projection booth adjacent to the 
clubhouse. Thus motion pictures could be pro¬ 
jected through a window and onto a screen 
erected on the north wall in the club lounge. 
Several months ago the plan was approved, 
the contract let, and on May 17th the Society’s 
new “theatre” was dedicated with a screening 
the Champion. It is important to note that 
both picture and sound quality conforms with 
the highest standards established for the best 
motion picture theatres. 

Credit for this, of course, is due the excel¬ 
lent R.C.A. projection and sound equipment. 
Within the air-conditioned projection booth 
are two latest type R.C.A.-Brenkert high- 
intensity arc 35mm. sound-film projectors aug¬ 
mented by the newest type R.C.A. sound am¬ 
plifiers. In addition, this equipment is fitted 


1 — To overcome building code restrictions, separate pro¬ 
jection booth was built adjacent to A.S.C. clubhouse. 
Pictures are projected through window to screen in club¬ 
house lounge. 


2 — Interior ot modern, fireproof projection booth shows 
latest type R.C.A.-Brenkert projection machines which 
give a brilliant screen image at throw of 60 feet. 


3 — Looking toward projection booth from interior of 
clubhouse lounge. Seating capacity is 100. Comfortable 
club chairs and divans provide bulk of seating. Intercom 
phone and remote volume control are at rear. 


238 

























Preview Theatre 


By FREDERICH FOSTER 

Photos by Felix and Nikki Zelenka 


with all the latest gadgets and doodads that 
make the projectionist’s job fool-proof as well 
as something of a cinch. Included is a pho¬ 
nograph turntable for playing music or tran¬ 
scriptions during intermissions and before the 
start of a show. Monitor speakers afford a 
constant check on sound quality and volume 
of both picture and records. 

Within the clubhouse lounge, which becomes 
the theatre when pictures are shown, is a 7 
by 9 foot R.C.A. “Snowwhite” projection 
screen. This is artistically framed in a shadow- 
box suspended from an overhead track. This 
latter feature makes it possible to position the 
screen in center of wall for projection, and 
to quickly slide it out of the way when not 
in use. Decorative draw curtains of soft gold 
fabric conceal the screen and its frame when 
in this position. 

The speaker of special design is housed in 
a portable cabinet which is rolled out of a 
wall niche and into position beneath the screen 
when pictures are to be shown. 

A table in the lounge is provided with the 
usual preview theatre facilities—remote vol¬ 
ume control panel and intercom phone to the 
projection booth. 

Comfortable lounge chairs and divans pro¬ 
vide luxury seating for upwards of 50 persons, 
and seating for 50 more or a total of IOO 
can be provided with the addition of rental 
chairs. The screen throw is 60 feet and the 
screen is so positioned as to afford easy obser¬ 
vation of pictures from any position within 
the lounge. 

The facilities for projecting 16mm. sound 
films also have been provided for with instal¬ 
lation in the booth of the latest model Bell 
(Continued on Page 262) 


4 — Carefully balanced high-intensity arc light assures 
projection quality on 7 by 9 foot screen equalling that 
found in the better modern motion picture houses. 


5—The comfortable appointments of the A.S.C. club¬ 
house lounge provide an ideal setting for informal get- 
together of club members before and after screening of 
films. 


6—And for refreshments there is the bar adjoining the 
lounge. Also there is a well-equipped kitchen wherein on 
occasions a cateress provides tasty buffet snacks or a 
well-rounded dinner menu for an A.S.C. banquet. 




239 
























































COLOR SENSITIVITY 



CROSS SECTION OF FILM 


FIG. 1 — Du Pont's new release positive color film consists of three emulsion layers 
superimposed on one side of standard cine base. Arrangement of layers departs 
from that heretofore used in monopack films. The important magenta layer is on 
top while the least important yellow layer is on the bottom. This contributes to 
sharpness of definition. 


DuPont’s New Color Film 


By V. B. SEASE, A.S.C. 

Photo Products Dept., E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. 


D U PONT HAS produced a color release positive stock suitable for 
making color prints in the professional motion picture field. It is 
designed to be printed from three black and white separation negatives 
and to be developed in color during a single passage through a devel¬ 
oping machine of conventional construction. The film has a monopack 
structure consisting of three emulsion layers superimposed on one side 
of standard cine film base. Each layer embodies in a unique manner an 
appropriate colorless dye generator capable of forming a dye image 
under development. 

The mechanism of color forming development in its original concep¬ 
tion is rather simple. When a developing agent reduces silver halide 
the agent itself is oxidized. If certain types of developing agents are 
chosen and a suitable color-forming compound is present, the oxidized 
product immediately couples with the color former to produce a dye in 
situ. The “pyro stain” encountered by early photographers was simply 
oxidized pyro coupling with itself to form a yellow insoluble dye on 
the silver image as it developed. 

An interesting proposal was made as early as 1912 to utilize color 
formers for the production of color pictures by coating three emulsions 
on one support according to the following diagram: 


BLUE SENSITIVE EMULSION 

— 

YELLOW COLOR 

FORMER 

GREEN 

— 

MAGENTA " 

II 

RED 

— 

CYAN 

II 

SUPPORT 


This proposal, though theoretically sound, failed to function because 
the available color formers had an appreciable solubility in water which 
caused them to migrate into all the layers, especially during coating and 
processing. 

(Continued on Page 257) 


Translucent Photo 


G IANT PHOTO backgrounds on a 
single, seamless, translucent sheet 
of material and made from a single neg¬ 
ative have long been the cinematogra¬ 
pher’s and the art director’s ideal, but 
until recently no one had been able to 
solve the numerous problems involved. 
It remained for M. B. Paul, veteran 
motion picture photographer, to devise a 
satisfactory method and today he is turn¬ 
ing out photo backgrounds for Holly¬ 
wood movie studios that not only are 
giant size but translucent and in color 
as well. 

Giant photo backgrounds have been 
used by the studios for years, but these 
have been created by making the en¬ 
largement in sections, then painstakingly 
matching and pasting the sections on a 
large sheet of fabric to form the whole 
picture. Paul’s method produces single 
enlargements up to 20 by 45 feet. 

It was Paul’s newly developed process 
that made possible the huge, realistic 
photo background of New York’s skyline 
that backdropped the sculptress’ studio 
in Champion. Other recent productions 
in which Paul’s backgrounds were used 
are Red Light, Band Wagon, and Fight¬ 
ing Plainsman. 

Paul is believed to be the first man to 
develop a satisfactory method of apply¬ 
ing sensitized emulsion evenly distributed 
on large scale translucent surfaces and 
this, together with his process for making 
seamless translucent backing material up 
to 45 feet in width, is the key to his 
successful method of producing giant 
photo backgrounds. To make a back¬ 
ground, a sheet of this material is pierced 
with grommets around the edges, then 
laced to a large perpendicular wooden 
frame and stretched taut. Then it is 
sensitized by spraying an emulsion over 
the surface with an airgun in complete 
darkness. The picture negative is then 
projected onto the sensitized sheet by a 
special condenser-tvpe photo enlarger, 
while Paul controls exposure by use of 
dodging panels. The resultant image is 
then developed and fixed in huge tanks. 

Phis produces an enormous black and 
white picture, clear and sharp and with 
(Continued on Page 259) 


240 


American Cinematographer 


July, 1949 















Backgrounds Cut Production Costs 


New giant photo backgrounds are made in one piece, 

are seamless and wrinkle-proof, and may be By PHIL TANNURA, A SC. 

used for either black and white or color photography. 



M. B. PAUL, photo background specialist, stands before giant photo enlargement HOW enlargement was used in conjunction with the "Champion" set is shown 

of New York Cify skyline, which was used on set of sculptress' studio in the above at far right. It was illuminated both front and rear — the latter by 

Screen Plays' production, "Champion," pictured at right. reflection of light from huge white backdrop. 



STANDING before recently completed photo background for the "Fighting 
Plainsman," filmed in Cinecolor, M. B. Paul (left) and the author compare 
details with the 8 by 10 negative from which it was made. 


PERSPECTIVE of Paul's backgrounds is demonstrated here as he sits before 
photo enlargement of office building corridor. Here a single photo enlargement 
saved producer cost of building a set or moving to location to make the shot. 


July, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


241 












































STREAMLINED, scientifically balanced Research Council Camera Crane, with camera installed, will 
pass through a door 36" wide by 6' high, permitting easy movement from location to location. 
Camera table may be panned a full 340 degrees by operating a handwheel, and locked as desired. 


The Research Council 
Camera Crane 


New crane affords lens heights from two to ten 
feet, negotiates narrow doorways without need 
for removing camera or equipment. 

By FRANK E. LYON 


E VER SINCE the introduction of the 
first crude camera crane in motion 
picture photography, there has been con¬ 
tinuing development and improvement of 
the crane by technicians in the various 
studios. Nearly every studio has designed 
and built what it believed was the ulti¬ 
mate in camera cranes, yet as time went 
on, still better improvements were de¬ 
veloped and incorporated into each crane. 
In time there were in existence about an 
even dozen different models, each marked 
by at least one outstanding feature. 

Recently the Motion Picture Research 
Council, Inc., a corporation formed some 
time ago by all the major producing com¬ 
panies of Hollywood, developed a camera 
crane which incorporates all the best 
features of the cranes designed earlier 
by the various studios themselves. The 

• 


Research Council Crane became one of 
the major projects of the Council’s pro¬ 
gram to improve motion picture studio 
techniques and it has since been adopted 
as standard equipment by all the member 
studios. 

Through collaboration of the leading 
technicians of the major Hollywood stu¬ 
dios, whose practical and technological 
recommendations were correlated by the 
Motion Picture Research Council, Inc., 
the Houston Corporation of Los Angeles 
is now producing these cranes. Meeting 
with immediate success in the Holly¬ 
wood studios, the cranes are now being 
exported to meet the demands from many 
parts of the world. 

The Research Council cranes provide 
studio cameramen with the means for 
easily obtaining the dramatic viewing 

1 July, 19+9 


angles, the smooth panning of large 
scenes, the approaches and retreats that 
add drama, life and interest to modern 
motion picture production. The cranes 
afford a continuously variable lens height 
from 2 to 10 feet, 340-degree panning 
around the camera axis and a full 360- 
degree panning around the crane axis. 
The combination of possible viewing 
angles and camera movements, shown in 
the illustration, is almost unlimited, and 
gives the cameraman many opportunities 
to develop new techniques and with a 
minimum of equipment. 

The crane, with a camera installed, 
will pass through a door 36 inches wide 
by 6 feet high, permitting easy move¬ 
ment from location to location without 
disassembly and reinstallation of camera 
or equipment. I he cranes offer many 
other new features that make for sim¬ 
plicity of operation and increased safety. 

The camera table may be panned 
through its 340-degree panning angle by 
operating a handwheel convenient to the 
operative cameraman, and can be locked 
into any desired position by a friction 
brake. A special safety tilt mechanism 
locks the boom in a fixed position in case 
one of the operators steps off the plat¬ 
form, offsetting the tendency of any dan¬ 
gerous “see-saw” action, due to sudden 
boom unbalance. 

Absolute balance is obtained with 
counterweights and a vernier counter¬ 
weight inside the arm. The center post 
is a telescoping tube permitting the boom 
to be panned a full 360-degrees and 
(Continued on Page 252) 



THE COMBINATION of possible viewing angles and cam¬ 
era movements is almost unlimited, as shown in above dia¬ 
gram, and afford the cameraman opportunities to develop 
many new and unusual photographic effects. 


MODEL A B & C CAMERA CRANE 


242 


American Cinematographer 

























































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The Hollywood 
Closeup 

By JOHN ALTON, A.S.C. 

Reprinted from his new book, “Painting With Light,’’ 
Copyright 1949 by The MacMillan Company . 

T HE OLD LIKE to look young, the young younger. We 
have all heard people say they could not have their 
pictures taken because they were not photogenic. This silly 
obsession has proved to be a fallacy. Just look at the gorgeous 
close-ups of the stars in Hollywood films. True, most of the 
stars are really beautiful; hut those who are not are made 
so with the aid of an artistic hairdo, a touch of magic make¬ 
up, and the unquestionably hypnotic power of carefully dis¬ 
tributed lights and shadows. Not all of us are born beautiful. 
Good photography can supply what nature has sometimes 
failed to give us: beauty, charm, good posture. 

It is much more difficult to light for movies than for 
still photography. Therefore, we shall use the former for 
the purpose of illustration. Movie lighting technique can be 
applied to any kind of photography. If you can light for 
movies, you can light, period. 

Ages ago, the cave-scratchers made portraits of their favor¬ 
ites. The Egyptians carved them on stone walls. Silhouette 
invented the making of a likeness that was named after him. 



FIG. 2 — A head can be against the side line of the picture 
when, for example, there is the suggestion of fear or menace 
behind the player or subject. 



FIG. 1 — When composing a closeup, special attention should 
be given background. There should be no distracting lights 
or objects "growing out of the head," as in the picture above. 


Stieglitz, the great American photographic artist, made out¬ 
standing portraits long ago; but it took the film industry a 
long time to invent the motion picture close-up. 

For years, action films were photographed from a distance. 
All you could see on the screen were clouds of dust. While 
screening such a film, some people suddenly felt that there 
was something wrong. They wanted to see more of the actors’ 
faces. They ordered retakes with more light poured on them. 
The result was burned-up, overlit faces, hut they were still 
too far away for facial expression to be appreciated. 

It took cinematographers years of heated discussion to 
prove a simple truth: that in order to make faces distinguish¬ 
able, it is a mistake to overlight long shots. In life when we 
want to speak to a person, we approach him. Why not do 
the same in motion pictures? Seats in theatres are fastened 
down. When the audience feels the desire to see more of an 
actor, it cannot possibly move closer to the screen. It is far 
easier to bring the actor closer to the audience by cutting or 
dollying to a closer view of him, featuring the face only, 
where a twitch of a muscle or a wink of an eye can some¬ 
times tell the story. On the legitimate stage, an electro¬ 
magnetic contact is established between the actor and audi¬ 
ence. This cannot be done in motion picture theatres. The 
best we can do is a one-way transmission of energy from the 
screen to the audience. Hence the importance of close-ups. 

As far as I know, there are no rules or laws for the 
creation of close-ups or portraits. It takes time, patience, good 
taste, and a sense of balance. However, if we closely analyze 
pictures of great masters of light, we find that to illuminate 
a beautiful close-up, we must observe the following: 

1. Angles 

2. Size 

3. Composition—foreground and background 

4. Theme—emphasis on center of interest 

(Continued on Page 263) 


July, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


245 








16mm. and 8mm. (Sinemcito 

S E C T I O 


granny. 


N 


Cine Clubbers 

Lend A Hand 

Long Beach Movie Amateurs Contribute 
Photography For Ministers 16mm. Film 
Promoting Religious Education. 

By J. WESLEY NEAL 

D ID YOU ever see a plumber try to put on plaster? Then 
you know how I felt recently when the Long Beach, 
California, Ministerial l T nion asked me to write a script 
and help produce a i6mm. film telling the story of Week Day 
Released Time Religious Education. 

There has been a lot of controversy over the question of 
whether or not this type of religious training is in violation 
of the Constitution of the L T nited States. The aim of the 
M inisterial Union was to show, by means of a motion pic¬ 
ture, that the California plan is in complete harmony with the 
laws of our land. Furthermore, inasmuch as Released Time 
is completely dependent upon voluntary financial support, it 
was believed that such a film would do much to stimulate 
contributions. 

1 he first thought of the Ministerial Union was to enlist 
the aid of some member of the Long Beach Cinema Club to 



POINTING UP importance of religious education as child delinquency 
deterrent, "Let Them Come" shows transformation of a boy from 
habitual truant to good citizen and church-goer. 



DIRECTING scene for "Let Them Come," 16mm. amateur movie 
production, is J. Wesley Neal (center). Behind the Bolex camera is 
Earl Everley, Long Beach Cinema Club movie maker. At right is Jack 
Lloyd, another club member, who assisted with the direction and 
editing of the picture. 

photograph the picture. This club has established an enviable 
record in the production of prize-winning club films and films 
for civic organizations, and it is natural for people in this city 
today to think of this club whenever a 16mm. film is being 
planned. 

Earl Everley, one of the club’s leading cine photographers, 
whose production of “The Farmer’s Daughter” won an award 
in a national contest early this year, offered to shoot the pic¬ 
ture for us. “I’d be tickled to death to help you out,” he said. 

And when Everley got that gleam in his eve that most 
avid cinefilmers get when there’s an interesting picture to be 
filmed, a formidable group of his cine club associates offered 
to help with the picture, too. When Everley was forced to 
relinquish the camera, shortly after production started, Jack 
Lloyd and Leonard Graham, of the Long Beach Cinema Club, 
carried on with the photography. The assignment injected a 
new interest in movie making for Graham, who is a busy in¬ 
vestment broker. Up until now, he had not been too active in 
the club because of the press of business. We used his office 
for one of the scenes and persuaded him to take an acting part. 
After this, he became so engrossed in the production that he 
placed his extensive photographic and editing equipment at our 
disposal which greatly expedited completion of the picture. 

I had had considerable experience as a writer-producer for 
radio but had never so much as seen a movie script. (That 

(Continued on Page 253) 


246 • 


American Cinematographer 


Jui.y, 1949 


L 


















About getting that "theater look" into your home movies! 


It takes more than a warm, smiling 
subject to make a good movie sequence. 

You need sparkle, brilliance, plenty of 
contrast. You need what we call that 
“theater look” of the professionals. 

And the surest way to get it in your 
home movies is to take them on Ansco 
Hypan Film! 

For this film has the extremely fine 
grain and sparkling contrast that bring 
sharp, crisp images to your movie screen 
. . . images that stand out with snap and 
brilliance. 


You can get Ansco Hypan Film in 
both 8mm and 16mm sizes. Ask your 
dealer for some today. It may be a big 
step toward putting your personal 
movies in the expert class. Ansco, Bing¬ 
hamton, New York. A Division of 
General Aniline & Film Corporation. 
“From Research To Reality.” 


TIPS ON TITLES 


_-You’ll get very 

unusual titles if you take a board plank 
and burn your title into the wood with 
a hot poker. Simple to do—and really 
very effective. 


- ASK FOR- 

Ansco 

8 and 1 6 mm 

HYPAN FILM 


MM: 













16mm. and 8mm. Cinetna to^rapliy 

SECTION 




The ANIMARS 

A new series of lenses 
for 8mm. and 16mm. cine cameras 

By JOHN D. HAYES and DR. K. PESTRECOV, A.S.C. 

Scientific Bureau, Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N.Y. 



Fig. 2 — 14mm. f/1.9 Animar 


Oiophrogm 



D URING THE last several years the Bausch & Lomb 
Optical Company has produced and delivered to the users 
of eight and sixteen millimeter motion picture cameras large 
quantities of the 12.7mm. f/2.8, 25mm. f/2.7 and 26mm. 
f/1.9 Animar lenses. The enthusiastic acceptance of these 
lenses coupled with the “mushroom-like” growth in popu¬ 
larity of this branch of photography in the semi-professional 
and amateur fields has provided the impetus for the design of 
additional Animar lenses. These additional lenses have been 
designed to fill the ever growing needs of these photographers. 

The Animar series of lenses as listed in Table I give the 
eight millimeter photographer a choice of lenses ranging from 
the so-called “standard lens” (12.7mm.) to the popularly 
termed 3X telephoto (37.5mm.). For the sixteen millimeter 
photographer the variety of lenses ranges from the “wide 
angle” (15mm.) lens to the 100mm., so-called 4X telephoto. 
Lenses of speeds as great as f/1.5 are available to the user of 
either the eight millimeter or the sixteen millimeter camera. 

Although the lenses for each camera size were designed 
specifically for the angular coverage required by that camera, 
any of the lenses for the sixteen millimeter camera may be 
used with equally excellent results on any eight millimeter 
camera. It is necessary, of course, to make use of a threaded 
conversion adapter to properly mount the sixteen millimeter 
lens on the eight millimeter camera. 

Despite the fact that much of the equipment for eight and 
sixteen millimeter photography was designed for amateur use 
with the ultimate cost being one of the principal guiding con¬ 
siderations, this equipment is in many cases of such mechanical 
excellence, that, when it is properly used, the grain size of the 
emulsion itself may become the prime limitation of that equip¬ 
ment. It is, therefore, necessary that the Animar lenses to be 
used on this equipment be extremely well corrected, high 
quality lenses. In addition, since these Animar lenses are used 
primarily by the semi-professional and amateur photographer, 
they should be and are moderately priced. 


Diaphragm 

Actuating Ring Focusing Ring 



Table I 

The Animar Series of Bausch & Lomb Lenses 
for 8mm. and 16mm. Motion Picture Cameras 


For 8mm. Cameras For i6mm. Cameras 


Focal 

f/ 

Diagonal 

Focal 

f/ 

Diagonal 

length, mm. 

number 

coverage, 

length, mm. 

number 

coverage, 



degrees* 



degrees'* 

12.7 

2.8 

24-3 

15 

3-5 

43-8 

1+ 

1-9 

22.1 

25 

i -5 

27.1 

15 

i -5 

20.6 

25 

2.7 

27.1 

25 

2.7 

12.5 

26 

i -9 

26.1 

37-5 

3-5 

OO 

5 ° 

3-5 

13-7 




1 j** 

3-5 

9.2 




100** 

3-5 

6.9 


* Based on the projection aperture. 
** Named Tele-Animars. 


(Continued on Page 254) 


248 • 


American Cinematographer 


July, 1949 






























































































































































































































































I 


FIS 


for sound shows 
in homes and 
small auditoriums 


capable also 
of showings before 
sizable audiences 


SUPERB OPTICS ... 
UNSURPASSED SOUND * 

SCQOQm HM3B0PG 


JJ 


Two fine Sound Kodascope Projectors to show your films 
brilliantly . . . with wonderful detail and clarity . . . with un¬ 
matched sound quality and tonal range. 

Similar in basic features—like the three detailed below— 
FS-10-N and FB-40 differ in amplifier output. FS-10-N’s Single- 
Speaker Unit handles 10 watts of power—ample for homes and 
clubrooms. The Twin-Speaker Unit increases FS-10-N’s range 
—the two 12-inch speakers accommodate its full output . . . 
and let you show sound films in small auditoriums as well. 

If, however, your need is for a projector that provides power 
sufficient for large auditoriums, too—FB-40 is your outfit. Its 
40-watt output— unequalled by any other portable projector —makes 
it ideal for such sound showings. But FB-40’s usefulness is by no 
means limited to auditorium projection. Because any sound 
reproduction is improved when the amplifier is driven at less 
than full capacity, FB-40’s vast reserve contributes directly to 
better sound at all volume levels. 

Plan to see your Kodak dealer soon about these fine pro¬ 
jection outfits... Sound Kodascope FS-10-N and FB-40 Proj ectors. 


NOW at new LOW prices ... 

Both projectors supplied with 750-watt lamp, Kodak 
Projection Ektanon 2-inch f/1.6 Lumenized Lens, 
complete in two cases: 

FS-10-N with Single-Speaker Unit. $345 

with Twin-Speaker Unit. 395 

FB-40 with Twin-Speaker Unit. 495 


^SOUND KODASCOPE PROJECTORS Give You ALL THREE of These Important Features 






FttM »A$< 



t 

SOtINO TRACK 

BEAM - 




SO 

JND TRACK 

i 

.V 

t 

f AM BASE 

BEAM 




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FLICKERLESS MOVIES The three-bladed 
• hutter makes a complete revolution every 
frame . . . produces 72 light interruptions 
per second at sound speed. As a result, 
your screenings are free from flicker even 
at maximum brightness—far beyond the 
five-foot-lambert minimum of acceptabili¬ 
ty. Here’s a truly remarkable safety factor 
—screenings can have a brightness in ex¬ 
cess of a thousand foot-lamberts without 
producing distracting flicker! 


OVER-ALL SHARPNESS Integral with the 
standard f/1.6 projection lens is Kodak's 
unique field flattener ... an optical device 
that serves to correct the curved image 
normally projected by Petzval-type pro¬ 
jection lenses, so that the whole image 
comes into sharp focus at the same plane. 
You’ll see the result on your screen—un¬ 
surpassed uniformity of definition. Your 
movies are as you like them—sharp in 
the center . . . sharp in every corner! 



TOP TONAL QUALITY The Fidelity Control 
makes possible reproducing the full tonal 
scale—especially the hard-to-hold “highs” 
that are so essential to intelligibility of 
speech . . . naturalness of music. Whether 
the emulsion is threaded toward or away 
from the light beam as in the sketches 
above...whether you’re running originals, 
16mm. prints, or reductions from 33mm. 
film—the Fidelity Control permits easy, 
accurate focus of the scanning beam. 


Rochester 4, N. Y. 


"Kodak” is a trade-mark 









































































KNOWLEDGE PLUS CAMERA — The simplest of cine cameras, 
in the hands of a photographer with an eye for composition, 
a knowledge of photographic lighting and a keen pictorial sense, 
will produce motion pictures of professional quality. 


The "Pro" Touch 


In Amateur Movies 


REFLECTORS are essential to good closeup photography 
out of doors. Use of reflector would have saved this 
shot by throwing light into deep facial shadows. 


By CHARLES LORINC 


T HE ONLY difference between an amateur motion pic¬ 
ture and a professional one, someone has said, is in the 
photography. Somewhere between the two are films of varying 
quality, depending upon the knowledge and the skill of the 
photographer. The serious movie amateur, of course, strives 
to achieve a professional quality in his photography — the 
quality he sees in motion pictures on theatre screens. 

The first step in this direction is to assume a professional 
point of view — observing what is professional technique and 
then setting a similar course for your own filming. Study all 
the outstanding motion pictures — yes, and even the “quickies” 
— in order to understand how various photographic problems 
are handled, how composition is developed and the part careful 
lighting plays. 

Whether or not your camera is elaborate and expensive is 
unimportant. The really important thing is how it is used. 
It isn’t so much vour camera equipment that’s responsible for 


FRAMING—Note how careful framing placed figure 
diagonally in frame, made far more interesting com¬ 
position than if swimmer were moving horizontally. 



COMPOSITION—A knack for composition is a must. Had 
the photographer omitted the tree in left foreground 
here, scene would lack depth and pictorial interest. 




250 • 


American Cinematographer 


July, 1949 












the quality of your photography as it is 
your skill and knowledge, and your abil¬ 
ity to apply what you have learned. Just 
he content to work within the limitations 
of your equipment, admitting that certain 
cinematic effects may be impossible to 
achieve, but still retain the experimental 
attitude. 

So you want your pictures to look 
more professional. Alright—but you’re 
not going to achieve this overnight. 
You’re going to have to work up to it 
gradually, just as did the professional 
cameraman in the early days of his pho¬ 
tographic career. First, decide that you 
are going to aim for improvement in 
your very next movie making project, 
that you will handle your camera more 
professionally—steady and with a mini¬ 
mum of panning; that you will give 
more advanced thought to composition 
and lighting, etc. Keep these thoughts in 
miryd and your camera ready. 

It may occasionally happen that you’ll 
have time just to grab your camera and 
get it loaded before shooting some spur- 
of-the-moment activity. But usually you 
will know in advance when some event 
is taking place that you’d like to record 
on film, and it will pay to plan your 
shooting so that the resulting film will 
show a studied approach. Even as simple 
an activity as a church picnic can make 
an interesting film if you approach it 
with originality. Having attended such 
events before, you will know quite well 
what to expect, and what will be of 
cinematic interest. 

Prepare a simple script or scene list 
based on what you think may take place 
at the picnic, leaving room for on-the- 
spot coverage of situations you can’t an¬ 
ticipate. Make sure to provide the neces¬ 
sary shots so that your locale is properly 
established and re-established throughout 
your sequence, and also include plenty 
of closeups in your plans. Hollywood 
productions make extensive use of the 
closeup. There’s no better way to draw 
your audience right into the reality of 
the situation itself. 

When getting down to actually shoot¬ 
ing the sequence, concentrate on smooth¬ 
ness of technique. There is nothing that 
so definitely places a film in the novice 
class as jerky or unsteady camera hand¬ 
ling. There is much to be said for the 
maneuverability of the hand-held camera 
in newsreel coverage or in situations 
where the subject matter would be lost 
if time were taken to set up a tripod. 
But whenever the situation permits, a 
tripod should be used to insure camera 
steadiness. Similarly, it is advisable to 
practice panning and tilting the camera 
so that these two effects can be achieved 
smoothly when they are necessary. A jerky 



the first time 


A COMPLETE, AUTHORITATIVE 

GUIDE TO THE ART 
AND TECHNIQUES OF 
HOLLYWOOD LIGHTING 

This new book tells 
you just what lights to 
use and where to place 
them to get the effects 



you want 


PRINTING 

UIITH 

LIGHT 

By 

John Alton asc 


For mood 

The author describes the many ways in 
which lighting can create and emphasize 
atmosphere. He shows how to light places 
and people to get a sinister effect or a gay 
one, a romantic atmosphere or one of tragedy 
or suspense. 

For time and place 

He explains all the special techniques used 
to create the impression of a particular time 
of day, season, or place, with much valuable 
information on night effects, on photography 
of snow, water, the desert, etc., and on the 
many problems of lighting interiors. 


DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY 


For character 


ACCLAIMED by the professional 
press for his photography of He 
Walked By Night, Hollow Triumph, 
T-Men, etc.; known as the man 
who “makes the most of every 
pictorial opportunity.’’ 


Learn how he does it 
in this new book 
$6.00 


He explains in detail the lighting of faces, 
both for beautifying and for special character 
and emotional effects, with full information 
on the lighting of close-ups both indoors and 
out. 

All equipment explained 

Every light, from the Senior Solarspot to 
the Dinky-Inkie, and all the most modern 
equipment used in Hollywood today for light¬ 
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and illustrated together with much useful in¬ 
formation on color and “props" that heighten 
photographic effectiveness. 


At yobr bookstore or from 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 60 Fifth Ave., New York II 


Also available from 

AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 1782 NO. ORANGE DR., HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 






July, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


251 







Tips To 

AMATEURS 

From The 

PROS 

Lighting For Kodachrome 

There is an old saying among photograph¬ 
ers: “Expose for the shadows; the highlights 
will take care of themselves.” It is an ex¬ 
cellent axiom for black-and-white film, but 
it does not hold true for color. With any 
color process, the highlights are the trouble¬ 
some things. If they are over-exposed, they 
become just a colorless white glare. So in 
color, the safest rule is to expose for the 
highlights, and balance the shadows to 
them. 

The matter of shadow-lighting depends to 
a great extent upon the kind of shadows 
you want. In any event, don’t be afraid of 
shadows in a color shot. They “make” the 
picture, even more than they do in black and 
white. 

—Hal Rossoti, A.S.C. 


Color For Black and White Films 

Beautiful color effects can be given black 
and white cine films through the use of 
chemical tones and dyes, which are avail¬ 
able in a wide variety of colors. Every 
reader is probably familiar with sepia-toned 
movie films which are simply black and 
white films that have been immersed in a 
sulphide solution, which converts the silver 
image into a sulphide one and so produces 
warm, brown tones that are very attractive. 

Still other chemicals make it possible to 
obtain blue, green and copper tones, and 
these, when judiciously used, add immeasur¬ 
ably to the beauty of any black and white 
scene. These color effects are so easily ob¬ 
tained, so simple and inexpensive to use, 
plus the fact that no darkroom is required, 
that more movie amateurs should explore 
their use. Many camera stores have simple 
color tones and tints for use with movie 
films, that are already compounded and 
ready for use. They are especially valuable 
for tinting or toning titles made on black 
and white film for use with Kodachrome 
scenes. 

—Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C. 


Background vs. Foreground Lighting 

It is essential for the serious movie ama¬ 
teur to recognize that there are two separate 
and distinct parts to a pictorial composition 
as generally photographed for the screen: 
the background and the foreground. Each is 
important and each contributes its share to 
the ensemble’s effectiveness. They have a 
definite relationship and, when properly em¬ 
ployed, supplement each other. Lighting, 
therefore must be done with this well in 
mind. 

Audience interest lies in the actions of 
your subjects. They must be readily seen. 
They must stand out against the background, 
not merge into it and become lost. 

—John Arnold, A.S.C. 

★ ★ ★ 


pan or one that is too fast is definitely 
distracting and unprofessional. 

Backgrounds and settings are given a 
great deal of consideration in the pro¬ 
duction of the Hollywood studio feature, 
and camera crews are often sent many 
miles to photograph action against cer¬ 
tain unique backgrounds. These elements 
are no less important to the amateur 
cameraman, but he is often handicapped 
somewhat by not being able to take off 
on the spur of the moment with cast 
and crew to do some shooting in far- 
flung locales. Luckily it is not necessary 
to travel great distances to find inter¬ 
esting background. In almost every 
locality there is some spot that is espe¬ 
cially scenic or pictoriallv interesting and 
which would make a perfect setting for 
a sequence or story tailored to it. Keep 
a list of such locales in the vicinity of 
your home, and work up scripts to take 
advantage of them. 

Since a motion picture cannot be re¬ 
touched, the studios do all “retouching” 
in advance through the use of corrective 
make-up and lighting. The amateur pro¬ 
ducing a serious film will also find this 
procedure valuable in correcting certain 
errors before they are made. Considering 
the subject of make-up, for example, we 
all kntfw that if we photograph people 
exactly as they appear naturally, the re¬ 
sult is not always a happy one. If the 
leading player has a poor complexion, 
have him or her use a make-up base that 
will cover blemishes and prevent them 
from showing up glaringly in closeups. 
Similarly, it may be to advantage to 
make some players look youpger or older 
for certain parts they are to play. Some 
people have features that are so fine or 
so subtle that they should be accentuated 
by make-up to prevent their “washing 
out 1 ’ on the film. There are several reli¬ 
able books that fully cover the subject 
of simple screen make-ups. One manu¬ 
facturer of cosmetics puts out a small 
and quite inexpensive kit containing all 
essentials for basic screen make-up. 

If you should chance to see a profes¬ 
sional movie company shooting on loca¬ 
tion, you will observe that they always 
use reflectors or booster lights on exterior 
scenes. This is to fill in the shadow 
areas and prevent the harsh contrast 
caused by bright sunlight. The movie 
amateur will find it advisable to make 
up several portable reflectors that he can 
use for this purpose, too. Simple but 
effective reflectors can be made by gluing 
crinkled florist’s silver foil onto plywood 
boards. The added smoothness of pho¬ 
tography made possible through the use 
of a few reflectors is really amazing. 

For interior filming, the amateur 
movie maker has often been advised to 
rely on flat lighting, on the premise that 
it is the most nearly foolproof method 


252 • American Cinematographer • July, 1949 


of lighting for indoor scenes. However, 
with the new mushroom type floodlights 
now available, especially when coupled 
with portable transformers recently put 
on the market, it is quite possible for 
the amateur to set up some nicely mod¬ 
eled lighting 'that will give his films a 
more professional finish. Sidelight, back¬ 
light and toplight give depth and round¬ 
ness to a subject, and also help to sepa¬ 
rate it from the background. Such light¬ 
ing can now be achieved with a minimum 
amount of equipment. 

The moving camera is another basic 
studio technique which the amateur may 
adapt to his own filming with great 
success. To be able to follow a subject 
with the camera or to move from long 
shot to close-up in the same scene imme¬ 
diately, affords the cameraman a greatly 
enlarged scope. There are small camera 
dollies on the market which are quite 
satisfactory when used within their limi¬ 
tations. 

Editing and titling provide the finish¬ 
ing touches to every motion picture. In 
editing, be ruthless in cutting out every¬ 
thing that is not up to your standard of 
excellence. Cut for variety in camera 
angle and image size as well as for pace. 
Do not leave a scene on the screen too 
long just because it happens to be pretty. 
Work for smooth transitions between 
scenes and sequences. In titling, work 
for ideas that will tie in naturally with 
the subject and finally, but no less im¬ 
portant, provide an effective opening and 
closing for the film. 


CAMERA CRANE 


(Continued from Page 24.2) 

lifted up 55 degrees and down 45 de¬ 
grees. A hydraulic cylinder with a 15- 
inch extension is mounted in the unit, to 
give the maximum camera height. 

The steering unit is of a special design 
that permits the crane to be completely 
turned around in a 6-foot radius and 
allows it to be placed against a wall 
with a minimum of maneuvering. A 
silent motor drive unit is provided, with 
a control unit that can be operated either 
remotely or at the crane position. A 
smooth-acting friction brake insures per¬ 
fect control of the crane speed. Jacks 
are included for use when the crane is 
to be used in a fixed location. 

Three models of the Research Council 
Camera Cranes are now being manufac¬ 
tured and sold by The Houston Corpo¬ 
ration, under exclusive license from the 
Council. (Complete information on these 
three models, which differ mainly in the 
equipment and accessories provided, will 
be supplied upon request to The Hous¬ 
ton Corporation, West Los Angeles 25, 
California - ed.) 









CINE CLUBBERS 
LEND A HAND 

(Continued front Page 24.6) 

plumber-plasterer combination, you see.) 
However, I knew a chap in one of the 
Hollywood studios, and he loaned me a 
script for reference purposes. After a 
few consultations with various members 
of the Cinema Club, we were able to 
work out a shooting script. Appropri¬ 
ately enough, considering the nature of 
our subject, the borrowed script was 
named, “One Sunday Afternoon." 

Our actors were semi-professionals 
who had helped me considerably on my 
radio shows. Most of them had full time 
jobs. '1'his made our shooting schedule 
something of a problem. If I had it to 
do over, I would spend a lot of time 
determining a shooting sequence which 
would work less of a hardship on those 
who had to sandwich their acting in be¬ 
tween the requirements of their work. 
My boy, who played the lead, received 
courteous permission from his principal 
to cut a few classes. Incidentally, the 
film concerns a delinquent boy who was 
always playing hooky. 

Except for re-takes, the entire produc¬ 
tion was shot in approximately three 
days. I think we could have even beat 
that time had I planned a more efficient 
shooting schedule. Re-takes were few but 
could have been reduced had we ob¬ 
served one or two basic rules. One scene 
was shot in a living room which has a 
large, bay window. The scene was sup¬ 
posed to be evening but we were shoot¬ 
ing in the middle of the afternoon, with 
a mixture of daylight and artificial light. 
The result was that the scene lacked 
true color values — we were shooting 
Kodachrome — so we re-shot it at night, 
using photofloods for lighting. 

I still don’t know how to plan for 
the vagaries of the weather. Our cast 
was impatiently stewing around waiting 
to shoot the final scene of the picture— 
an exterior. Our famous California fog 
was most uncooperative. Then, when we 
were just about to give up, the sun came 
out for just forty-five minutes — long 
enough to enable us to shoot the scene 
and wind up the picture. 

After editing of the picture was com¬ 
pleted to suit us, we then took it to a 
commercial sound studio in Hollywood 
to have the sound recorded and dubbed 
in. We knew that our film was much 
longer than the standard “one reel," but 
we were convinced that it was cut to 
the minimum. 

The sound man mounted our master¬ 
piece on his editing machine and promptly 
began to snip a frame here and there. 
“Wait a minute,” I cried, “you’re ruin¬ 
ing the film we love!” 



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July, 1949 


American Cinematographer 


253 

















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“Wait and see,” he replied with per¬ 
fect calm. We waited. Soon we saw 
another hundred feet of our labors lit¬ 
tering the cutting room floor. Then our 
“friend,” the sound man, proceeded to 
project the film for us. What we saw 
amazed us. The film had been tightened 
up and strengthened a great deal by his 
dexterous cutting. Which proves: that 
any film can be helped by an impartial 
editing by a person skilled in that work. 

Timing the narration for dubbing in 
the sound presented something of a prob¬ 
lem. We found the best procedure is 
to measure each scene accurately. Then 
we converted the number of frames to 
seconds. I wrote narration for each scene, 
figuring three words per second. The 
narration was not tight — that is, every 
scene was not absolutely full of narra¬ 
tion. This allowed for some leeway in 
synchronization and made for a more 
interesting film. Too much yakity yak is 
undesirable. 

The film’s scenario was written with 
the idea of the narration and the action 
complementing each other. Thus I en¬ 
deavored to make sure that the narra¬ 
tion did not describe anything which the 
action plainly indicated and vice-versa. 
We checked this when we viewed the 
film without the sound and listened to 
the sound track without the picture. 
Each was definitely incomplete. In a film 
of this type, where a great deal of propa¬ 
ganda and teaching of facts are incor¬ 
porated, the narration is best thought of 
as the pill and the movie as the sugar 
coat that makes the pill easy to swallow. 


We went to the sound studio with 
our script carefully timed and dubbed 
in the narration. According to the sound 
engineer, the narration worked out fine. 
What pleased us most of all, however, 
was a statement by the man who dubbed 
in the sound. He said, “Your script has 
been timed out as good or better than 
any we have ever done.” 

There were about ten seconds of lip 
synchronization at the end of the film, 
where the Boy makes an appeal for sup¬ 
port for the Released Time program. 
We had this done in the studio the day 
we dubbed in the sound. The quality and 
perfect synchronization which resulted 
justified the expenditure. 

We took the name for the film, “Let 
Them Come” from the Revised Standard 
Version’s translation of Mark 10:14 
which appears over the door of a church 
which figured in the picture. 

The finished film had its premiere 
showing before members of the Long 
Beach Ministerial LTion. There was 
unanimous agreement that it would ac¬ 
complish our purpose in producing it— 
to acquaint citizens of the community 
with the aims and accomplishments of 
Week Day Released Time Religious 
Education. Those of us who helped in 
producing the picture trust that this 
pioneer venture in a new field of re¬ 
ligious work will open the way to the 
production of other films with a similar 
purpose. The modest production cost—it 
was only $299.96 for our one reel 16mm. 
Kodachrome film—certainly should not 
prove an insurmountable obstacle. 


THE ANIMARS 

(Continued from Page 248 ) 


In the design and manufacture of any 
photographic lens system a fair percent¬ 
age of the purchase price of that lens 
may be directly attributed to the num¬ 
ber of optical elements in the system. 
It is reasonable to assume that a lens of 
six elements will cost more than a lens 
of two elements, factors such as speed, 
coverage, focal length, etc., b